Skip to main content

Full text of "The Garden magazine"

See other formats






, ■ 







oNn 

7106 



THE 



GARDEN MAGAZINE 



i i 



Devoted to Planting and Managing the Grounds About the Home 
and to the Cultivation of Fruits, Vegetables and Flowers 



Volume XXVI 



August, 1917, to January, 1918 




t »--■ ! « ' .i lamgg 




GARDEN CITY NEW YORK 

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY 

1917 



INDEX TO THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 

Volume XXVI — August, 191 7 to January, 1918 

Copyrighted, 1918, by DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & CO. 

An asterisk (*) indicates that the article is illustrated 



Acanthopanax, 123* 

After Blooming —What? 158* 

A. L., article by, 167 

All to the Good, 6 

Allen, R. E., article by, 100 

Allison, Inga M. K., article by, 132 

American Civic Association, 102 

American Gardens, English Material 
for, 185 

American Hort, Organization in, 166 

American Rose Society, 166 

American Sweet Pea Society, 166 

Andrews, D. M., article and photo- 
graph by, 184 

Andromeda floribunda, 16* 

Andromeda glaucophylla, 16 

Andromeda polifolia, 16* 

Andromeda speciosa, 16* 

Angell, H. E., photographs by, 134 

Annuals, Premier of All, 166 

Antirrhinum gib raltarica, 118 

A. P. S., article by, 39 

Aphids on Your Plum Tree? 164* 

Aphis, cabbage, 10 

Apple borer, 56 

Apple trees, borers in, 10 

Apples, Topworked, 184 

Apples, wormy, 56 

Arbutus, Trailing, 16 

Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi, 15 

Ardisia, 133*, 158 

Arnold Arboretum — What It Is and 
Does, 122* 

Arny, L. Wayne, article by, 160 

Artemisia lactiflora, 18* 

Association, American Civic, 102 

Association, Woman's Farm and 
Garden, 166 

Aster?— Why Does the Beetle Attack 
This, 117 

Asters, 17* 

Asters, dwarf, 17* 

At the Turn of Winter, 165* 

August cover, Cashing in 

Authorized Statement of the Asst. 
Secretary of Agriculture, 9 

Ayer, H. D., photograph by, 51 

Azalea, Indian, 159* 

Baskets filled with vegetables, 12* 
Bastin, S. Leonard, article by, 118*; 

photographs by, 90, 118, 120 
Battlefield of a Year Ago, A, 79 
Bayberry Candles, Recipe for, 172 
Beach, S. A., article by, 184 
Bean, Bush, 197* 
Bean support, 80* 
Beans, 10, 92*, 197* 
Beans, covered with cloth, 57* 
Beans on Strings, 80* 
Bearberry, 15* 
Beech collection, 123* 
Beetle; Why does it attack this 

Aster? 117 
Beetles, fruit-tree-bark, 56 
Beets, 10, 98, 197* . 
Beets, storing, 85* 
Beginner's Garden, The, 188* 
Begonia, Gloire de Lorraine, 133* 
Begonia, Winter, 159 
Berry Cane, 19s* 
Berry, Partridge, 16 
Big Events for St. Louis in 1918, 104 
Binders, Irises as Soil, 117 
Bird Bath, 118* 
Bird Bath. A Home-Made, 150* 
Bird — Brown Thrasher, 154* 
Bird, Cedar, 155* 
Bird Garden, 153* 
Bird House, 155* 
Bird, Indigo, 154* 
Birds, Encouraging the, 153* 
Birds, Shrubs attractive to, 154 
Blackberry Plant, 11 
Blackcap Raspberries, How to Get 

New Plants of, 96 
Blacklock, M. E., article by, 6 



Bloom, Spring Planting for Summer, 

201* 
Blooming, After— What? 158* 
Blue, A Touch of, in the Fall Garden, 

151 

"Bog" Gardening with Native 
Plants, 89* 

Bog Rosemay, 16 

Boilers, 127*, 128* 

Books, A Glance at the Garden, of the 
Year, 156 

Borers, 10, n, 56 

Box Huckleberry, 16 

Box, Tulips in the Window, 41* 

Brassey-Brierley, Charlotte, article 
by, 39 

Bright Flowers, January cover 

Brooklyn Botanic Garden, photo- 
graph by, 89 

Brooks, John A., photographs by, 14 

Broomstick Scratcher, 40* 

Broomstick Scratcher, Comment on 
the, 151 

Browberry, 16 

Brown Thrasher, 154* 

Budding and Grafting — How they are 
done, 48 

Buddleia, New, from Seeds, 117 

Buddleias; Why they Die, 119 

Bugs, Spraying Kills Young Squash, 
28 

Bulbs, 120* 

Bulbs Assured, Some, 104 

Bulbs for Twelve Months, Indoors 
and Outside, 43* 

Bulbs Forced in a Greenhouse, 60 

Bulbs, Gladiolus, 163 

Bulb Planter, 41* 

Bulbs, Various, 159 

Burke, Anna M., article and photo- 
graphs by, 158 

Bush Bean, 197* 

Bush Cherry, New Chinese, 80* 

Bush, Spindle, 16 

Bushes, borers in quince, n 

But, Be Reasonable, 183 

Button, H. F., article, by, 86 

Cabbage, 197* 

Cabbage Aphis, 10 

Cabbage, Chinese, 40* 

Cabbage in a trench, 83* 

Cabbage Worms, 10 

Cactus, 135* 

Calopogon, purple, 91* 

Can You Cook a Potato? 134* 

Canadian Yew, 16 

Candles, Recipe for Bayberry, 172 

Cannas, 163* 

Canning?, Is the Fireless Cooker 
Used in, 117 

Canning Kohlrabi, 40 

Canterbury Bells and Foxgloves, 
Wintering, 119 

Capsicum, 159* 

Carrots, 10, 98, 197*, 198* 

Carrots, storing, 85* 

Cary, J. H., article by, 117 

Cashing In, August cover 

Cashing-In the War Gardens, n* 

Catalogues, Getting the Best out 
of the, 197* 

Cauliflowers, 98, 198 

Cedar Bird, 155* 

Cedar of Lebanon, 123* 

Celery, 198 

Celery, New Method of Wintering, 80 

Celery Culture, More About Inten- 
sive, 41 

Celery, storing, 83* 

Cercidiphyllum japonicum, 125* 

Chafers, Rose, 96 

Chamberlain, John W., article by, 6 

Cherry, Jerusalem, 158 

Cherry Leaves, blistered, 56 

Chinese Bush Cherry, New, 80* 

Chinese Cabbage, 40* 



Christmas Dollar, Making the most 
of the, 151 

Christmas Gifts for the Gardener, 151 

Christmas Spirit of 191 7, December 
cover, by J. P. Verrees 

Clark, E. L., article by, 5 

Clarke, H., article by, 28 

Clearing up for Winter, 120 

Climbing Hydrangea, 185* 

Club & Society News, 24, 64, 102, 
138, 167, 208 

Coal, Various Ways of Saving, 196 

Coldframe, 45*, 157* 

Collards, Extravagance of, 186 

Color, Fall; in the Rock Garden, 118 

Color of Pansies, and Hot Weather, 98 

Combinations, Practical Vegetable, 
132 

Comment on the Broomstick 
Scratcher, 151 

Compost heap, making a, 55 

Conservation, crop, 9 

Conservation, personal pointers for, 13 

Conveniences for the Cottage, 30* 

Corn, 198 

Costich, Edwin H., article and photo- 
graph by, 15 

Cotoneaster hupehensis, 124* 

Cottage, Conveniences for the, 30* 

Cottontails, We Love Our, 6 

Cover crops, 58 

Cover crops, when to grow, 9 

Cover Design, August, by J. P. Ver- 
rees, 

Cover Designs, October, November, 
and December, by J. P. Verrees 

Cover Design, January, by H.W.Ortlip 

Cover Design, September, by E. D. 
Drake 

Covering lettuce with cloth, 57* 

Crabapple, 123* 

Craftsman Woodpecker, The, 167 

Craig, W. N., articles by, 97*, 129* 

Cranberry, Mountain, 16 

Crops, packing root, 95* 

Crop Conservation and Distribution, 9 

Crops, cover, 58 

Crops, Making Real Use of the Gar- 
den's, 132 

Crooker, Orin, photograph by, 154 

Crops, Present Sowing for Extra 
Early, 95* 

Crops, profitable, that can be grown 
under glass, 129 

Croton, Reedii, 133* 

Cucumbers, 10, 198 

Cultivation, Saving Labor in Land, 21 

Currants, 51* 

Currants, Why so Few? 5 

Cutworms, 56 

Cyclamen, 159* 

Cyclamen, My Experience with, in 
the House, 170 

Daffodils and Tulips Planted Late, 149 

Dahlia Festivals, 64 

Dahlia Tubers, 162* 

Darwin Tulip — Did it disappoint? 5 

Day, Curtis Fisher, article by, 40 

Daylight Saving, We Want, 183 

Day-lily, Lemon-yellow, 53* 
, Dean, Mrs. J. , article by, 117 

December Cover, The Christmas 
Spirit of 191 7, by J. P. Verrees 

December in the Greenhouse, 165* 

December in the South, 168 

December preparations, 152 

Delphiniums, 17 

Destruction of Fruit Bearing Trees, 
140* 

Did the Darwin Tulip Disappoint? 5 

Difficulties solved by a teaspoon, 7 

Downer, H. E., article and photo- 
graph by, 185 

Drainage; why it is important indoors, 

130 
Drake, E., September cover design by 



Drosera intermedia, 90* 

Drug Plant Growing; Is it Practical? 

160 
Drying fruit, 26 
Dunbar, John, article by, 6* 
Duffy, S. R., articles by, 50, 119 
Dugmore, A. R., photographs by, 90, 

154, 155 
Durand, Herbert, article by, 79 

Early Start, Fall Plowing for an, 136 
Early crops, Present Sowing for extra, 

95* 

E. E. S., article by, 118 

Egg-plants, 57* 

Eldredge, Arthur G., photographs 
by, 52, 123, 165 

Electricity for Heating Frames, 125* 

Encouraging the Birds, 153* 

English Material for American Gar- 
dens, 185 

English Primrose, 151* 

Epigaea repens, 16 

Essay, Mr. Duffy's, 118 

European Grapes for America, 79 

Evergreen shrub, 52* 

Evergreens, Native; Suitable For 
Ground Covers, 15* 

Evonymus obovatus, 16 

Exford, Ernest C, article by, 5 

Exhibition Season, The, 138 

Experience with Cyclamen in the 
House, 170 

Experiment with the Potato. An, 184 

Experimenting with Hunnemannia. 
149 

Extravagance of Collards, 186 

Fairchild, M., article and photo by, 40 

Fall Canker Worm, 56 

Fall Color in the Rock Garden, 118 

Fall Garden, Touch of Blue in the, 151 

Fall Made Lawn, 41* 

Fall Planting. 51*, 81 

Fall Plowing for an Early Start, 136 

Fall Sown Sweet Peas, 80 

Farrington, E. I., article by, 40*; 

photographs by, 40, 122, 123, 124 
Fay, Albert E., article by, 186 
February, Flowers in, 117 
Ferns for House Plants, 118 
Fertilizer, Gallinaceous; Handled in 

a Practical Way, 50 
Festivals, The Dahlia, 64 
Fetter Bush, 16 
Few Facts, A, 117 

Fireless Cooker; Is It Used in Can- 
ning? 117 
Florists; What They Will Offer in 

Holiday Plants, 133* 
Flower Roots, Wintering Tender, 162 
Flower on November cover — Oncid- 

ium varicosum 
Flowers, Bright; January cover 
Flowers Every Month, 6 
Flowers for the July Garden, 201* 
Flowers in February, 117 
Food Administration, Message from 

the, 93 
Foliage, slugs on pear, 10 
Food Administration Poster, 9 
Food and Home Economies That Can 

Finance the War, 54 
Food From the Greenhouse This 

"Winter, 97* 
For the South, 26, 62, no, 136, 168, 

204 
Forcing Bulbs in a Greenhouse, 60 
Forest Hill Road, 123* 
Foxgloves, Wintering Canterbury 

Bells and, 119 
Frame, 47* 

Frames, Electricity for Heating, 125* 
French Orchardists. Helping the, 140* 
Fresh Vegetables; Using them wisely, 

126 
Frost, protection from, 57 



INDEX TO THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



Fruit Bearing Trees, Destruction of, 

140* 
Fruit, dried, 26 
Fruit, Planning for — This Year and 

After, 112* 
Fruit-Tree-Bark Beetles, 56 
Fruiting Shrubs, Two; for the Home 

Garden, 79* 
Fruits and Vegetables; Using them 

wisely, 87* 
Fuel Problem, Solving the, 196 
Fumigator, Home-Made Potted Plant, 



G. W. A., article by, 41 

Garden, Touch of Blue in the Fall, 151 

Garden, backyard, 92* 

Garden, bird, 153* 

Garden Books of the year, A Glance 

at the, 156 
Garden Club Journal, International. 

150 
Garden debris, use of, 96 
Garden Efficiency, Water to Increase, 

13* 

Garden Enemies, 28 
Garden, Fall Color in the Rock, 118 
Garden, Flowers for the July, 201* 
Garden; getting it under glass, 130* 
Garden Home, Inside the, 30*, 108*, 

Garden "Movies" No. 1, 189* 
Garden Products Stored for the 

Winter, 83* 
Garden, Rose; for Portland, Ore., 24 
Garden Soil, Making Next Year's, 

Better, 86 
Garden, suburban, 55* 
Garden, the August, 9 
Garden, The Beginner's, 188* 
Garden, Patriotic, 9*, 55*, 93*, 191* 
Garden, Two Fruiting Shrubs for the 

Home, 79* 
Garden, Methods of Scientific Man- 
agement Applied to the Vegetable, 

191* 
Garden, Plans for Vegetable, 200, 

201 
Garden, War; Make it Attractive, 

200* 
Gardener's Winter Pastime, A, 120 
Gardening, "Bog," with Native 

Plants, 89* 
Gardening for the winter, 42 
Gardening from the Outside, 81 
Gardening, High Pressure Vegetable, 

100 
Gardens Add $100, 000,000 to Nation's 

Wealth, 93* 
Garden's Crops, Making Real Use 

of the, 132 
Gardens, English Material for Amer- 
ican, 185 
Gardens, rock, 45 
Gardens, war, 11* 

Garekol, S. H., articles by, 106, 136 
Gaylussacia brachycera, 16 
Gentian, Closed, 90* 
Geraniums, 162* 

Getting the Garden Under Glass, 130* 
Geyer, O. R., article by, 93* 
Gifts, Holiday; that the Gardener 

Can Send, 172 
Ginder, J. W., article by, 80 
Gladiolus, 162* 
Gladiolus Bulbs, 163 
Glance at the Garden Books of the 

Year, A, 156 
Gloire de Lorraine Begonia, 133* 
Goodwin, Frank E., article and 

photographs by, 21, 22 
Gooseberries, 51* 
Grafting, 48 
Grapes, 51* 

Grapes, European, for America, 79 
Graves, Nathan R., photographs by, 

6, 16, 17, 18, 40, 51, 53, 80, 93. !5°. 

151, 153. 158, IS9, 195 
Great Hort. Meeting in New York, 24 
Greenhouse, 43*, 97*, 128*, 129, 165* 
Greenhouse Activities in December, 

165* 
Greenhouse bench, 45"' 
Greenhouse boiler, 127* 



Greenhouse, Bulbs Forced in a, 60 
Greenhouse, Food from the, This 

Winter, 97* 
Greenhouse Heating, Little Chat on, 

127* 
Greenhouse, Inside the, November 

cover, by J. P. Verrees 
Greenhouse That Isn't Pleated, 129* 
Greenhouse; With Oncidium vari- 

cosum, November cover; by J. P. 

Verrees 
Greenhouses, Hardy Primulas for 

Unheated, 150* 
Ground-Covers, Native Evergreens 

Suitable for, 15* 
Grubs, white, 56 

H. G. R., article by, 117 

Habenaria, 89* 

Habenarias This Season, 79 

Hall, E. J., photograph by, 55 

Hammond, Benjamin, Portrait, 81 

Handling Gallinaceous Fertilizer in a 
Practical Way, 50 

Hardy Primulas for Unheated Green- 
houses, 150* 

Hardy Yellow Rose, The, 117 

Harris, Mrs. Flo)'d W., article by, it 7 

Harvest is Gathered, October Cover, 
by J. P. Verrees 

Has No Rival, 81 

Heather?, Who Succeeds with, 5 

Heating Frames, Electricity for, 125* 

Heating, Little Chat on Greenhouse, 
127* 

Heating material, 125* 

Hedge of Lupins, 39 

Helenium, 53* 

Heliotrope, 202* 

Helping the French Orchardists, 140* 

Hemerocallis citrina, 53* 

Hopkins, W., photograph by, 153 

Herbaceous Plants, Wintering, 39 

High Pressure Vegetable Gardening, 
100 

Holes, flute-like, 10 

Holiday Gifts that the Gardener Can 
Send, 172 

Holiday Plants, What the Florists 
Will Offer in, 133* 

Hollvho:k Chain, The Topeka, 149* 

Hollyhocks, 202* 

Home, Inside the Garden, 30*, 108*, 
1/4* 

Home Garden, Two Fruiting Shrubs 
for the, 79* 

Home-made Bird Bath, 150* 

Home-made Potted Plant Fumigator, 
184* 

Hood, G. W., article and photo- 
graphs by, 13, 14 _ 

Horticulture, Organization in Amer- 
ican, 166 

Hotbed, 157* 

Hotbed Frame 126* 

House, Bird, 155* 

House, My Experience with Cycla- 
men in the, 170 

House Plant, Marsh Marigold as a, 7 

House Plants, Ferns for, 118 

House, Some Good Things for the 
Small, 108*, 174* 

Hovey, E. von R., article by, 170 

How Budding and Grafting are Done, 
48 

Huckleberry, Box, 16 

Hunnemannia, Experimenting with, 
149 

Hydrangea petiolaris, 122* 

Hydrangea, The Climbing, 183* 

I Say: Sow Sweet Peas in the Fall for 

Early Bloom, 47* 
Importance of drainage indoors, 130 
Indian Azalea, 159* 
Indigo Bird, 154* 
Ingredients, mixing soil, 131* 
Inside the Garden Home,' .30*, 108*, 

174* 
Inside the Greenhouse, November 

Cover, by J. P. Verrees 
International G. C. Journal, i<co 
Iris, Spanish and German, from seed, 5 
Irises as Soil Binders, 117 



Irises, Modern; That Outclass the 
Old, 18 

Irrigation systems, 13* 

Is Drug Plant Growing Practical? 160 

Is the Fireless Cooker Used in Can- 
ning? 117 

January Cover, Bright Flowers 
January planting, 187 
Jerusalem Cherry, 138 
Journal, International G. C, 150 
Jul)' Garden, Flowers for the, 201* 
Juniper collection, 123* 

Kains, M. G., articles by, 31*, 194*; 

photographs by, 195 
Kale, 10 

Kalmia angustifolia, 16 
Kalopanax ricinifolium, 123* 
Keeping It When You've Got It, 83* 
Kerr, G. W., articles and photo- 
graphs by, 47*, 80; 
Kift, Robert, article by, 133* 
Kirkpatrick, E. L., article and photo- 
graph by, 167 
Knoch, A. A., article by, 117 
Kohlrabi, Canning, 40 
Kruhm, A., article by, 157* 
Kunderd, A. E., Portrait, 81 

L. B., articles by, 64, 39, 40* 

L. G. B., article and illustration by, 184 

L. M., article by, 6 

Labor, Saving, in Land Cultivation, 

21* 
Ladies' Tresses, 90* 
Land Cultivation, Saving Labor in, 

21* 
Larkspur, Moerheim's, 18* 
Late M. Vilmorin, The, 64 
Late Strawberry Planting, 41 
Laurel, Sheep, 16, 91* 
Lawn, fall made, 41* 
Lawns, 93* 

Leaders of the Societies, 81* 
Leaves, beautiful, 160 
Leiophyllum buxifolium, 16* 
Lettuce, covered with cloth, 57* 
Lettuce, 10, 57, 98, 131*, 198*, 199* 
Leucocrinum montanum, 184* 
Leucothoe Catesbaei, 16 
Lilies, Day, 53* 
Lily, The Sand, 184* 
Little Chat on Greenhouse Heating, 

127* 
Long and The Short, The, 184 
Lounsberry, Alice, article by, 153* 
Lupins, A Hedge of, 39 

M. G. K., article by, 184 
Mac Arthur, J. N., article by, 127* 
MacCalbane, H. L., article by, 185 
Mackay, A. W., article by, 117 
McCausland, Arthur, article by, 184 
McClelland, W., article by, 79 
McCollom, W. C, articles by, 43*, 

125*, 165*, 188*; diagrams by, 126; 

photographs by, 43, 44, 45, 46, 49, 

83. 85, 92, 95, 96. 97, 162, 163, 189 
Machine, spray, 14* 
Machines, 21* 
Magnolia Salicifolia, 6* 
Make Your War Garden Attractive, 

200* 
Making a Lawn in Fall, 41* 
Making Next Year's Garden Soil 

Better, 86 
Making Real Use of the Garden's 

Crops, 132 
Making the Christmas Dollar Buy a 

Dollar's Worth, 151 
Making the Smallest Quantity Reach 

the Farthest, 191* 
Malus theifera, 123* 
Map of Convention Garden 191 7, 24 
Map showing earliest recorded frosts, 

57 
Maples, 124* 

Marsh Marigold as a House Plant, 7 
Marshall, James Collier^ articles by, 

30*, 108*, 174* _ 
Meconopsis integrifolia, 118* 
Meeting of Women Horticulturists 

at Chicago, 104 



Meller, C. L., articles and photo- 
graphs by, 41, 135 

Melons, 10, 198 

Merrell, Nellie D., article by, 6 

Message from the Food Administra- 
tion, 93 

Methods of Scientific Industrial 
Management Applied to the Vege- 
table Garden, 191* 

Milk-flowered Ragweed, 18* 

Mixing soil ingredients, 131* 

Modern Irises That Outclass the Old, 
18 

Moerheim's Larkspur, 18* 

Monkshood, 18* 

Month's Reminder, 7, 42, 81, 120, 
152, 187 

More About Intensive Celery Cul- 
ture, 41 

Morus acidosa, 80 

Mulberry, 80 

Mulching — Successful and Otherwise, 
167* 

Mushrooms, 98 

Musser, M. J., photograph by, 199 

My Experience with Cyclamen in the 
House, 170 

Myrtle, Sand, 16* 

N. S., article by, 41 

Nash, G. N., map by, 24 

Native Evergreens Suitable for 
Ground-Covers, 15* 

Native Plants, "Bog" Gardening 
with, 89* 

Neat Stake, 128 

Nettelroth, Cleo L., article and photo- 
graphs by, 150 

New Buddleia or Summer Lilac from 
Seeds, 117 

New Hybrid Tree Peony. 40* 

New Method of Wintering Celery, 80 

New York Spring Show, 138 

Northend, M. H, photographs by, 12 

November . Cover, The Greenhouse; 
with Oncidium varicosum, by J. 
P. Verrees 

November in the South, 136 

Nozzle, 14* 

October Cover, The Harvest is Gath- 
ered, by J. P. Verrees 

Old-Time Southern Recipes, 26, 62 

Oncidium varicosum — Flower on No- 
vember cover 

One Successful "War Garden" Ef- 
fort, 91* 

Onions. 57, 198 

Operations, December, 152 

Orchardists, Helping the French, 140* 

Orchid, Fringed, 89* 

Orchid, Yellow Fringed, 91* 

Orders of the Day, 96 

Organization in American Hort., 166 

Original Sundial, An, 118* 

Ornamental Pepper, 159* 

Ortlip, H. W., January Cover by 

Out of Season Transplanting, 6 

Pack, Charles Lathrop, article by, 
186 

Packing root crops, 95* 

Pansies all the Year in Tennessee, 39 

Pansies, Color of, and Hot Weather, 
98 

Parsnips prepared for storage, 85* 

Pastime, A Gardener's Winter, 120 

Parsnips, storing, 85* 

Partridge Berry, 16 

Patch, Edith M., article and photo- 
graphs by, 164 

Patriotic Garden, 9*, 55* 93*, 191* 

Patterson, J. M., articles by, 26, 62, 
no, 136, 168, 204 

"Pay Your Money and Take Your 
Choice," 17*, 53* 

Peach borer, 56 

Pear foliage, slugs on, 10 

Pear, Prickly, 135* 

Pear Psylla, 56 

Peas, 10, 57, 98, 198 

Peony, A Yellow Tree, 40* 

Peony La Lorraine, 40* 

Peony, New Hybrid Tree, 40* 



INDEX TO THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



Peonies, Plant, in September, 49* 

Peonies that Fit, 39 

"Peonies that Fit," Regarding, 79 

Pepper, Ornamental, 159* 

Pepper Vine, 184 

Peppers, 198 

Perennials, hardy, 17*, 53* 

Pests, general attention to, 98 

Peterson, W. J., photograph by, 133 

Phloxes, 53 

Pitcher Plant, 90* 

Plan to Plant— The Call of 1918, 186 

Planning for Fruit This Year and 

After, 194* 
Plans for vegetable garden, 200, 201 
Plans, planting, 192, 193 
Plant, a "leggy," 118* 
Plant, Drug, 160 
Plant Fumigator, Potted Horae- 

Made, 184* 
Plant Now— or Wait Till Spring? 51* 
Plant Peonies in September, 49* 
Plant, Pitcher, 90* 
Plant, Plan to, 186 
Plant, raspberry, n 
Planter, A Bulb, 41* 
Planting, August, 7, 10 
Planting, December, 1S2 
Planting, Fall, 81 
Planting for the South, no, 136, 168, 

204 
Planting, January, 187 
Planting, Late Strawberry, 41 
Planting, November, 120 
Planting, October, 81 
Planting plans, 192, 193 
Planting, September, 42, 51*, 55 
Planting, Spring, for Summer Bloom, 

201* 
Planting Table, vegetable, 194 
Planting to attract birds, 153* 
Planting Tulips and Daffodils Late, 

149 
Planting Vegetables in Autumn, 106 
Plantings, late, 42 
Plants, Ferns for, House; 118 
Plants, Making the most of the Holi- 
day Gift, 158 
Plants, Room; Why They Become 

Leggy, 118* 
Plants, What the Florists Will Offer 

in Holiday, 133* 
Plants, Where to Obtain Rare, 149 
Plants, Wintering Herbaceous Plants, 

39 

Plot, vegetable, 200* 

Plowing, Fall, for an Early Start, 136 

Plum Tree, Aphids on your, 164* 

Poinsettia, 158* 

Pomologists to Meet At Boston, 102 

Poppies, Oriental, 53 

Poppywort, 'A Rare, 39 

Poster, Food Administration, 9 

Potato, 134* 

Potato, An Experiment with the, 184 

Potato, Can You Cook a, 134* 

Potatoes before storing, 83* 

Potatoes, ThS Storage of, 168 

Potted Plant Fumigator, Home-Made, 
184* 

Potting, 44* 

Premier of All Annuals, 166 

Preparation for winter, 81 

Preparations, December, 152 

Presby, F. H., articles by, 149, 151 

Present Sowing for Extra Early 
Crops, 95* 

Prickly Pear, 135* 

Primrose, 160 

Primrose, English, 151* 

Primula cashmeriana,i5i* 

Primulas, Hardy, for Unheated Green- 
houses, 150* 

Protection from frost, 57 

Protection, Winter, 135* 

Provost, B.S., article and photos by, 118 

Prunus tomentosa, 80* 

Putting the Rose on the Map, 166 

Quince bushes, borers in, 1 1 
Quinces, worm}', 10 

R. R. A., article and photograph by, 41 
Radishes, 10, 57, 98, 198 
Ragweed, Milk-flowered, 18* 



Ramsey, Leonidas Willing, article and 

plans by, 200, 201 
Rare Plants, Where to Obtain, 149 
Rare Poppywort, 39 
Raspberry plant, 1 1 
Recipe for Bayberry Candles, 172 
Recipes, Old-Time Southern, 26, 62 
Recruit, Training the, September 

cover, by E. D. Drake 
Regarding "Peonies That Fit," 79 
Reid, Buford, article by, 149 
Ridsdale, P. S., article by, 79 
Road, Forest Hill, 123* 
Robinson, Effie M., article by, 134* 
Rock Garden, Fall Color in the, 118 
Rock Gardens for the Connoisseur, 45 
Rockery, 46* 
Rockwell, F. F., articles by, n*, 83* 

130*; illustrations by, 84, 130 
Rolfe, H. Parker, photograph by, 199 
Room Plants; When They Become 

Leggy, 118* 
Root Crops, packing, 95* 
Root-vegetables in a trench, 83* 
Roots, storing, 163* 
Roots, Wintering the Tender Flower, 

162* 
Rose chafers, 96 

Rose Garden for Portland, Ore., 24 
Rose, Putting the, on the Map, 166 
Rose, The Hardy Yellow, 117 
Rosemay, Bog, 16 

Rowland, E, H,, articles by, 184, 186 
Rutledge, A,, articles by, 8o, 120 

S. F. H., articles by, 7, 80*, 149 

S. L. B., article and photograph by, 41 
41 

Sage, pale blue, 53* 

Salvia, 54 

Salvia azurea, 53* 

San Jose Scale, 56 

Sand Lily, The, 184* 

Sand Myrtle, 16* 

Sargent, C. S., article by, 122* 

Saving Labor in Land Cultivation, 21* 

Schoyer, B. Preston, article by, 118 

Scientific Industrial Management, 
Methods of, as Applied to the Vege- 
table Garden, 191* 

Scratcher, A Broomstick, 40* 

Seed Order and the Tangle of Varie- 
ties, Your, 197* 

September cover, Training the Re- 
cruit, by E. D. Drake 

Seeds, New Buddleia or Summer Lilac 
from, 117 

September, Plant Peonies in, 49* 

Sheep Laurel, 16, 91* 

Show, New York Spring, 138 

Shrubs Attractive to Birds, 154 

Shrubs, Two Fruiting, for the Home 
Garden, 79* 

Sinclair, G, H., photograph by, 154 

Skinner, CD. ,articleand photo by, 149 

Slugs on pear foliage, 10 

Small House, Some Good Things for 
the, 108*, 174* 

Smallest Quantity; Making it reach 
the farthest, 191* 

Snapdragons, 118 

Sneezeworts, 53* 

Society, American Rose, 166 

Society, American Sweet Pea, 166 

Societies, Leaders of the, 81* 

Soil Binders, Irises as, 117 

Soil ingredients, mixing, 131* 

Soil, Making Next Year's Garden, 
Better, 86 

Solving the Fuel Problem, 196 

Some Bulbs Assured, 104 

Some Good Things for the Small 
House, 108, 174* 

South, Planting for the, no, 136, 
168, 204 

Sowing, Present, For Extra Early 
Crops, 95 

Spanish and German Iris From Seed, 5 

Speck, Private A., article by, 79 

Spice Sweet and Sweet Bough, 120 

Spinach, 10, 57, 198 

Spindle Bush, 16 

Spray Engineering Co,, photos by, 14 

Spray machine, 14* 



Spraying Kills Young Squash Bugs, 28 
Spring, F., article and photo by, 201,202 
Spring Planting for Summer Bloom, 

201* 
Sprinkler, 13* 
Squash, 198 
Squash Bugs, Spraying Kills Young, 

28 
Stake, 41* 
Stake, A Neat, 128 
Standpipes, 13* 

Steed, T. J., photograph by, 157 
Stoddard, G. O., photograph by, 125 
Storage, 83* 
Storage of Garden Products for the 

Winter, 83* 
Storage of Potatoes, 168 
Storing beets, 85* 
Storing carrots, 85* 
Storing celery, 83* 
Storing parsnips, 85* 
Storing, potatoes before, 83* 
Storing roots, 163* 
Storing Tender Flower-Roots, 162* 
Strawberry Glen Mary, 20* 
Strawberry Planting, Late, 41 
Strawberry Specialist's Intensive 

"Systems," 20* 
Strep tosolen Jamesoni as a Standard, 

150* 
String Beans, 98 
Sturtevant, R. S., article by, 118 
Summer Bloom, Spring Planting for, 

201* 
Summer Lilac (New Buddleia) from 

Seeds, 117 
Sundew, 90* 

Sundial, An Original, 118* 
Sweet Bough, Spice Sweet and, 120 
Sweet Corn, and "Sweet" Corn, 185 
Sweet Peas, Fall Sown, 80 
Sweet Peas Sown in the Fall for Early 

Bloom, 47* 
Systems of a Strawberry Specialist, 

Intensive, 20* 

Table, vegetable planting, 194 
Tabor, Grace, article and planting 

plans by, 191, 192, 193 
Taylor, Norman, article and photo- 
graphs by, 89, 90 
Tealdi, Aubrey, article by, 81 
Thalictrum dipterocarpum, 54 
Thatcher, A. E., article and photo- 
graph by, 119 
Thomas, F. M., articles by, 17*, 39,53* 
Tomatoes, 96*, 198*, 199* 
Tomlinson, B. N., articles by, 5, 39 
Tools to use during January, 189* 
Topeka Hollyhock Chain, 149* 
Topworked Apples, 184 
Totty, Charles H., Portrait, 81 
Touch of Blue in the Fall Garden, 151 
Tractors, 21* 
Trailing Arbutus, 16 
Training the Recruit, September 

cover, by E. D. Drake 
Transplanting, Out of Season, 6 
Tree Peony, A Yellow, 40* 
Tree Peony, New Hybrid, 40* 
Trees attractive to birds, 154 
Trench, outdoor, 43* 
Trench, root-vegetables in a, 83* 
Tresses, Ladies', 90* 
Troth, H., photographs by, 133, 197 
Trumbull, E. E., article by, 117 
Tuberoses, 163* 
Tubers, Dahlia, 162* 
Turnips, 10, 57, 199 
Tulips and Daffodils Planted Late, 

149 
Tulips in the Window Box, 41* 
Two Fruiting Shrubs for the Home 

Garden, 79* 
Tyler, Jas. E., photograph by, 197 

Under Glass Culture, Vegetables for, 

157* 

Under Glass, Getting the Garden, 130* 

Unheated Greenhouse, 129* 

Unheated Greenhouses, Hardy Prim- 
ulas for, 150* 

Uni-Ford Tractor, photograph by, 22 

United States Dept. of Agriculture, 
photographs by, 88 



Using Fresh Vegetables Wisely, 126 
Using Fruils and Vegetables Wisely, 
87* 

VanGelder, H. E., article and photo- 
graph by, 80 

Vaccinium vitisidaea, 16 

Valentine, F. H., articles by, 20*, 
184; photograph by, 20 

Vegetable combinations, practical, 132 

Vegetable Gardening, High Pressure, 
100 

Vegetable Garden, Methods of Sci- 
entific Management Applied to the, 
191* 

Vegetable Garden, plans for, 200, 201 

Vegetable planting table, 194 

Vegetable plot, 200* 

Vegetables and Fruits; Using them 
wisely, 87* 

Vegetables for Under Glass Culture, 
157* 

Vegetables, Fresh; Using them wisely, 
126 

Vegetables Planted in Autumn, 106 

Vegetables, root, in a trench, 83* 

Vegetables, why they spoil, 83 

Verrees, J. P., August, October, No- 
vember, January cover designs by, 

Verrees, J. P., photograph by, 11 

Viburnum opulus, 153* 

Vilmorin, The Late M., 64 

Vincent, Jr., Richard, Portrait, 81 

Vine, Pepper, 184 

Vines, 52* 

Vrooman, Carl, Authorized State- 
ment by, 9 

W. M., article by, 81 
W. N. C, articles by, 118, 119, 150* 
Wait, Walter J., article by, 128 
Walter, F. A., photographs by, 49 
War Garden; Make it Attractive, 200* 
"War Garden" Effort, One Success- 
ful, 91* 
War Gardens, Cashing-In the, 11* 
War Gardens; What they really mean. 

93* 
Water to Increase Garden Efficiency, 

13* 
We Love Our Cottontails; 6 
We Want Daylight Saving, 183 
West., Geo. P., photographs bv, 21 
What the Florists Will Offer in Holi- 
day Plants, 133* 
When a Teaspoon Solves Difficulties, 7 
When Room Plants Become Leggy. 

118* 
Where to Obtain Rare Plants, 149 
White, Chas. E., photograph by, 155 
White grubs, 56 
Whiting, W. J., article by, 7 
Who Succeeds with Heather? 5 
Why Buddleias Die, 119 
Why Does the Beetle Attack this 

Aster? 117 
Why So Few Currants? 5 
Wilder, Louise Beebe, article by, 120 
Willard, S. F., article by, 151 
Wilson, E. V., article by, 162* 
Window Box, Tulips in the, 41* 
Winter, At the Turn of, 165* 
Winter Begonia, 159 
Winter Pastime, A Gardener's, 120 
Winter preparation, 81 
Winter protection, 135* 
Wintering Canterbury Bells and Fox- 
gloves, 119 
Wintering Celery, New Method of, 80 
Wintering Herbaceous Plants, 39 
Wintering Tender Flower Roots, 162* 
Wire worms, 56 
Wolff, Wm. H, article by, 48 
Woman's Farm and Garden Assn., 166 
Women Horticulturists' Meeting at 

Chicago, 104 
Wood, Jos. L., article by, 5 
Woodpecker, 155*, 167 

Yellow Fringed Orchid, 91* 
Yellow Tree Peony, 40* 
Your Seed Order and the Tangle of 
Varieties, 197* 

Zenobia, 16* 



li 



IA5HIN 



lAKDfcN 



The GARDEN 

NT^AZINE 



Price 25c 




DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY, GARDEN CITY, NEW YORK 



Bobbink &, Atkins 




Choicest sm 
fi&rsery^Gr© 

Products 





EVERGREENS 

For August Planting 
The world's choicest varieties are in our nurseries 

HARDY OLD FASHIONED FLOWERS 

For Fall Planting 

All the best of the old varieties and the most notable introductions 
in the Peony and Iris field 

SPRING FLOWERING BULBS 

For Fall Planting 

Daffodils, Tulips, Hyacinths, and a full assortment of the best 
miscellaneous bulbs 

In the quality of our stock and in the extent and variety of our collections we are unrivalled in 
America. 500 acres of Nursery, half a million feet under glass. 

Visit our Nursery, 8 miles from New York, or write for Illustrated Catalogue. 

Rutherford, New Jersey 



PEONIES and IRIS 

Our Specialty 




A Block of Peterson's Peonies 



Our Guarantee 

We will replace with three every plant bloom- 
ing untrue to description. 

Send for descriptive price list just issued 

PETERSON NURSERY 



1033 Stock Exchange Bldg. 

' /''I'liiiiiMiii'iii'i/ii'.'ii.NiiMii'iiiiiriiiii:!!!::!. 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

Illllllillllllllllllllllllllllllllil 



American Arborvitae 

7 to 8 — 8 to 9 — 9 to 10 Feet 

These are all big specimen trees — compact grown 

— and they are unusually finely developed trees. 
The right kind of material for the 
Landscape Architect to use for 
building up a high living green wall 
around the Formal garden, or for 
screening any other feature on the ^ 
lawn for which an immediate ef- 
fect is desired. 

The First Size Trees are 

$8.00 each or $75.00 for ten 

Next Size 

$9.00 each, or $85.00 for ten 

Next Size 

$10.00 each, or $90.00 for ten 

I invite you to come and 
see these trees in my Nursery, 
also my beautiful specimens 
of Koster's Blue Spruce, Mug- 
ho Pines, Norway Spruce 
and many acres of other 
varieties of Evergreens 
from 12 inches to 12 feet. 
I shall be glad to welcome you 
any day except Sunday as on 
that day I am closed. 

| Adolf Miiller 

| De Kalb Nurseries 

| Norristown.Pa 

^riiliiir.iiiiii i si n n 1 1 1 1 1 i.:.i !i!.Mi:iiii 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i.:i: 



/ 





Select your Gladioli 
from actual blossoms. 
Order now for Spring planting 
before prices advance 

If you could see the Gladioli in full bloom at Cedar 
Acres (75 acres of glory) you would just have to have 
Gladioli in your garden. 

You can see the blossoms, if not the fields, and you 
can choose your varieties from the actual blossoms. 

I will deliver to you in perfect condition a large box 
of Gladioli spurs in full bloom, adequate for selecting 
bulbs to plant next Spring for One Dollar. A 
greater variety for Two Dollars and Half. Each 
variety labeled and priced for immediate order, and 
early Spring delivery. My fascinating booklet on Gladi- 
oli accompanies each box. 

Buy now after you have seen the actual blossoms. 
Present prices are low. Stocks of Gladioli will be lim- 
ited next Spring and prices high. 




B. Hammond Tracy (Box 27) 



WENHAM, MASS. 



August, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



*' y ys~^ 



Ferns and Flowers to Beautify Dark, Shady Places 

Plant during August and until the early fall for the best results next spring. Beautify the dark, 
shady spots of your garden, lawn or grounds for your admiration and the envy of your friends. 

Hepaticas, Bloodroot, Wild Meadow Lily and Trillium Grandiflorum will bloom beauti- 
fully and robustly next year if you plant them from now until early fall. Here's one of 
our Special Fall Offers. 



Hepaticas, . . . 
Bloodroot, ... 
Wild Meadow Lily, 



$1.25 a dozen: $6.00 a hundred 
$1.00 a dozen; $5.00 a hundred 
$1.25 a dozen; $6.00 a hundred 



Send for the Gillett Catalogue 

Its 80 pages contain information about flowers and ferns and wonderful offers for the enthu- 
siast. Beautifully illustrated. Information gladly furnished for fall plantings for early spring 
blooms. Each year for 35 years, I have satisfied an increasing number of patrons. 

Edward Gillett, 3 Main Street, Southwick, Mass. 

This advertisement features a bed of Trillium Grandiflorum growing in a shaded woodland. 
Special Fall Offer. $1.00 a dozen; $5.00 a hundred: $30.00 a thousand. 



w& 



: ^*J: 





Garage 

Hardware 

DO YOU "take a chance" that 
the wind will not blow the 
door crashing against your car 
when it enters or leaves the gar- 
age? If so, don't! 

Get Stanley Garage Door Holder 
No. 1 774 which locks the door open! 
Send for free catalogue V des- 
cribing Stanley Garage Hardware. 

THE STANLEY WORKS 

New Britain, Conn. U. S. A, 

New York Chicago 



wmm 






& 3 1 



iMMpfebit 



AMERICAN -GROWN 

Trees and Evergreens 



Andorra 
Nurseries 

Wm. Warntr Harper, Prof. 

Box 100 
Chestnut Hill 
Phila., Penna. 



YOU are invited to 
visit our Nurseries 
during July and August, 
when the trees and plants 
are at their best, and 
make your selection 
for fall delivery. 



Our catalog. 

Suggestions {or 
Effective Planting.' 
on request. 




SUN MACHINES 



The latest word in 

efficiency and economy 

— in Gardening with 

r ot Hot-beds Glass. Sash of all sizes 

and Cold-frame* carried in Stock. 

The little wonder working plant box covers 
to use indoors or out-of-doors that come by 
mail, prepaid, at 55c and 45c each. No glass 
by mail. 

Small, inexpensive ready- 
made Greenhouses (ground 
level or for benches) . Easy 
to heat and operate and 
highly profitable. Cov- 
ered top and sides with 
Sunlight Sash. 

Get our Catalogue of garden outfits. Free. 
Immediate shipments 

SUNLIGHT DOUBLE GLASS SASH CO. 
927 East Broadway Louisville, Ky. 




Sunken Path House 



Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in writing — and we will, too. 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



August, 1917 




To the Rescue 

-0——. of the Nation's 

Late Gardens 

Our two million home gardens 
constitute a most important 
national asset. The food 
they yield will make other 
food-stuffs available for starv- 
ing Europe. August is a cru- 
s .\ V cial time in vegetable gardens 
MM f \ \ especially the ones that 

IbBY *> I were 'started late. Feed the 
\ \ I I late maturing vegetables now 
i <; J J and they will feed you! Ne- 
ll S I gleet them and they will be 
nipped by frost. Make sure of crops in your war gar- 
den by using liberal quantities of 

Takoma Odorless Garden Plant Food 

A highly concentrated fertilizer, scientifically balanced to enable 
plants to quickly absorb maximum quantities of plant food. It stim- 
ulates development of backward crops, hastens maturity of crops 
well under way. 

Quickly grown vegetables are crisper and of better flavor. Of 
especial benefit to root-crops, such as carrots, potatoes, beets, parsnips, 
radishes, turnips, etc. Use at the rate of one pound to every fifty 
square feet, or eight hundred pounds per acre. Always uniform in 
quality. It took us several years to perfect the formula of Takoma 
Odorless Garden Plant Food and we maintain the perfect balance 
that makes this product the ideal garden plant food. 

Prices f . o . b . Takoma Park, D .C . 

10 lb.CPackage (postpaid E. of Mississippi) $1.00 
Less than bag lots (put up in 25 and 50 lb. 

pkgs.) at 6c per lb. . 

Bag lots, 100 lbs. and over " &\c " " 

Half ton lots, 1000 lb. and over " 3ic " " 

Ton lots and over $60 per ton 

Note: In ordering, be sure to state whether you want the 
Garden or Lawn Plant Food and if you wish shipment made 
by express or freight. 

Saves Starving Lawns 

Lawns are the heaviest of all feeders and require more fertile 
soil to do well than any other crop. Manure brings in weeds. 
Takoma Lawn Plant Food easily penetrates the sod, goes to the 
roots and is quickly absorbed with consequent improvement in the 
color and vigor of the grass. Immediate results follow. Absolutely 
free from objectionable odor. Easily applied and lasting in effect. 

Use only one pound per every hundred square feet or four hun- 
dred pounds per acre. Much more efficacious, and, as so much less is 

required, Takoma Lawn Plant Food is more economical than Bone Meal, Sheep 
Manure, Humus or similar materials hitherto recommended for lawn grass. 

Send for Instructive Free Book 

"The Maintenance of Lawns and Golf Courses" tells what Takoma Odorless 
Plant Foods will do for you. Please ask for your copy. 

ODORLESS PLANT FOOD COMPANY 

1317-19 New York Ave., N. W. Washington, D. C. 

FACTORY: Takoma Park, D. C. 






inning 



The largest stock of Brand's famous New American Seedlings 
in the East is at home in our nursery. We consider them a great 
acquisition because they grow stronger and bloom more freely 
than most imported kinds. Careful, comparative tests enable us 
to offer the choicest only of all the worth-while kinds. 



Every Root Guaranteed True-to-Name 

Our methods of growing and labeling the plants in the fields 
possible the guarantee that you'll really get the sorts you want, 
soil in our nurseries is ideal for the production of strong, healthy 
We dig them with great care, pack and ship promptly to insure 
arrival in good shape for quick growth in your garden. Plan to 
some this fall. 

Catalogue Describing 400 Varieties. Yours Free for the Asking 

Besides Brand's glorious new seedlings we have a most complete stock of the 
French and English varieties. None but the choicest are given space in our n 
Become acquainted by writing us to-day. Conscientious service, fair prices and a 
deal are assured you. 



make 
The 

roots, 
their 

plant 



newer 

ursery. 
square 



BABCOCK PEONY GARDENS, R. F. D. No. 80, Jamestown, N.Y. 

Illlllliilllllllllllllllilllllllllililllll 

Lawn Making Time 



is Here! 



Lawns started during August have many advantages over those 
made in the spring. The soil is .warm, the season favorable for 
prompt germination of seeds. The cool weather of early fall is ideal 
for growing grass and, best of all, fall sowing saves valuable time in 
the spring when other work is 
more urgent. For years I have 
made a study of grass seeds in 

Special Mixtures 
for Fall Sowing 

For seeding new ground or 
renovating old lawns I recom- 
mend my "Defiance" Perma- 
nent Lawn Mixture composed 
of fine-bladed grasses that quickly 
form a perfect sod. A thoroughly 
balanced mixture providing a 
carpet of green during spring, 
summer and fall. Price, per 
bushel (of 24 lbs.) $8.00; $29.50 
per 100 lbs. 

"Defiance" Permanent Shady 
Lawn Mixture is particularly adapted 
for shaded spots. Price, per bushel (of 
25 lbs.) $8.50; $30.00 per 100 lbs. 



William Tucker 



Expert Advice 

P„_ _ A quarter century's ex- 
* rcc perience in lawn pro- 
duction on many soils and in 
many sections is yours to com- 
mand. I offer no cure-all for 

lawn ills. Tell me about the nature of 
your soil or send a sample. Tell me 
how much of an area you want to 
"seed." I shall offer suggestions that 
will give you the lawn you want. 

Books that help 
solve Lawn Problems 

"Practical Illustrations of Turf Pro- 
duction" will acquaint you with the 
work I have done for many famous Golf 
and Country Clubs. "Interesting Data 
on Agrostology" tells how to make sure 
of lawns that last. "Perfect Lawns" is 
a unique little booklet that will acquaint 
you further with my work and methods. 
You may have any one or all three free 
for the asking. 

L sTeciaiist, s 35 Nassau Street, New York 



lllilllllllllllll!llllllligilll!lll!lllllllllllll 
Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Catden Magazine in writing — and we will, too 



Everything for the Links 

TRADE MARK 
Reg. V. S. fat. Off. 



pr 




August, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 




^1P 

LB,- 




Cover Design— Cashing In - - - - J. P. Verrees 

PAGE 

Among Our Garden Neighbors ------ 5 

Did the Darwin Tulip Disappoint? — Why so Few Cur- 
rants? — Who Succeeds with Heather? — Spanish and 
German Iris from Seed — We Love Our Cottontails — 
Magnolia Salicifolia — "All to the Good" — Out of Sea- 
son Transplanting — Flowers Every Month — When a 
Teaspoon Solves Difficulties — Marsh Marigold as a 
House Plant. 

The Month's Reminder -------- 7 

The Patriotic Garden --------- g 

Cashtng-In the War Gardens - F. F. Rockwell 1 1 

Illustration by J. P. Verrees; photographs by Mary H. Northend 

Water to Increase Garden Efficiency 

G. W. Hood 13 

Photographs by the author 

Native Evergreens Suitable for Ground-Covers 

Edwin H. Costich 15 
Photographs by the author and Nathan R. Graves 

"Pay Your Money and Take Your Choice" 

F. M. Thomas 17 

Photographs by N. R. Graves 

A Strawberry Specialist's Intensive "Systems" 

F. H, Valentine 20 
Photograph by the author 

Saving Labor in Land Cultivation 

Frank E. Goodwin 21 
Photographs supplied by the author 

Society Notes and News --------24 

American Peony Society -------- 24 

American Sweet Pea Society ------ 24 

S. A. F. Convention ----------24 

Calendar for the Month --------24 

Old-Fashioned Southern Recipes 

/. M. Patterson 26 



Why Not Bind Your Magazines? 
Bound volumes of The Garden Magazine give you an 
up-to-date Cyclopedia of Horticulture. Six numbers to 
the volume. Index supplied Free. The cost is only $1.25, 
when you send back your loose copies. 

LEONARD BARRON, Editor 



Published Monthly, 45c. a copy. Subscription, Two Dollars a Year. 
For Canada, $2. 35; Foreign Countries, $2.65. 

COPYRIGHT, IOI7, BY 

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY 

GARDEN CITY, N. Y. 



F. N. DOUBLEDAY, President 
ARTHUR W. PAGE, 
HERBERT S. HOUSTON, 
Vice-Presidents 



S. A. EVERITT, Treasurer 
RUSSELL DOUBLEDAY, 
Secretary 



— — J 

m M MM M Vt 

tl MM MM MM Mr 

m mm mm mm m 







r^"*"^ 





So keen was one of our Hartford friends for a greenhouse, that 
he built it and the sunroom first and joined his residence to them. 

GREENHOUSES 

Linking Them To Your Home 

DID you happen to read that altogether delight- 
ful personal yarn of greenhouse possessing, 
which appeared last fall in one of the country 
life magazines ? 

It was called "My Chum Tom's Greenhouse." 

It struck us as telling so well the pleasures of having 
a greenhouse attached directly to one's home that we 
obtained permission from the publisher to reprint it in 
a charming little green garbed booklet. 

It would give us genuine pleasure to mail a copy 
in response to a word from you. 

The interesting thing about that greenhouse of Tom's 
was that in spite of the fact that he wouldn't consent 
to a picture of it being published his chum describes 
it so vividly that you are more than content to see it 
with just your mind's eye. 

There are, however, some four or five photos of houses 
that Tom and his wife photographed in their goings 
about, "collecting greenhouse ideas," as they put it. 
The one above is among the number. 

Some one of them may happen to be just the answer 
to your greenhouse longings. 

In writing, we will know what you mean if you just 
say — send Chum Tom's booklet. 

HitchingSfimpaty 



General Offices and Factory — Elizabeth, N. J. 
NEW_YORK BOSTON 

1170 Broadway 49 Federal Street 



PHILADELPHIA 
40 So. 15th Street 



Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in writing — and we will, too. 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



August, 1917 





€£ 



Peonies for Pleasure" 

and the Business back of it 

In a beautiful printed booklet "De Luxe," Mr. Good tells 

how, without being either an expert or a specialist, but guided 

by the love for Peonies, he assembled the aristocrats of 

Peony-dom about him. These 

elect sorts now inhabit nearly 50 

acres, with almost a million 

roots, representing the greatest 

collection of quality kinds and 

the largest stocks of these 

varieties in the world! Annual 

sales of 50,000 Festiva Maxima, 

25,000 Edulis superba, 20,000 

telix Crousse, etc., etc., attest 

to this. 

To accomplish this "feat," all the resources 

of the Good & Reese Company — one of the 

largest nursery organizations of this country 

— were pressed into service. With a will to 

work and win, the house gradually acquired 

600 top-notchers in Peonies from among - the 

world's most famous growers and specialists. 

All had to measure up to certain standards 

in color, size, stem, form, substance and 

fragrance. Charming kinds of unique beauty 

are found in both, 

The Good & Reese Company's Famous 
Challenge Collection Masterpiece Collection 




Covers the entire range of form and color 
in the Peony. We challenge comparison as to 
their great beauty and to the very low prices 
we offer them. 

128 - Couronne d'Or $0.60 

119 - Docteur Boisduval 60 

4 - Floral Treasure 60 

67 - Golden Harvest 60 

28 - Ladv Leonora Bramwell 60 

159 - La Perle .60 

117 - Leviathan .60 

197 - Madam de Vatry ". .60 

276 - Margaret Gerard 60 

10 - Marie Stuart .60, 

181 - Tri. de Hxpo. de Lille 60 

322 - Van Dyck 60 

Total Value S? -o 

Special Offer: — Any six for S3.00; the twelve 
Challenge Collection for $5.50 



Among the finest of all Peonies. Every one 
a masterpiece. 

262 - Admiral Dewey S°-75 

102 - Asa Gray 75 

228 - Augustin d'Hour. 75 

132 - Avalanche 75 

97 - Dorchester 75 

93 - Eugenie Verdier 75 

25 - Felix Crousse 75 

168 - Livingstone 75 

139 - Madame Emile Lemoine. 75 

301 - Marie d'Hour 75 

246- Masterpiece 75 

48 ■ Monsieur Jules Elie .75 

Total Value $9.00 

Special Offer: — Any six for $4.00; the twelve 
Masterpiece Collection for 57.00. 



The Challenge and Masterpiece Collections for $11.00 



Springfield, Ohio 

THE 
FLORAL CENTER 
OF THE WORLD 

20 Million Plants Sold 
Each Year, Seven Mil- 
lion of which are Roses 



Send for "Peonies for Pleasure" to-day — you will find it a book well 
worthy of a place in your horticultural reference library and all it costs 
is the stamp it takes to ask \ox your free copy. 

T'l fy 1 fl /"" Rose and Peony 

1 he uood & Keese Lo. specialists 

Box 75, Springfield, Ohio 




A Man 

and His Hobby 

Some men cultivate hobbies, others 
are born with them. When one of 
those, whose hobby reaches clear to 
the marrow of their bones, takes the 
matter so seriously aSj to make his 
hobby his business, things generally 
"happen. ' : 

Springfield, Ohio, holds one of the 
biggest JPeony-hobbyists in this coun- 
try. John M. Good grows Peonies 
primarily because he loves them. He 
cultivates his hobby to the extent of 
millions of flowers. About fifteen 
years ago he became interested, 

enthusiastic and "peony-mad" in rapid succession. To-day he has 
gathered about him one of the greatest collections in the world. 



Eremurus for September Planting 

The enormous demand 
for these wonderful Eremu- 
rus encouraged us two 
years ago to plant a large 
number of clumps in our 
trial gardens. They have 
bloomed for us and we can, 
therefore, guarantee that 
they will bloom for you. 
Imported clumps generally 
reached us in November — 
too late for planting in this 
country in the. fall. With us on 
Long Island the clumps mature 
early in September, making 
transplanting in the fall both 
desirable and practical. Clumps 
transplanted this fall will flower 
next spring, since plants become 
firmly established before winter. 
Eremurus are among the no- 
blest of all hardy plants. They 
bloom in graceful spikes, 6 to 10 
feet high. The flower spikes 
proper average from 2 to 4 feet 
long, and well established plants 
bear hundreds of them. They 
thrive under ordinary garden 
conditions and their beautiful 
colors, pink and white, harmo- 
nize spendidly with other flowers 
blooming during July. 

Extra Strong 
Acclimated Clumps 

Eremurus clumps in full bloom, less than one year *>^j r/\ i 

after planting in our Lrookline, L. I., trial gardens. «J>4.0U eaCH 

Ready for shipment early in September, Himalaicus, Himrob, Robus- 
tus, Robustus Elwesianus, other varieties at higher prices. 

John Scheepers & Co., Inc. Fl s ° P TiJ£s 




2 Stone Street 



New York 



iipifl i 






You will find it full of interesting information on 
growing under glass with helpful hints on what, when, 
and how to plant. It contains illustrations of some 
of the most beautiful conservatories in America from 
which you can get many valuable suggestions for 
your own indoor garden. 

We will be glad to send you this booklet, free of 
charge, with sketches and estimates on any green- 
house work you are contemplating. 

JOHN C. MONINGER COMPANY 

CHICAGO NEW YORK 

924 W. Blackhawk St. 814 Marbridge BIdg. 




Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning 1 he Garden Magazine in writing — and we will, too 



The Garden Magazine 




Did the Darwin Tulip Disappoint? — Are 
there any Garden Magazine readers, others 
than myself, who have been particularly dis- 
appointed in their Darwin Tulips this year? 

A large proportion of bulbs in my beds, in 
some amounting to nearly half, sent up a 
flourishing bunch of leaves But no flowers. 
This trouble was not confined to the older 
beds, but all seemed to be affected more or 
less without regard to age. Several other Tulip 
raisers in this section report the same trouble, 
and as none of them can give an explanation, 
I wish some fellow Teader would enlighten me 
as to the cause and the remedy, if there is a 
remedy. Is it due to the peculiar season or to 
some disease which has attacked the bulbs, and 
will they probably flower all right next year? 
Am a great lover of tulips but an amateur 
at the business of raising them, and any 
advice would be gratefully received. — Ernest 
C. Exford, Pitts field, Mass. 

[No disappointment with us, indeed! 
Perhaps the bulbs you received had suffered 
in transit. If, as did happen to some cargoes 
last fall, they were delayed and heated on 
shipboard that would account for the failure 
to bloom. — Ed.] 

Why So Few Currants? — A few years ago 
we purchased for garden purposes a small 
plot of ground that had been in garden for 
several years. A row of currant bushes was 
growing along one side. We debated whether 
to dig them up and decided to let them grow 
another year as "we were all fond of currant 
jelly." That summer raspberries and black- 
berries were scarce and high-priced and we 
turned to our currants to supply us with fresh 
fruit. We did not expect to relish them 
especially, but to our surprise found them very 
appetizing, particularly for breakfast, having 
as they do the tartness which the general use 
of oranges and grapefruit has demonstrated 
the morning appetite craves. The bushes bore 
for more than a month and during that time 
currants were on our breakfast table each 
morning. The more we ate of them the 
better we liked them. It was with real 
regret that the last were picked. 

That fall in discussing garden plans instead 
of debating whether to grub out the currants 
we decided to give them particular attention. 
A horticulturist was hired to prune them and 
on his advice the following year we sprayed 
them early in the spring with arsenate of lead, 



That season they yielded more abundantly 
and the currants were nearly half again as 
large as they had been the previous year. 
Needless to say we relished them for table use 
even more than we had the first season. Be- 
sides eating them as a fruit we put up jelly 
and dined off currant pies and currant sherbet. 
The latter, to our notion, is one of the most 



Food Conservation Our Duty 

COn another page of this issue Mr. 
Carl Vrooman, Ass't. Secretary of 
Agriculture, appeals directly to THE 
Garden Magazine readers to use 
their every energy at this time to- 
ward the conservation of the crops 
now growing in the gardens of tne 
people. 

CIt is conceded that the Garden 
Neighbors rallied nobly to the 
earlier appeals to increase food crop 
production this year. THE GARDEN 
Magazine readers responded not 
alone in working their own gardens 
to best efficiency, but also in stimula- 
ting others and in assuming their 
proper burden of responsibility in or- 
ganized local efforts. 

CBut there remains the problem of 
cashing-in. The crops have been 
grown — they must be conserved. 
Methods of distribution must be de- 
vised so as to reduce to the minimum 
any waste of product. Herein lies the 
opportunity for every Neighbor. 

^T And, further, write at once to Mr. 
^U Herbert Hoover, Food Adminis- 
tration, Washington, D. C, and enroll 
as an active member in the "United 
States Food Administration " and so 
obligate yourself to take part in au- 
thorized neighborhood movements. 



delicious of the frozen desserts. The bushes 
were in bearing fully five weeks. A feature 
which surprised us was the length of time the 
bunches held together and the fruit remained 
in good condition after apparently being dead 
ripe. There is almost no waste for this reason as 
it is seldom necessary to pickmore anyday than 
is needed for immediate use. Another thing, 
we decided that currants are easier to pick 



and easier to handle than any other small fruit. 
Since out interest in currants has become 
active a friend who operates a fruit farm in 
western New York has written me that he 
received $700 last year for the fruit from an 
acre of currants. So, it would seem, that 
growing currants for the market is no less 
advisable than growing them for home con- 
sumption. — F. L. Clark, Iozva. 

Who Succeeds with Heather? — I note on 
page 174 of the April number what is said of 
the heather. I planted it here in two spots, 
high and low, and it browns in winter and dies 
back. I wrote to the Biltmore Nursery, from 
whom I obtained the plants, and was told that 
it thrived there, and only needed sun and air. 
My location gives both, exposure West — good 
soil well drained. Near by I have Biota nana 
and Retinospora obtusa which thrive. Any 
advice you can give me will be appreciated. 

In reference to broad-leaved evergreens it 
seems that Ilex glabra and crenata are of very 
slow growth here. Evonymus japonicus does 
well in northern exposure, same for Rhododen- 
drons and Mahonia. — Jos. L. Wood, Va. 

[Heather is essentially at home in northern 
regions or what amounts to the same thing, 
high elevations in more southerly places. It 
likes cool, light, well-drained soils with plenty 
of water, too. Can any Neighbors help our 
friend ? — Ed.] 

Spanish and German Iris From Seed. — In 
The Garden Magazine, for June, Miss 
Sturtevant, speaking of Iris from seed says: 
"They do not ordinarily produce seeds unless 
crossed by hand." I have several seed pods 
on mine now (varieties like Madame Chereau, 
Queen of May, etc.) which I will save and try 
her plan. She may mean that the variety 
does not change unless fertilized by hand, 
however, I shall watch mine with interest. 
[It could hardly be expected that varieties 
would come true from seed in any case, and 
more especially since the pollination must 
have been accomplished by some outside 
agency. — Ed.] 

I have a wonderful bed of Spanish Iris, 
next to a Pansy bed. Last fall I noticed some 
"wiry looking things" coming up among the 
Pansies. I first thought they were a good 
crop of wild onions and was about to uproot 
them when, on comparing them with the 
young growth of Spanish Iris, I decided they 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



August, 19 17 



were seedlings. I left them, they have 
just bloomed and are all like the dark blue 
Iris in adjoining bed. I don't see how they 
have come there unless the seeds were blown 
by the wind. I have often noticed the seed 
pods, but never thought of saving the seed. 
[Iris xiphium is very variable in color, but is 
perhaps normally blue-purple. — Ed.] I have 
no trouble in keeping a healthy lot of dark 
blue Spanish Iris, though many complain 
of its being short lived. I have several other 
colors which disappear after a 
year or two, except one 
clump, a bright yellow, that 
has multiplied in three years. 
There is a well denned vari- 
ety or sub-species of Spanish 
Iris that has yellow flowers. 
— Ed.] They are great favor- 
ites of mine and I would like 
to be as successful with the 
other colors as with the blue. 
Could there be a difference 
in the variety? English Iris 
will last several years but 
finally disappears. I have so 
much trouble with moles, I 
often wonder if they have 
anything to do with the dis- 
appearance of the Iris. 

I plant Asters in between 
Spanish Iris after its season 
is over, and so far it has done 
no harm. The Asters last such 
a short time, they are out of 
the way by the time the Iris 
makes its fall growth. Next 
to the bed of Iris are Shirley 
Poppies, the rich blue of Iris 
blooming at the same time as 
the Poppies makes this a 
bright spot in my garden, 
perhaps too bright for those 
who care only for pink, blues, 
and lavenders. Behind the 
Poppies I have a large clump 
of blue Larkspurs, so after 
the Iris has gone I still have 
my combination of blue and 
red; and with white Sweet 
Williams in the foreground, 
I have a "patriotic corner" 
and I thoroughly enjoy 
"showing my colors." — Bland 
U. Tomlinson, Tennessee. 

We Love Our Cottontails 
and prefer to protect all 
young trees and shrubs, 
rather than kill the rabbits. 
Six inch collars made of sev- 
eral thicknesses of newspaper, 
tied firmly to the small trunks 
of the trees, and the earth then " hilled" up to 
cover the bottom of these collars, have proved 
successful in keeping my small trees quite safe 
from girdling. — L. M., Ohio. 



when fully expanded are from four to four and 
a half inches across. The flowers are not 
as showy as the blossoms of the Chinese hy- 
brid Magnolias, but as this species comes into 
bloom earlier it is therefore of much interest. 

The leaves are ovate-lancelate in outline, 
acuminate at the apex, and wedge-shaped at 
the base, yellow-green above, pale and smooth 
beneath, and four to five inches long on young 
shoots, and pungently fragrant when bruised. 
The branching habit is distinctly upright, 




Flowers of the new 
Normally 



Magnolia Salicifolia. — The Willow-leaved 
Magnolia flowered in the parks here for the 
first time this spring. The flowers were 
partly open on April 28th and it was in full 
bloom on May 10th. The season was fully 
two weeks late and in ordinary conditions it 
would probably be in full bloom about April 
25th. It blooms at the same time as Hall's 
(Magnolia stellata). The flowers are on short 
stalks not more than half an inch in length. 
The six petals are white to cream white, and 
the sepals greenish white. The flowers be- 
fore expanding are tubular in outline, and 



Japanese Willow-leaved Magnolia (M. salicifolia) photographed at Rochester N. Y 
it blooms with Hall's Magnolia and is welcome because of its large bloom 

and it is quite distinctive in this from any 
other Magnolia, making an oblong compact 
head. The young branches are olive green, 
and the trunk and old stems are covered with 
smooth green bark. Magnolia salicifolia is a 
native of Japan, and is a most interesting and 
valuable addition to our parks and gardens. 
The individual that flowered with us is eight 
feet high. — John Dunbar, Rochester, N. Y. 

"All to the Good.'' — It seems to be the 
fashion just now to express one's opinion of the 
Magazine so may I lay my little tribute at your 
feet ? I find an immense deal of information in 
the articles by" Professionals "that appear from 
time to time, and, unlike Mr. Chamberlain of 
New York, I think the Magazine might die if 
it did not have them — to me they are the 



cream of the contents; but I also enjoy the 
little bits by amateurs. In fact tfre Magazine 
is so good that I cannot see how any one can 
have anything but unstinted praise for it. — 
M. E. Blacklock, Ontario, Can. 

[Nevertheless we hope to improve constantly 
with the help and advice of our readers. — Ed.] 

Out of Season Transplanting. — I think 
that C. L. Meller did not go into detail 
enough in his article on Transplanting out ot 
Season. This is the way I 
proceed: Late last spring I 
found that two small beds of 
Canterbury Bells were in 
great need of thinning out. 
The plants were already a 
foot or more high and ought 
not to be sacrificed, either by 
pulling out or allowing to 
crowd one another. So I 
found two round - pointed 
farm shovels, thrust one deep 
under a plant and the other 
to a little more than the same 
depth into the place where 
the plant was to go. Then I 
traded the shovelfuls. The 
process was repeated at a 
very rapid rate. Not a plant 
suffered. One or two drooped 
a little, but watering quickly 
restored them. When I was 
through I had still two beds 
of undisturbed plants and 
had gained a long row across 
a fifty-foot garden. At this 
writing, July 3, all are burst- 
ing into scores of flowers, 
the transplanted ones fully 
as good as the others. — John 
W. Chamberlin. 

Flowers Every Month. — If 
there is any one thing that 
Cleveland cannot boast of it 
surely is her climate in the 
winter. It is raw cold, windy, 
and sometimes for weeks at a 
time we hardly see the sun. 
But notwithstanding all this, 
I have for many years been 
able to pick flowers from my 
garden every month in the 
year. I have to confess that 
this January was so cold that 
I found no flowers, or rather 
that no one else did — for I 
was not in the garden during 
that month. My last garden 
flowers were the little Pom- 
pon Chrysanthemums, and 
"Johnny-jump-ups" picked 
December eighth, and the Paper White 
Narcissus had been in bloom in the house 
quite three weeks before. This is the first 
time that I have ever made my spring 
flowering bulbs, and the fall flowers in the 
garden lap by. While the Paper Whites 
were still going in January, the Freesias began. 
They lasted a full month, and then with them 
and always lapping over a little, came the 
Roman Hyacinths, the real Daffodils, the 
Dutch Hyacinths, blue Scillas. On the twen- 
tieth of February we found our first Snow- 
drops, and since then there have always been 
a few flowers in the garden. For almost a 
month the Snowdrops had it to themselves, 
but then came Crocuses and blue Scillas 
as well. 

About the middle of January we are likely 



August, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



to have a few mild days, and it is then that I 
look to find on the north side of the house a 
few brave Snowdrops which somehow give 
me a thrill of joy that the later flowers can 
hardly bring. So you see that within and 
without I manage to have flowers in my 
garden every month in the year. When I 
have been forehanded enough to have Pansy 
plants in the coldframes, I have often picked 
a Pansy an each of those barren winter months 
about which Louise Beebe Wilder has written 
with so much feeling. At the present writ- 
ing (March 23), the Arabis alpina which is 
planted with the Scilla sibirica is well budded, 
and soon there will be a wonderful bed of clear 
blue and white. 

I had a curious experience with my Arabis 
two years ago. According to all the authori- 
ties, late summer or early fall is the time to 
separate these plants, to increase their num- 
ber. Early in the spring I set an old darky 
to uncovering the bed, cautioning him to do it 
only with his hands, explaining that every 
little circle of green leaves contained the buds 
and it must not be broken; the greatest care 
must be used. 

The moment my back was turned he clawed 
over the bed with an iron rake, and as a result 
some seventy-five heads that had braved the 
winter's cold were ruthlessly snapped off. I 
was disconsolate, almost to tears, but moved 
by what I know not, I knelt down and one by 
one pressed each rootless little stem with its 
whorl of leaves in the ground, not really 
thinking they could live, but just because 
I was sorry for them to be cut off just 
before their blooming time. Imagine my 
surprise some two or three weeks later to 
find practically every one of them had taken 
root and they blossomed and have greatly 
added to the size of my bed. — Nellie D. Mer- 
rell, Ohio. 



When a Teaspoon Solves Difficulties. — 
When the weather at last permits the trans- 
planting of early grown seedlings to their out- 
door situation, there is apt to be a large loss 
from the handling, as well as a set-back to 
those that survive. The seedlings are often 
quite close together in the box, and to dig out 
one without bruising or breaking some of its 
neighbors is difficult or impossible; and the 
plant which is being moved is, also, often 
injured by the old earth falling away from its 
roots, this making the shock of transplanta- 
tion very severe. The use of a flat blade, like 
that of a knife, generally loosens the earth 
about the root: a small trowel is not much 
better, besides almost certainly crushing 
nearby plants by its broad, long blade. If a 
kitchen teaspoon be used for these tiny 
seedlings, it will be found very easy indeed to 
scoop out each plant with the earth around its 
root not even loosened, and to place it in a 
hole already scooped in the outdoor flower 
bed to receive it, where it will grow as if noth- 
ing had happened to it. The fact that the 
bowl of the spoon is curved in two directions 
instead of in only one, as the trowel is, makes 
it easy to get well under the plant, and helps 
to hold the ball of earth around the roots to- 
gether. The short bowl and narrow handle of 
the spoon makes it practicable to avoid the 
surrounding plants. 

With a teaspoon a first transplanting of 
seedlings sown broadcast can be nicely done 
in the house before the spring shift to out- 
doors. 

With many larger plants, transplanting is 
equally facilitated by the substitution of a 
larger kitchen spoon for the usual straight- 
backed trowel. For instance, poppies, which 
are said to be almost non-transplantable, 
have been moved by this means, and very 
few plants lost. — W. J. Whiting, Conn. 



Marsh Marigold as a House Plant. — 
Many of our native plants bloom well in pots 
in the window or on the piazza in summer, or 
in the/window box in early spring, but for a 
goodly show of blossoms and foliage from little 
care I suggest the Marsh Marigold (Caltha 
palustris). The treatment is simplicity itself. 
One or more roots may be lifted from the brook- 
bed as soon as enough growth has been made 
in early March to show their location, and 
placed in any kind of a dish with a little of the 
brook mud or garden soil, and plenty of water. 
I prefer about five roots in a six-inch pot, to 
get a good clump, and the mud in the pot is 
covered with Marsh Forget-me-not (Myosotis 
palustris) which will give an undergrowth of 
fresh green shoots, and flowers after the Marsh 
Marigold has dropped its blossoms. 

The pot is set in a deep dish holding at least 
a quart of water, and set in any window — it is 
not necessary to have any sun. The room need 
not even be heated, and it does the plant no 
harm to freeze, the dish is more liable to be 
injured. Within three days the big round 
leaves will push out, the buds show in two 
weeks' time, and the waxy yellow blossoms on 
stems a foot tall are fully expanded inside of 
three weeks from the time you bring the plant 
within doors. If the plant is kept in a cool 
room the blossoms are effective for three weeks, 
so large and shining that friends think it must 
be some rare plant from the tropics, and not 
our friend of the swamps a month later. 

When the flowers have fallen and the foliage 
gets limp slip the plant out of the pot and into 
the brook again or in the shady part of the 
vegetable garden, where it may be forgotten 
until the first thaw of the next spring, when 
the roots may be potted and brought into the 
family again. I imagine that the double-flow- 
ered form would give even brighter and more 
enduring blossoms. — S. F. H., Lexington, Mass. 



THE MONTH'S REMINDER 

THIS YEAR'S LAST FOOD PLANTINGS— BUILDING FERTILITY FOR NEXT— SETTING OUT EVERGREENS 



W ~\ON'T fool yourself; for there's work 
§ I to be done! Anybody knows that 
-M. — S one of these piping afternoons, 
when the thermometer is threaten- 
ing to run over at the top, and sidewalk and 
paths are so hot that your bare-footed boy has 
to walk on the grass, it is much more com- 
fortable in the couch hammock, with the 
last volume of Kipling or the new issue of the 
World's Work, than it is out in the garden 
shoving a wheel hoe or destroying weeds. 
But — think of the boys in the trenches — and 
also of the price you paid for potatoes last 
winter! And did you ever notice that the 
man who has been out playing golf or tennis 
all afternoon has a good deal less complaint 
to make about the terrific humidity than the 
one who has been hugging the shady side of 
the veranda, and imbibing iced drinks? 
There's a considerable stretch every after- 
noon, say from four o'clock till dark, when it's 
fairly comfortable in the garden — next year 
we will have "daylight saving" in force. And 
as to other objections: 

(1) If your garden is clean, half an hour's 
work a day with the wheel hoe or slide hoe 
will keep it so, while if you let it go it will take 



hours of the hardest kind of work to get it 
back into shape, if you find it possible to do 
so at all. 

(2) If crops have "gone by," it is the worst 
kind of gardening to let them remain, inviting 
weeds to mature and seed themselves, and 
using up plant-food and moisture that should 
be utilized for a succession crop, or for a cover 
crop for winter to be spaded under next spring, 
supplying your hungry garden zvith humus and 
stored up plant food for big crops next season. 

(3) As to the argument that you have to 
leave the big weeds, because they cannot be 
pulled out without taking other things along 
with them — don't pull them out! But don't 
leave them to work havoc where they are. 
Sharpen up your knife, or if there are many 
of them your lawn edger, and cut them out. 
Cut through the roots, just below the ground. 

Last Call for Planting! 

'T^HIS is about the last call for planting 
■*■ food crops to be used this year. A num- 
ber of things can be put in yet, if you plan at 
once, and take pains to do everything you can 
to assure good germination. These include: 
beans, beets, carrots, Chinese cabbage, corn 



salad, cress, lettuce, peas, radish, sorrel, spin- 
ach, swiss chard and turnips. In making 
these late sowings you should of course use 
early varieties which will mature in the short- 
est time. Most of the foregoing require about 
eight weeks to be big enough for use, but the 
root crops will continue growing until 
hard freezing weather. // you take full ad- 
vantage of the opportunity that is likely to occur, 
and make this planting immediately after a 
good rain, it will be possible to have most of 
the vegetables up in three or four days after 
sowing. But don't wait indefinitely for a rain; 
and have your ground spaded and ready to 
absorb every drop that falls, if you are going 
to wait at all. If the dry weather doesn't let 
up, open up trenches before planting and flood 
them with water; then fill in a little soil on top 
of the mud, and plant on this, pressing the 
seed down firmly. Soaking the seed a day or 
so before planting will also help to make cer- 
tain of good germination in dry weather. 

Start Plants for Later Use Under Glass 

"YXTHEN your planting of outside crops is at- 

* ' tended to, don't forget that you will be 

needing good strong plants with which to plant 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



August, 1917 



your framas and the benches in greenhouses 
for fall and winter use. A large number of 
plants for this purpose may be started in a 
very small 'space. If you haven't an empty 
frame, and your garden is not accessible to 
water, take a few square feet in one of the 
flower beds. If the soil is very dry, first of all 
water it thoroughly two or three times in suc- 
cession; then fork it up and make it smooth, 
adding humus or sifted leaf mould if it is not 
already loose and friable. Mark off shallow 
furrows six inches to a foot apart, and after 
sowing the seeds, and marking each row care- 
fully, cover the whole with a shading of 
cheesecloth or some similar light material. 
The little seedlings should be thinned out or 
transplanted as soon as they begin to crowd. 

The New Strawberry Bed 

17"EEP in mind that the size of your berry 
■*-*- crop next June will depend upon the 
growth made by the plants before freezing 
weather this fall. If you planted last April, 
or if you are planning to set out potted plants 
this month, everything possible should be done 
to get the crowns as well developed as possible 
before that time. Continuous cultivation, 
and an extra side dressing of nitrate of soda 
and wood ashes or a good garden fertilizer 
should be on the programme of their care 
for this month, if the bed is already planted. 
If you are going to use the matted row system, 
see to it that the strongest runners are rooted 
where you want them, and the secondary and 
surplus runners cut off. Very few gardeners 
seem to fully realize how certainly crowded 
rows are to mean small berries. 

If you are setting new plants now, stud) 
carefully the article on page 20. It is highly 
important to provide a liberal amount of 
nitrogen in available form. Sheep manure, 
chicken manure or tankage, mixed with 
fine ground bone, will accomplish this. Com- 
mercial mixed fertilizers need handling with 
care as there is danger of injuring the roots 
with them. A sprinkling of wood ashes, either 
with the materials suggested above, which 
should, of course, be thoroughly mixed with 
the soil before the plants are set — or applied 
along the rows two or three weeks later, will 
also be very helpful. 

Now for the Evergreens! 

NOW is the time for evergreens, and you 
have the place — unless your grounds are 
the exception to the general rule! Have you 
been waiting for years, and envying your 
friends with attractive groupings or plantings 
of these beautiful trees? You may have been 
excusing yourself with the thought that you 
could not afford them; the real reason how- 
ever has been that you never acted on your 
impulse and sent in an order for a few! Don't 
let the time slip by and the opportunity be 
gone for another year! Send in your order 
this week and be ready to plant just when 
they should go in. 

Thin Now for Fat Fruits Later 

MANY home gardeners, who take very 
good care of their trees and spray them 
regularly, wonder why they cannot grow 
such fine specimens of fruit as they are able 
to buy. One of the chief reasons is that they 
cannot bring themselves to the point of pick- 
ing off numbers of good looking peaches or 
apples or plums before they get ripe, in order 
that those remaining may be better. It is 
about as hard to get them to do this, as it is 
to get a beginner at Rose gardening to cut back 
her cherished bushes almost to the ground 
the first spring after she has set them out — 



she may believe it ought to be done, "but 
simply hasn't the heart to do it!" Well, 
you can take your choice; over-crowded trees 
and poor fruit, or properly thinned trees and 
excellent fruit — and there will be as much 
(bulk) of the latter as of the former. Twenty 
to fifty per cent, of the fruits on overburdened 
trees should be removed; the sooner the better 
when the natural "drops" are off. It is 
much more likely that not enough, rather than 
too much, will be taken. 

Bag Your Grapes! 

TLT AVE you ever had your grapes set so that 
* A every bunch was as full as it could 
possibly be; and grow as nicely as you could 
possibly ask, and then, just before they were 
ready to eat, begin to "go bad," until, by the 
time they were ripe, there was hardly one you 
could eat? Have you. Well, don't have that 
experience again this year. It's up to you! 
The surest and simplest way of protecting the 
bunches on a few vines for home use is to put a 
paper bag over each bunch. Special bags, 



DO THIS MONTH 

Without delay, make last plantings of succession 

crops. 
Start lettuce, cauliflower, pansies, stocks, and 

other vegetables and flowers for jail and winter 

under glass. 
Set out new strawberry beds. 
Plant evergreens. 

Plant Madonna Lilies as soon as received. 
Transplant and divide Irises, Oriental Poppy, 

and many other perennials. 
Thin out fruits that have set thickly. 
Sow alfalfa. 

Sow cover crops wherever possible. 
Keep July planted crops growing fast. 
Bag your grapes to protect from rot. 
Order materials for new hotbeds or cold frames. 
Order bulbs of all kinds for fall planting. 
Prepare beds and borders for fall planting. 
Get ready for exhibits at vegetable and flower 

shows. 
Build a greenhouse for use this fall to increase your 

food crop efficiency. This is important. 
Keep the garden clean! 



made for the purpose with wire fasteners, 
may be bought at about half-a-cent apiece. 
Ordinary paper bags will do; but the others 
are more convenient. 

Good Gardens in Spite of the War! 

IT IS always well to sow cover crops to save 
plant food, and to furnish humus for the 
garden; but this season, in view of the fact 
that there will be the greatest scarcity of fer- 
tilizing materials next spring that we have 
ever had, makes it ten times as important 
for every gardener to do all he can to protect 
himself in this way. Have rye and vetch or 
crimson clover on hand with which to seed 
down every square foot of your garden that 
would otherwise be bare through late fall and 
winter. Crimson clover can be used as far 
north as New York; farther north it is safer 
to sow the vetch, though early sowing, with 
another crop, will help to carry it through the 
winter safely. It is not necessary to wait 
until your ground is bare. Rake up all avail- 
able surfaces, between rows of growing crops, 
among tomatoes and pole beans, in the sweet 
corn, etc., etc., and sow the mixture thickly, 
so as to have a green mat by cold weather; the 
work of picking and removing the crops will 
not cause as much loss as waiting until two or 
three weeks later to put the cover crop in. 
Rye can be sown on any bare ground up to 
time of frost or slightly later. 

Have You Any Use for Hay? 

JUST about the middle of this month is the 
best time to sow alfalfa. If you have 
a cow or a horse — or even chickens — on the 



place for which you have to provide feed, 
why not try a small sowing of this wonderfully 
productive plant this fall. If you have wood 
ashes, and your soil does not have surface water 
on it during the winter months, you should be 
able to succeed in making it grow; once es- 
tablished it will last longer than any similar 
crop you could put in, and will give you 
three or four cuttings for green food or for 
hay, where you are getting one or two from 
grass. 

Are Your Irises Petering Out? 

TRISES, like most of the other hardy peren- 
A nials, after a few years become overcrowded, 
and use up the amounts of plant food in the 
soil in which they are growing, so that the 
flowers gradually become smaller, and the 
plants weaker. To offset this, the plants 
should be lifted and separated every few years 
(about every three years in the case of the 
Irises) so as to continue to have first class 
flowers. Lift the old clumps carefully, and 
keep them shaded from sun and wind with 
an old wet bag. Then fork up the soil and 
work in well rotted manure and bone dust, 
if it is desired to replant in the same situa- 
tion. But do not put the whole clump back. 
Separate it into sections containing several 
of the thick fleshy roots, with a bulb or leaf 
crown attached, in the case of the German 
Iris; or cut into sections several inches square, 
in the case of the Japanese class. The extra 
divisions may be used for planting elsewhere, 
or to present to some flower-loving friend. 
The German Ins should be planted quite 
shallow — about as you find it growing when 
you go to take it up, with some of the roots 
almost on a level with the surface. 

Speed Up the Late Planted Crops 

THE success of both the seeds and the 
plants put in last month, winter cab- 
bage, cauliflower, br'ussels sprouts, late sweet 
corn, root crops for storing, etc., will be deter- 
mined by the growth they make this month. 
In addition to keeping them frequently cul- 
tivated and free from weeds, a little extra 
encouragement in the way of a side dressing 
with nitrate of soda or some other highly 
nitrogenous material, such as sheep manure 
or tankage, will help them to become well 
established, and lay the foundation for big 
results in September. Celery especially 
should be kept growing rapidly. It requires 
an abundance of water, and even if you 
can't water the whole garden give the celery 
plants enough to keep them from getting 
very thirsty, if you want to make sure of 
your supply of thick crisp stalks for Thanks- 
giving. 

Don't Fall Down on Your Orders! 

GET in your fall orders on time. Next 
month is planting time, and you should 
be just as busy now in planning what you are 
going to put in, and in getting off your orders 
for it, as you are in February or March in 
getting ready for your spring planting. First 
of all there are the fall bulbs— (it seems now 
that the Dutch stocks will arrive in due sea- 
son). Are you familiar with the finest of the 
Darwin and Breeder Tulips, such as Dream, Re- 
membrance, and Rev. H. Ewbank? If not, give 
yourself a surprise next spring! And the hardy 
Lilies — one of the most neglected, in proportion 
to their real value and permanency, of all the 
classes of hardy flowers. And if you've been 
putting off, spring after spring, the planting of 
those ornamental shrubs you decided years ago 
to get, now's your chance! 




THE PATRIOTIC GARDEN 

CRQP CONSERVATION & DISTRIBUTION 

He also Fights who helps a Fighter Fight (h hoover) 






Authorized Statement of trie Assistant Secretary of Agriculture 



THE home garden campaign of 1917 ought to go down in 
history as one of the most remarkable responses ever 
made by the American people to a request from their 
Government — the request to help win the War by growing 
food. But the mere growing of food is only part of the bat- 
tle. There is no use planting foodstuffs if the planting is not 
followed up by intelligent cultivation and harvesting. There 
is no use harvesting food unless there is efficient handling 
and preserving of it. And there is no use expending energy 
on any of these things, unless there is efficient marketing. 

I think that by now the American people, broadly speaking, 
understand pretty well how to plant gardens and how to culti- 
vate them. They are beginning to learn how to can and dry 
foods for winter use, but they still have a lot to learn along this 
line. If they are to conserve the crops of this summer, they 
must dry and can a thousand times more than hitherto — and do 
it more effectively. 

The marketing problem is the most difficult single problem 
of them all. There is no easy solution of it. The one sugges- 
tion which I would like to bring to the mind of every home 



gardener at this time is this — that the elimination of the un- 
necessary or illegitimate middlemen is as vital to the winning 
of the War as is the planting of food; that there may be plenty 
of food in the country and yet the prices may be so high as to 
be prohibitive and productive of the most acute suffering; that 
there is the greatest need for practical cooperation on the part 
of producer and consumer to the end that food produced on the 
farm and garden or manufactured in the factory may reach the 
consumer by the most direct route. The neighborhood com- 
munity store run on a strictly cooperative basis and for service 
alone is a long step toward a solution of these difficulties. We 
have such a neighborhood store in Washington, D. C, and its 
demonstrated success is a splendid sign of the times. 

I hope to see community stores springing up everywhere 
throughout the United States, so that the produce of the 
farm and of the garden, the food of the factory and the 
mill may be distributed to the ultimate consumer for nearly 
the cost of distribution — and no unnecessary waste or profit 
in the process. 

Carl Vrooman. 



Eleventh Hour Opportunity 

"^[OW is practically the last chance for those 
-^ who want to "do their bit" in boost- 
ing this year's food supply. And every- 
thing is in the gardener's favor — the soil is 
warm, mellow, full of fertility; occasional 
showers prevail; seeds sprout with a "pep"; 
plants grow with an energy to mature before 
Jack Frost arrives. 

The only point to guard when making the 
August garden is to be sure that there is suf- 
ficient moisture in the ground for prompt ger- 
mination of seeds, or to sustain the roots of 
transplants. Therefore, as a matter of in- 
surance, water the drills or holes thoroughly, 
before putting seeds or plants into the ground. 

Grow Your Own Fertility for Next Year 

PHE time to sow cover crops (which will put 
■*■ humus into the soil for next spring) is 
when the free-growing crops now standing 
and which will die with the first fall frost, are 
too big to be cultivated any longer." If the 
soil is very lacking in vegetable matter it will 
be a good plan to sow a mixture of several 
species of cover crop, so as to get the most 
possible in a given time. A good combina- 
tion for the vegetable garden is buckwheat, 
rye, and crimson clover. The first will start 
even in hot weather but will be killed by early 
frost. In the meantime the others will have 
grown enough to catch the falling leaves of 
the buckwheat. The clover may die during 
the winter but the rye will prevent loss of the 
leaves and will live. Indeed, here is its chief 



disadvantage: it may be allowed to live too 
long. It must be dug or plowed under when 
only a few inches high. In sowing, just 
scatter the seed broadcast among the plants 
immediatelv after the last cultivation. It 




Timely and effective poster issued by the office of Food 
Administration. It tells the story convincingly 



will not grow enough to injure the regular 
crops before harvest. Then the stems of 
these crops should be hauled to the compost 
pile and burned. 

Thin the Ranks 

A LL root crops sown this month must be 
•*■*• given every chance to grow easily. 
Thinning of the row is the most effective fac- 
tor in helping the final result. No other single 
factor will more decidedly retard development 
than letting seedlings stand crowded — they 
then jostle and push each other instead of at- 
tending to their own business of growing. 
Thin early; giving three to four inches apart 
for the plants left. This distance is standard 
for all root crops sown in August. Early thin- 
ning means early maturing. 

Prepare Now for Bigger Crops in 1918 

AS SOON as space becomes available in 
**■ different parts of the garden, sow quick 
"cover crops" such as rye or vetch or rape. 
They'll keep down the weeds now, and 
— dug under in either late fall or spring — will 
enrich the soil with humus, that one dominant 
factor for fertility counting before all else 
that can be put into the soil. Make it a 
point to boost the 1918 berry crop by growing 
some berries of your own. Throughout Aug- 
ust and September strawberry plants of 
various kinds may be set out and they will 
bear crops next summer. There should be 
room for currants, gooseberries and a straw- 
berry bed in every kitchen garden. 



10 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



August, 1917 



THE number of things that can still 
grow from seed to edible size is really 
surprising. Watch just two points: Sow 
the seeds promptly and sow varieties 
adapted to the season. This means quick- 
maturing types, and since the same 
weather conditions prevail during early fall as 
during early spring, in most cases, the extra 
early spring sorts will again serve their purpose. 
Two kinds of gardens you can still have: 
(i) from seeds and (2) from plants. If you 
can, persuade your neighbors to let you have 
beet, lettuce, kohlrabi, or any other plants 
which they arenow" thinning "from July plant- 
ing. Most seed stores are prepared to supply 
plants of late celery and cabbage during the 
early part of the month. But if a garden 
from plants is out of the question, by all means 
start one with seeds and here is what you can 
grow: 

Planting Orders for the Month 

Beans. Where the first average frost does 
not occur until the last week in September, 
Bountiful or either of the Yellow Six Weeks 
Beans will produce pods from seeds sown up to 
August 10th. With September 21st as the 
frost date, depend on Hopkins' Strain of 
Round Podded Red Valentine to furnish pods 
in 48 to 52 days. But you must sow not later 
than August 5th (latitude of New York) or 
arrange to protect the plants. By placing 
rows eighteen inches apart, quite a space may 
be enclosed with bags or burlap. Thus pro- 
tected, the approach of heavy frosts need not 
menace the late started beans. 

Beets. Plant more rows at once. Not 
only do the young, "thinned out" seedlings 
furnish delicious greens, but varieties like 
Faust's Early Crimson (which is a white beet) 
and special strains of Crosby's Egyptian will 
form roots two to two and one-half inches in 
diameter by the end of September from seeds 



FOOD CROPS 

That You Can Sow Now 



sown during the first week of this month. Be 
sure to press the seeds firmly into contact with 
the soil by walking over the rows. Though 
beets are really quite hardy and stand consid- 
erable frost, pull them for winter storage, 
before the centre leaves of the tops freeze, to 
ensure keeping quality. 

Carrots. Both Chantenay and Oxheart 
will grow to good size if seeds are sown 
promptly early in the month and the seedlings 
are "thinned out" promptly. No other 
single factor will retard longer development 
than crowding in the row. 

Other "root crops." Plant kohlrabi, rad- 
ishes, and turnips. Early White or Purple 
Vienna kohlrabi are ready for use or storing 
in sixty days from date of sowing seeds. They 
stand considerable frost and may be left out- 
doors until the middle of October. 

Radishes. The early sorts are again the 
order of the day. Scarlet Globe, Icicle, and 
Rapid Red will develop roots fit for use in 25 
to 35 days and will retain their crispness for 
some time. Make no attempt to store these 
radishes since they are not of sufficiently solid 
texture to keep well. But by making re- 
peated sowings of 15-foot rows during the first 
two weeks of the month, you may enjoy these 
delicacies up to hard frosts. 

Turnips are one of the most profitable crops 
to sow now. Either of the Milan varieties 
or Snowball will reach edible size in 45 days. 
But for winter storage Purple-top Strap-leaf 
is better, since it is firmer. However, since it 
requires at least 65 days to reach good size, it 
must be sown very early in the month. It 
will grow right up to severe cold weather, 



when it should be pulled and stored along 
with carrots, beets, and kohlrabi. 

Kale and spinach are two cold-loving 
plants for "greens" that will thrive in 
the garden until after snow flies. Sow 
seeds in rows, which makes it ever so much 
easier to cultivate the crop, than the old-fash- 
ioned method of "broadcasting" the seeds. 
Dwarf German or Scotch Kale will develop 
superb plants by the end of October from 
seeds sown up to August 15th. 

Spinach. Any kind, excepting New Zea- 
land, will reach full size from seeds sown any 
time this month. 

Peas. You may hope to gather luscious 
peas if you start with either Pedigree Extra 
Early, Market Surprise, or any other first early. 
Sown in double rows, four inches apart, with 
eighteen inches between the rows, Pedigree 
Extra Early needs no support, though Mar- 
ket Surprise will be better off if provided with 
brush or strings. The latter matured in 53 
days this spring. 

Lettuce thrives to perfection during the cool 
months of early fall. Either Black Seeded 
Tennisball,Wayahead, or Naumburger (among 
the butterheads) will form fine heads by the 
end of September from seeds sown early; 
among the crispheads, Crisp-as-Ice beats all 
for hardiness. We have seen this thrive out- 
doors, under a covering of dry leaves, right 
up to Thanksgiving. The thing of paramount 
importance in connection with lettuce is 
promptly thinning the seedlings to stand four 
inches apart when three to four inches tall and 
of taking out every other plant as soon as they 
begin to crowd in the row. 

Directions as to time given in these columns apply 
generally to the latitude of New York as a standard. 
Except where specifically otherwise mentioned allow 
a difference of about a week earlier or later for 
each hundred miles south or north, as the case 
may be. 



YOU may expect a second crop of 
slugs on the pear foliage. If one 
appeared in your neighborhood during 
June, it will be due about the first week 
in August. We mean the ones that 
were green until full grown, then turned 
yellow when they shed their last skins before 
going into the ground to pupate. The flies 
from the first brood emerge in about two weeks, 
lay eggs on the leaf and die. The slugs of the 
second brood hatch in about two weeks and, 
if allowed, reach maturity in about four or 
five weeks. If not convenient to use arsenate 
of lead (which possibly you can't buy by the 
time this appears) — an ounce to two gallons 
of water — lime dust, pyrethrum powder or 
even road dust will make them uncomfortable 
enough to drop to the ground where if ex- 
pectant chickens are at hand they will help 
reduce the H. C. L. 



ic Wormy quinces are made so by the cod- 
ling moth larva which also makes wormy ap- 
ples. Spray with lime-sulphur wash (an 
ounce to two gallons of water) when the fruit 
is half grown. Of course, the spring spraying 
is more important. But it's now too late 
for that for this year! 

if Those little flute-like holes set close 
together on grape, raspberry and other canes 
that you perhaps saw late last summer, or until 
this spring, were made by the beautiful pale 
green or snow tree cricket which makes so 
much noise in shrubbery on warm summer 
evenings. Neither the adults nor the larvae 



ENEMY ASSAULTS 

You Must Repulse 



are troublesome because they eat plant lice 
and other insects. Their egg-laying habit 
weakens and injures the canes somewhat. 
If seriously abundant, cut off and burn the 
canes during winter or early spring. 

it If there are only a few cabbage worms 
— the green velvety fellows — on your cabbage, 
cauliflower, and related plants, you needn't 
worry because their parasites will relieve you 
of their attentions. But if they are very 
numerous treat them to paris green (1 03.) 
and whale oil soap (4 oz.), in water (6 gal.) 
any time up to the formation of the head. 
Hellebore one part by measure to three parts 
of flour, or lime dust is good to shake over the 
plants while still wet with dew. Some people 
use slug shot. 

if Cabbage aphis or lice increase genera- 
tion after generation all summer and fall. 
Better see if any of the little fellows are on the 
plants (cauliflower, brussels sprouts, etc.) 
this month as there will be many times more 
in a few weeks unless attended to now. 
"Black leaf 40" or other nicotine preparation 
such as aphine according to directions on the 
package but with. 'two ounces of whale oil 
soap added to each three or four gallons of 
water may be used to good effect. 



ir Melons and cucumbers are very 
shallow rooted plants. They send their 
roots long distances laterally only a 
few inches below the surface and fully 
as far out from the "hill" as the vines 
extend. With ' this fact in mind the 
method of handling them is obvious: use a 
scuffle hoe or a garden rake frequently but 
no deeper than the surface half inch of soil. 
Do this every week from the time the 
vines begin to "run" until they cover the 
ground, all the time keeping just out of 
touch with the vines themselves. The less 
the vines are touched or moved, the better, 
as they are then less likely to be injured or to 
become victims of disease and insects. Other 
things being equal this method will produce 
finer quality fruit than any other method. 
It is distinctly the home or amateur practise 
which the commercial melon grower cannot 
approach, much less equal. 



if Borers in apple trees are of two prin- 
cipal kinds: the "flat-headed" which may be 
found in any part of the trunk and the main 
branches, which reaches maturity in one year 
and which feeds mainly just beneath the 
bark; and the "round-headed" which is usu- 
ally found mostly near or just below the sur- 
face of the ground, lives three years, during the 
second in deep burrows though at first feeding 
in the sapwood arid the inner bark, and lastly 
pupating just beneath the bark. Both 
species are very destructive especially to trees 
not kept clean around their trunks and t© 
failing trees. Clean cultivation is a partial 



August, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



11 



and fairly satisfactory preventive, but cutting 
the worms out with a sharp knife or a chisel 
is a sure cure though in serious infestations a 
"kill or cure" remedy so far as the tree is con- 
cerned. After cutting, the wounds should be 
swabbed with concentrated lime-sulphur wash 
or with an alkaline wash made of soap, water, 
and caustic potash made into a creamy liquid. 
The trunks should be swabbed as far up as the 
lowest limbs or farther. 

if Blackberry and raspberry plants die 
mysteriously, you say. No disease to be 
seen. Perhaps it's the raspberry root-borer. 
Notice whether the lower parts of the stems 
and the roots are bored out and if the new 



shoots at the crown are girdled. A few plants 
will tell the story. Nothing to be done but to 
dig and burn the plants at once. 

tAt Borers in the quince bushes! Most 
likely the same as in the apple trunks and 
limbs. The same remedy will apply — dig 
them out and paint with concentrated lime 
sulphur wash or caustic potash and soap in a 
creamy solution. 

~k Where radishes, mustard, cress, cabbage 
or other plants of the mustard family have been 
growing early in the season or last season use 
carrots, beets, celery, or some other crop of a dif- 
ferent plant family. The mustard family is sub- 



ject to a disease called "club root," which lives 
in the soil and often does serious damage w 7 hen 
plants of the family follow each other closely. 

ir If you plan to save seeds of beans and 
peas for next year's planting, be sure to fumi- 
gate the shelled seed with carbon bisulphide 
to kill any weevils that may be present. 
These little beetles live over from year to year 
in the ripe seed, having developed from eggs 
laid in the green seed. The best way to fumi- 
gate is to place the seed in an air-tight recep- 
tacle not quite full, then to pour carbon bi- 
sulphide in a saucer placed on top of the seed 
and then to close the receptacle tight for 
two or three hours. 



Cashing-In the War Gardens 



F. F. ROCKWELL 



ORGANIZATIONS BEGUN TO SPEED UP PRODUCTION MUST NOW BE UTILIZED TO PREVENT WASTE OF THE 

PRODUCT— THE PROBLEM OF LOCAL OVER-PRODUCTION 



EACH passing week seems to indicate 
more clearly that the war will finally 
terminate in a gigantic struggle for 
adequate food supplies; that the 
eventual issue will be settled by the field and 
garden. It was with a realization of this pos- 
sibility that the "war garden" movement was 
given such an impetus in the early summer. 
Now the fruits of all the earnest endeavor 
which that agitation stimulated are begin- 



own eyes I would not have found it possible 
to believe that such a very high percentage 
would be as well planted and as well cared 
for as they have been. Unlike most other 
"waves of popular enthusiasm," this garden 
movement seems to have had no recession; 
I believe, simply because it has given the 
people a chance to do what they really would 
have liked to do before. The vacant lot 
campaign and similar enterprises have merely 



along finely, and a great deal more is going 
to be produced than it would have been rea- 
sonable to predict at the beginning. 

Are We to Fall Down Then? 

A LL this, in view of the present world 
■^*- food situation, is very cheering — except 
to those who from previous experience know 
what is likely to happen when nature i as been 
generous in giving big crops! 




Avoid waste by cooperative distribution Utilize existing organizations like the Garden Clubs, the Boy Scouts, etc 



ning to mature, and we find ourselves con- 
fronted with the equally important problem 
of utilizing them to the fullest possible extent. 
During the last few weeks, in connection 
with the work of establishing model demon- 
stration "war gardens" in a number of the 
largest Eastern cities, I have had occasion 
to see literally thousands of back yard and 
vacant lot gardens. If I hadn't seen with my 



opened the door of opportunity to those 
who were waiting to push through! In the 
majority of cities, the number of plots avail- 
able for general distribution were "over sub- 
scribed" almost as soon as announced. While 
some of these gardeners will drop out, never- 
theless there is every indication that most of 
them are going to stick- The later plantings, 
in spite of the bad early season, are coming 



Those who do know realize that the per- 
centage of waste, especially in such things 
as perishable garden vegetables, usually is 
tremendous. Not infrequently it amounts to 
fifty or even seventy-five per cent, of in- 
dividual crops! The small vegetable gar- 
den, in which from twenty to fifty per cent, of 
the stuff raised does not go to waste, is the 
exception to the general rule. To permit 



12 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



August. 1917 



any such waste this year will be nothing short 
of criminal — and yet that is just what is 
bound to happen unless steps are taken in 
each individual community to do something 
beforehand to prevent! it. No Government 
Commission can do this work for us — any more 
than it could have done the work of getting 
all these little gardens started. The Depart- 
ment of Agriculture is doing all it can in the 
way of educating people to utilize the surplus 
products of their gardens, just as it did in the 
spring in telling people how to plant. 

Now, just as the work of planting had to be 
taken up and pushed as an emergency neces- 
sity by all kinds of local organizations and 
clubs, so the task of utilizing to the full the 
things that have been grown must be directed 
and handled in the same way. 

Whether or not we are to cash-in at par 
on what our war gardens have produced, or 
to suffer a loss that is needless, and in the 
aggregate for the whole country tremendous, 
will depend upon the efforts of a few individ- 
uals in each community. Every reader of 
this magazine should immediately appoint 
himself or herself (and from what I have seen 
during the last few months, I know that the 
women are doing a very big half of the emer- 
gency garden work!) a committee of one to 
see to it immediately that the garden club 
food committee, Woman's Aid Committee, 
Chamber of Commerce, or. whatever organiza- 
tion has had charge of the "food gardens" 
work in his or her locality, at once give care- 
ful consideration to the question of pre- 
venting waste. 

First Aid to Wasteful Gardeners 

nPHE waste almost universal in small gar- 
*■ dens is generally due to the fact that the 
gardener does not know how to prevent it, 
or that the general overproduction of some 
particular vegetable is so great that it will 
really not pay to attempt to do anything. 
The latter reason is not likely to hold good this 
year. It is up to those in each community 
who do know better to attend to it and, through 
proper organization, see that nothing goes to 
waste merely because the grower lacks infor- 
mation as to how to conserve it. The efforts 
of individuals in this direction will be good as 
far as they go, but they will not go far enough. 
In the following paragraph there are four 
definite suggestions, one or more of which 




Packages neatly put up will find a ready sale at all times, 
even during gluts 

can be utilized to advantage in every city or 
town where extra gardens have been planted 
this year. Before taking up these suggestions 
in detail, however, emphasis must be laid on 
the importance of getting this work started 
immediately. MoSt gardens were planted 
late this year and will be at the height of their 
bearing season for the next few weeks. If 
we have hot, dry weather things will mature 



and "go by" very quickly; therefore, every 
day counts. Immediate action now will save 
the day in harvesting, just as it did last 
spring in planting! Will the people rise to 
this occasion as they did to that? 

In every town or city there should be at 
least one organization in a position to take 
up and push one or more of the following 
plans. But, as is always the case in such 
matters, it will take a strong push by some in- 
dividual to get the organization started. So 
either do it yourself or keep after some one 
who can until something is started somewhere! 

An Exchange for Every Group of War Gardens 

nPHE spirit of cooperation and the idea of 
A doing all that can be done to help and 
encourage the individual in gardening must 
not stop with the planting. 

When there is one garden plot in which the 
owner has planted more beans than he can 
possibly use himself at one time, while fifty 
feet away, in another plot, there are heads of 
lettuce threatening to go to seed because the 
person growing them cannot eat them as,fast 
as they mature; and, in a third, perhaps, rad- 
ishes and turnips will have to be pulled out 
and thrown away if they are not soon made 
use of — under these conditions, certainly the 
common-sense, practical thing at hand is to 
establish some agency for trade and exchange 
between the different plot owners. 

As to what would be the best way to ar- 
range the details of this exchange will depend 
upon the conditions to be met in each particu- 
lar place. Most of the war gardeners do 
their work in the evenings and on Saturday 
afternoons. A large table made out of plain 
inch boards, and supported by rough 2 x 4's 
on which to display produce for sale, is all the 
equipment really necessary. Some near-by 
merchant, however, will probably be only too 
glad to furnish one of the large advertising 
umbrellas, such as are used on open market 
and truck wagons, to afford some protection 
from rain and sun. It would not be neces- 
sary to have this "exchange" open for busi- 
ness more than a few hours a week; say, be- 
tween five and six Tuesday and Thursday 
afternoons and from four to six on Saturday. 
The complications of delivery and a credit 
system should, of course, be avoided; those 
bringing the vegetables would state the price 
at which they were to be sold. In some 
places, it might be desirable to charge a slight 
commission, but, as a rule, this would prob- 
ably not be necessary, as it should be possible 
to get volunteers to take charge of the ex- 
change table for the few hours a week required. 
Either a credit slip or' a receipt memorandum 
might be given for any of the vegetables 
brought in, but they would* not be paid for 
until sold, as any that were not disposed of 
would be, of course, the grower's loss, just as 
though they had remained in his garden plot. 
There should be a simple set of rules covering 
the requirements as to whether the vegetables 
need be washed or not, limiting the amount 
any one could leave and so forth. 

The main object of the exchange is to pre- 
vent good vegetables from going to waste ! What- 
ever method in any particular case seems to 
be the best for accomplishing this purpose is 
the one to use. 

Enlist the Boy Scouts for the Job! 

ANOTHER "channel of distribution" 
*^" available which could undoubtedly be 
used to advantage in many cases is through 
the boy scouts. They could be employed in 
connection with an exchange like that men- 



tioned above, or without it. These boys have 
already done yeoman service in many ways 
with the war crisis, and a good part of their 
training has been that they have been led 
to realize that there are just as important 
things for them to do at home as if they were 
at the front. They have been of help in the 
production of food supplies, first in working 
gardens, later in policing others, and here 
they can be of assistance in the equally im- 




As a patriotic gift or presentation basket surely good fresh 
vegetables will be quite welcome 

portant work of distribution and preventing 
food waste. Their assistance here could 
consist in ascertaining where available sur- 
pluses existed, in taking orders and in de- 
livery. The "organization" needed would be 
some central point, through which they 
could find out what vegetables were available 
and where they could be obtained. If the 
whole matter were in charge of a scout master, 
he could make it part of the boys' work for 
them to get this information for themselves. 

A " Dry What You Can and Can What You Can't" 
Club! 

'TPHE lines suggested above are to prevent 
■*■ vegetables from going to waste in the 
garden. Equally important are the steps to 
be taken to prevent them from going to waste 
in the home. Your vacant lot garden club or 
other organization should arrange, first of all, 
for an educational campaign on the proper 
ways for saving for winter use all the surplus 
things that can be grown in the garden, or 
that can be bought cheaply. If it is possible, 
get up a meeting on drying or — de-hydrating, 
and on canning of vegetables. If you do not 
know whom to get, ask your county agent or 
write to the readers' service of The Garden 
Magazine. A good lecture with demonstra- 
tions on this particular subject will usually 
"start things" a great deal more quickly than 
any number of leaflets or circulars. But 
such a talk, no matter how good or practical 
it may be, is only a start. This work should 
be taken up and pushed by a club started for 
the purpose, or by a committee of your local 
garden club. This committee should not 
be restricted to furnishing information or 
inspiration, it must actually work in whole- 
sale purchasing of supplies. Such an organ- 
ization could operate a community drying 
plant. 



August, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



13 



Work for the Red Cross Also 

/^ANNING work can be carried farther 
^ than in helping out individuals. Some 
medium for exchange in canned garden prod- 
ucts as well as for those fresh from the soil 
may well be established. The local Woman's 
Exchange would, in most cases, be the logical 
agency for doing this work. But there is an- 
other line of effort which would also be well 
worth looking into. 

In working for the comfort of the men at the 
front, we are t sometimes likely to forget the 
distress of the women who stay behind. In 
every Red Cross organization there are prob- 
ably members who would rather can than sew. 
Vegetables canned ordried now, and sold at cost 
next winter where they will be sorely needed, 



will be just as much a contribution to the 
cause as will be the making of bandages for 
the front. In addition to this, there are the 
things which will be needed for the Red Cross 
Hospitals themselves, and which can be had 
better and cheaper if supplied by the members 
than if they were bought. 

Personal Pointers for Conservation 

TN ADDITION to these essential commun- 
•"■ ity activities, each person should not for- 
get to do his or her personal "bit" to help in 
the general campaign for food conservation. 
If you have a garden, remember to begin using 
your vegetables early — and also to can or. 
dry them before they get old and tough ! 

Make your preparations well in advance 
for drying or de-hydrating all the vegetables 



that you can. For information as to methods 
see last month's Garden Magazine. A 
practical and economical "evaporator" of 
family size may be had for a few dollars. 
While small enough for one person, the small- 
est size is large enough for several persons to 
use together, as it will be require^ occasionally. 
For society or club an outfit of larger size 
can be bought. 

In addition to taking care of your personal 
requirements, remember that the success of 
the other suggestions contained in this article 
depends upon each individual doing his or her 
part for the common good. If it is necessary 
for you to contribute, for instance, a couple 
of hours a week to the Garden Club Vegetable 
Exchange, in order to make it a success, don't 
be a slacker! 



Water to Increase Garden Efficiency ^3; ™£ D 



IRRIGATION SYSTEMS THAT ENSURE THE GREATEST YIELD OF CROPS 

UNDER CONTROL 



WHEN Mr. Edgar McFarland in Ten- 
nessee can produce enough vegeta- 
bles to feed his entire family during 
the year from a piece of ground 25 x 
100 feet by the use of a $12 irrigation system; 
and the Seabrook farms in New Jersey can raise 
consistently 500 or more bushels of potatoes to 
the acre; and Belden & Sons of Massachu- 
setts can increase their onion yield from 300 to 
800 bushels an acre by the aid of irrigation, the 
rest of us can hardly ignore the thought that 
water is the limiting factor in the production of 
crops, not only in the semi-arid but in all 
regions. The use of water to irrigate growing 
plants is nothing more or less than a good in- 
surance policy, and it is needed perhaps more 
this year than ever, because with a possible 
world's food shortage staring us in the face we 




Large and small standpipes ensure surface irrigation. The 
larger one serves as a head. Water is distributed through 
the openings in the smaller one 

cannot afford to have a crop failure. Every 
one naturally feels that a greater acreage is 
necessary. But though more acres make for 
more food, yet without sufficient water more 
acreage will be of little value. 

Within the last few years the manufacturing 
industries have given to the tiller of the soil all 
kinds of devices for the improvement and 
betterment of the land. Efficiency of machin- 



ery is the keynote to success and to-day the 
grower is better supplied with tools of high 
quality than ever before in the history of the 
civilized world. 

Yet, with the great development of all the 
devices for the cultivation of the land, with all 
the means at our disposal for the increased out- 
put of our farms, there still remains the one 
great limiting factor -water. The plant does not 
always suffer for lack of water, but its growth 
is checked, and the maximum yield is not re- 
ceived. 

The point to which this need for water is felt 
may or may not be entirely fatal. It may 
not reach the acute stage of drought in which 
growth is entirely checked and if continued 
long enough fatally, but it ranges from 
the slight need of the /plant for water up to 
the acute need or absolute necessity for it 
in order for the plant to live. 

It is generally known that there are certain 
well-defined regions, of which vast areas are 
found in many parts of the West, namely in 
Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Utah, Cali- 
fornia, and a few other places where extra 
water supply is an absolute necessity for the 
growth of plants. And it is taken as a matter 
of course that some way of applying it is 
installed. But seldom do people in the more 
humid areas suspect that in their own com- 
munity the yields could be materially in- 
creased by the judicious application of water 
at the proper time. Talk to any grower in 
the eastern or Middle West where the rain- 
fall varies from 40 to 60 inches of precipita- 
tion for the year, and he will say, "we 
don't need irrigation in our section, we are 
especially blessed with plenty of natural rain- 
fall. Our crops do well and produce abund- 
antly." While we agree that certain regions 
are especially blessed with 40 or 50 inches of 
rainfall in a year, the question remains — does 
this vast amount of precipitation come at the 
proper time every year? 

It takes but little persuasion to convince the 
grower in a semi-arid region where the rainfall 
is 8 to 20 inches a year that water is necessary 
for the production of a good crop. It is, how- 
ever, more difficult to convince the grower in 
a region with 40 inches of rainfall that artificial 
watering may be necessary. 

Though the great problem of soil moisture 
is in its evolutionary stage and each year sees 



IMPORTANCE OF APPLYING WATER 



different theories and ideas for the conserving 
of the natural soil moisture, yet it can be said, 
without a shadow of a doubt, that the applica- 
tion of water to the land is beneficial in every 
section of the country some of the time and in 
some section of the country all of the time. 

Just what the early history of irrigation is I 
am unable to say, but we read accounts of the 
great crops that have been produced in the old 
countries of Egypt and China where the most 
primitive methods of applying water to the 
soil still exist. If I am rightly informed the 
early use of water in the form of irrigation be- 
gan in this country in the early 'forties. If my 
information is authentic Brigham Young, the 
founder of irrigation in the United States when 
he led a small band of 147 followers to the 
region which is now known as Utah, and 
encouraging his followers to be farmers said: 




There are several patterns of sprinklers. They may be at- 
tached to moveable surface hose or to underground perma- 
nent pipes 

"spread the water out upon the land and you 
will have bountiful crops." To-day there are 
many systems of irrigation in use and many 
variations of each system to suit the different 
sections of the country. 

The principal methods are: (1) open ditch; 
(2) overhead system, divided into the sprinkler 
system, the spray nozzle system, the spray 
line; (3) the surface nozzle sprinkler and side 



14 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



August, 1917 




A strong spray machine like this is for use where city- 
pressure is available. The nozzles rotate and distribution 
is over a large area 

line sprinkler; (4) subirrigation; (5) Thompson 
underground conveyed surface irrigation; 

(6) sunken bed or check system of irrigation; 

(7) raised bed irrigation. 

Open ditch method. The open ditch method 
is perhaps the most primitive method. Its 
construction is simple and consists only in the 
digging of a ditch to convey the water to the 
place where it is wanted. Two kinds of ditches 
are usuallyspoken of in thismethod, namely the 
main ditch and the laterals. The main ditch 
carries the water from the reservoir or well, 
while the smaller ditches or furrows which lead 
from the main ditch take water to the crops 
that are being watered. This system was first 
used on all crops that were planted in rows 
such as potatoes, sugar beets, corn, fruit, and 
vegetables. The open ditch method is still in 
use and extensively employed. 

The chief trouble in furrow irrigation is to 
divide the water in the head ditch equally 
among a large number of rows. 

The sprinkler system. Some few years ago 
this system of irrigation was brought into 
prominence by Mr. Skinner and to-day the 
Skinner system of irrigation is known to al- 
most every one interested in the application of 
water to plants. In brief the Skinner system 
aims to apply the water to the soil in the form 
of a fine spray, directed from specially designed 
nozzles above the plant. The water falls 
gently to the ground and in the same manner 
as rain. This method has met with the ap- 
proval of many growers and at present exten- 
sive areas are under this method of artificial 
watering with excellent result 

There are several modifications of the 
sprinkler system to meet the needs of different 
conditions. The overhead system is applicable 
to commercial vegetable gardens, but does not 
make an artistic feature in a beautiful flower 
garden or on a well kept lawn. To meet the 
requirement of the last named condition there 



has sprung into ex- 
i s t e n c e a most 
unique and 
highly effective 
under g round 
surface s p r i n - 
kler. This sprin- 
kler is for use on 
lawns and flower gardens. 
It consists of permanent wa- 
ter pipes which are laid under 
the ground and at given uniform 
distances sprinkler nozzles are brought 
to the surface of the ground. These 
nozzles throw a cone-shaped spray and are 
spaced so that the spray from one nozzle will 
meet that of the other and thus all of the sur- 
face of the soil is reached by the spray. The 
distance apart the sprayers must be placed 
depends upon the water pressure. The liries of 
pipes run parallel and several sprinklers are 
attached to the same line so that all may be 
turned on at one time. This method is, I think, 
unexcelled for the uniform watering of lawns. 
The nozzles being placed at the surface of the 
ground, they are not visible and do not inter- 
fere with the mowing of the grass. 




A very practical way of using the nozzle line system in 
enclosed gardens. The fixture is not conspicuous and is out 
of the way 

A different form of the sprinkler system is 
seen when enclosed gardens are to be watered; 
the pipes are placed along the wall and not 
under the ground and instead of nozzles which 
throw a cone shaped spray there are small holes 
bored in the pipe to distribute the water. In 
some sections of the West notably southern 
California, a modification of this permanent 
system is in vogue. This consists of a short 
pipe one half inch in diameter and eight to ten 




feet in length in which a number of small holes 
are made. The pipe is then raised six to eight 
inches from the ground. One end is fastened 
up while a hose is placed on the opposite end. 
This is quite effective for large 
lawns and is preferable to the 
round sprinklers. 

The Thompson system. The 
Thompson system of irrigation is 
in use to a large extent in southern 
California. Themethodmighteasily 
be called the underground con- 
veyed surface irrigation 
system. The name is at 
once clear when the 
method is described. 

Cement tile are the 
conveying agents. These 
tile vary in size, deter- 
mined by the amount of 
water which it is neces- 
sary to conduct. At the 
end of the row of tile is a 
head of water, held in a concrete basin. This 
basin is either round or square, and is usually 
about four feet in diameter or four feet square. 
The height varies from four to five feet. From 
this basin which serves as a head for the water, 
the tile is laid underground the entire length 
of the field. Along this pipe line at varying 
intervals are smaller cement standpipes one 
foot in diameter which come to the surface of 
the ground and extend about twelve inches 
above it. The distance apart of these smaller 
standpipes is determined by the crop and the 
volume of water which it is necessary to use. 
In an orchard they are usually spaced the 
same distance the trees are set, and are 
located at the ends of the rows of trees. 
In garden irrigation the distance is deter- 
mined by the crop. 

This system is operated by the use of four 
valves one on each side of the small standpipe 
and the water is controlled and regulated by 
the opening and closing of these valves. This 
method is satisfactory from' certain stand- 
points: (1) the water is conveyed under- 
ground and no loss or leakage of water is en- 
countered, (2) the water is more evenly dis- 
tributed, (3) there is less loss and conse- 
quently a greater area of land can be irrigated 
by the same amount of water, (4) the control 
of the flow of water is easily and effectively 
regulated so that the operator can turn it on 
and let it run all night without watching. (5) 
The stream of water is even, regular, and uni- 
form. (6) the water can be carried to different 
levels. 

Sunken bed irrigation. This system is in 
vogue in many sections of California, and I see 
no reason why it is not adapted to other regions 
where the need of water is felt. As the name 
implies, the crops are planted in narrow beds 
surrounded with a shallow ridge of earth. 
The ridge prevents the water from spreading 
all around and the water can be turned in 
when it is needed in any bed. This system is 
really nothing more than flooding the soil, 
but regulated to any degree by the grower. 
Vegetable crops do the best under this form 
of irrigation, and it is not often employed on a 
large scale. 




Method of laying underground pipe for a permanent lawn system 
where outside or city pressure is available 



System in vogue when pressure is had from head in large cement tank. Distribution is through side holes 

in smaller pipes 




>Bearberry spreads over the foreground of this bank. It is a rapid grower on sandy soils fully exposed to the sun 



Native Evergreens Suitable for Ground-Covers 

EDWIN H. COSTICH, to 

SUGGESTING NEW USES FOR MANY PLANTS WELL KNOWN IN THE WILD, YET RARELY TO BE SEEN IN GARDENS 



IN THESE days of slogans voicing the 
sentiment that we should "Use American 
Made" goods, it seems a fine opportunity 
to apply the idea to our gardens, and 
incidentally to get gardening folks acquainted 
with our native plants. And as ground-cover 
plants are coming to be more and more recog- 
nized as very important to good gardening 
and landscape work, it would not seem out 
of place to begin with them in developing a 
wider use of our native material. 

Garden makers generally realize the need of 
more material to serve as covers to carpet 
the ground, something that will take the place 
of grass and cover that shaded bare space 
under the trees, that will clothe the grassy 
patches and join the shrub groups together. 

And evergreen ground-covers are econom- 
ical. When once planted they require prac- 
tically no attention and many of them will 
thrive where it has been almost impossible 
to establish any vegetation before. Planted 
between the shrubs of the border they elimi- 
nate the necessity of hoeing, which is quite an 
important item in the upkeep of any garden; 
covering a washed-out bank they will do away, 
with the inevitable gouged and furrowed ap- 
pearance, and the work of filling in after each 
rain. 



The plants noted here are primarily ground- 
cover plants, that is, plants that do not com- 
monly exceed two to two and one half feet 
in height. Being evergreens, they include 
both broad-leaved and coniferous plants. 
Many of the species mentioned, though native, 
are not ordinarily obtainable in our own 
nurseries (except from a few specialists in 
native plant material); although they are ade- 
quately appreciated by the foreign trade; as our 
nurserymen wake up to their opportunities 
these plants will be more generally grown. 
Meanwhile, we can go to the woods, pine 
barrens and swampy places and collect them 
for ourselves. They will repay all the time 
and money expended on them by their charm- 
ing and delicate simplicity and their adapta- 
bility to our gardens. 

Presenting these plants as ground-covers is 
perhaps putting them in a new role. They have 
heretofore been considered, wheneverthey have 
been considered at all, as rock garden sub- 
jects. But that should not preclude their use 
as cover plants. Many of the plants described 
below have not been tried out in this way, and 
the experimenter may look forward to a good 
deal of enjoyment in testing them. There are 
several (as Arctostaphylos, Taxus, and Juni- 
perus) that will undoubtedly produce desired 

15 



results in a shorter time than some of the 
smaller, slower growing kinds, but each one 
has some particular merit peculiar to itself 
that makes it a valuable addition to the list 
of our worth-while garden plants. 

The Big Heath Family 

PHE heath family is especially rich in ever- 
•*■ green ground-covers contributing at least 

seventeen species native of the northeastern 

states and eastern Canada. 

Bearberry or Deerfeed (Arctostaphylos 
Uva-ursi) is perhaps the finest of all evergreen 
ground-cover plants for dry, sandy, acid soil. 
Growing wild on the sandy wastes and pine- 
barrens of New Jersey, Long Isand and 
along the shores of Cape Cod, it covers thou- 
sands of acres of cheerless sand with a veritable 
carpet of shining green. The long vine-like 
runners reach out over the ground, and in a 
short time cover it entirely. In the spring 
the inconspicuous pink and white flowers 
can be found hidden among the leaves, and 
later on the crimson berries are very notice- 
able. The Bearberry is used as a cover plant 
on dry banks, under shrubbery, or as an edg- 
ing plant along a border it does admirably. 
If planted in a lime-soil country, it must have 



16 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



AuGTTST, 1917 




Showy Andromeda (Zenobia or Andromeda speciosa) is a 
half evergreen about 2 ft. high with highly attractive white 
flowers. Foliage bluish white 



soil specially prepared, as is the case of nearly 
all ericaceous plants. 

Box Huckleberry (Gaylussacia brachy- 
cera) is a low evergreen shrub with creeping 
branches. The coriaceous leaves somewhat 
resemble those of the common Boxwood. 
This is a remarkably beautiful evergreen, very 
closely related to the Bearberry and a coming 
plant for gardens and rockeries. It is re- 
ported as native in three states and should 
soon be available to our gardens. 

Mountain Cranberry (Vaccinium vitis- 
idaea), a native of Arctic America and south 
through the New England States to Massa- 
chusetts, forms dense, low mats of dark lus- 
trous green. It is especially suited to dry, 
rocky banks. 

Bog Rosemary (Andromeda glaucophylla 
and Andromeda polifolia), besides being good 
cover plants are very showy in flower and the 
glossy whitened underside of the leaves is very 
distinctive. The small pinkish white flowers, 
borne in graceful terminal clusters, are very_ 
attractive. The Andromedas are adapted for 
rockery and border planting. 

Fetter Bush (Leucothoe Catesbaei) is 
one of the few of our native plants that has 
had the recognition it deserved. It, however, 
has never been extensively planted as a ground- 
cover, but more often as a border plant in 
front of Rhododendrons to hide that "leggy" 
appearance of the long stems. The lavender 
and purple autumn and winter coloring of the 
Fetter Bush is in marked contrast to the heavy 
green of other broad-leaved evergreens. 

Sheep Laurel (Kalmia angustifolia), a 
plant seldom more than two feet high, forms 
broad stretches of green covering through the 
woods. It is well worth planting not only for 
the evergreen effect it gives, but also for the 
delicate crimson flowers it produces in June. 

Sand Myrtle (Leiophyllum buxifolium) 
and Labrador Tea (Ledum groenlandicum) 
are very similar in all aspects. They have 
clustered flowers and characteristic rusty 
wool covering of the underside of the leaves. 
Few plants have more delightfully delicate 
flowers. 

Trailing Arbutus (Epigaea repens) and 



the common Wintergreen (Gaultheria pro- 
cumbens) are known to every one but they are 
seldom seen in cultivation. And yet they are 
both low evergreens and are natural cover 
plants. 

Shin Leaf (Pyrola) and the Prince's Pine 
(Chimaphila) are low evergreen herbs nearly 
herbaceous. The flowers of the Shin Leaf 
are particularly showy for so small a plant. 
The variegated leaves of the Prince's Pine 
are remarkably handsome, especially against 
a background of fallen autumn leaves. 

Creeping Snowberry (Chiogenes hispi- 
dula) is a creeping evergreen with very slender 
trailing branches. A very good ground-cover 
but preferably a rock garden plant, where it 
will carpet the rocks and earth very effectively. 

Other Broad-leaved Kinds 

TJ UT not all of the cover plants belong to the 
*-* heath family. The Flowering Moss, 
Pine-Barren Beauty or Pyxie (Pyxidanthera 
barbulata) is a very dainty evergreen creeping 
plant producing delicate white flowers from 
its cushion-like masses. The Southern Galax 
(Galax aphylla) is an evergreen herb distantly 
related to the Pyxie and worthy of being tried 
as a cover plant. It has been used occa- 
sionally in rock garden work, and as an edging 
plant in the woods it has been successfully 
planted on Long Island. 

Every one acquainted with the woods knows 
the Partridge Berry or Squaw Berry 
(Mitchella repens) one of the finest of native 
evergreen cover plants. The shining, round- 
ish, evergreen leaves, often variegated with 
white lines and the crimson berries, are un- 
commonly attractive. The Partridge Berry 
thrives very well under evergreen trees, form- 
ing dense mats. The small, pink flowers are 
not particularly striking but are quite fra- 
grant. 

Crowberry (Empetrum nigrum), a pros- 
trate, spreading heath-like plant, is a pretty 
evergreen said to be best adapted to rock gar- 





Sand Myrtle (Leiophyllum buxifolium) has white flowers; 
leaves are rusty color below 



In winter time evergreen cover plants greatly brighten 
banks and roadways. Andromeda floribunda and A. polifolia 



den planting but will thrive vigorously when 
planted in shaded places in the woods. The 
inconspicuous- flowers are followed by black, 
edible berries. 

Broom Crowberry (Corema Conradii), 
growing on the sandy pine-barrens of New 
Jersey is one of the showiest of evergreen 
flowering plants. It is a low, much-branched 
shrub with narrow leaves quite like those of 
the heath. It is only a question of time be- 
fore the majority of these plants find their 
way into our gardens, but in the case of the 
Corema the time is short for it has already at- 
tracted the attention of growers of native 
plants. 

Rat-stripper (Pachistima Canbyi), a low 
evergreen shrub, native of the mountains of 
the Virginias, is one of the handsomest of 
trailing evergreen plants. This does well when 
planted en masse, as an edging plant, or in 
rockeries — it seems to thrive best in shaded 
woodland plantings. 

Spindle Bush (Evonymus obovatus), semi- 
evergreen trailer, is well adapted for planting 
as a ground-cover Under shade trees. It 
would be suitably planted under tall, broad- 
leaved shrubs. 

Dwarf and Trailing Conifers 

AMONG the coniferous plants, the Canadian 
-*»■ Yew or Ground Hemlock is a remarkably 
successful ground-cover. The spreading and 
occasional upright growth of its slender feath- 
ery branches, and the added beauty of its 
cheery red cherry-like fruits, make it one of 
the most finished of evergreen ground-cover 
plants. When planted thickly throughout a 
woodland it adds the touch of the primeval. 
It will thrive in any well-drained soil, and 
sometimes does well in moist places. An 
ideal evergreen ground-cover is a combina- 
tion of Bearberry and Canadian Yew — the 
upright spikes of the Yew lending the needed 
contrast to the broad, even stretches of the 
Bearberry. 

The depressed and trailing forms of the 
Common Juniper (Juniperus communis) are 
also excellent cover plants. J. communis 
depressa, with its spreading prostrate branches 
covers large patches of ground in its native 
habitat. Juniperus horizontalis is said to be 
even more procumbent in habit than variety 
depressa, and has long, trailing branches. 



a 



Pay Your Money and Take Your Choice" 



F. M. THOMAS 

Pennsylvania 



AN APPRAISAL OF RECENT OFFERINGS OF NEWER IRIS AND OTHER HARDY PERENNIALS FROM AN AMERICAN 
GARDENER'S VIEWPOINT— MAKE YOUR SELECTIONS FOR PLANTING NEXT MONTH 



IT IS almost a commonplace that every 
aspiring garden-enthusiast looks to 
the catalogues of European firms like 
Perry, Wallace, Barr, or Goos & Koene- 
mann for the latest and best developments in 
hardy perennials. 

Outside of the Iris and the Peony, in both 
of which plants*we make a fairly good showing, 
I can at the moment recall only a couple of 
Phloxes and I think two varieties of Heleniums 
as constituting the sum-total of our original 
output in this line. Possessing, as we do, 
genuinely great plant growers or raisers, 
there seems to be no reason why, potentially 
at least, we should not rival any of the 
European countries. 

However, it is not my intention to examine 
into the cause of this rather discouraging 
state of affairs, but rather to discuss its 
particular result — that the inquiring amateur 
who looks through the alluring list of novelties 
is served with descriptions of plants given 
them by the foreign firms that originated or 
disseminated them. Now, these descriptions 
are sometimes quite accurate, sometimes they 
are altogether inaccurate; but very seldom 
are they what is needed to help the prospective 
collector decide whether the particular plant 
in question is the sort of thing for his garden. 
Of course this method of procedure on the 
part of the nurserymen is often unavoidable 
in cases where no opportunity is to be had 
for trying out the novelty prior to its introduc- 
tion; but as the catalogue descriptions rarely 
vary from year to year, it would seem that the 
gardening public is not getting quite all it 
deserves. 

In the hope that my own experiences may 
perhaps be of some value to others, ,1 shall 
briefly go over a list of some of the recent 
novelties, always looking at the subject from 
the viewpoint of the American flower-gardener. 
Beyond an accurate description, any strictly 
impartial rating is of course impossible; 
the personal equation is bound to enter here — 
but that is sometimes oddly illuminating. 

/"\F ALL the hardy plants introduced within 
^-^ the last few years, the new varieties of 
Anchusa italica are probably the most meritor- 
ious. Indeed, their reputation has already 
spread so far that it may be questioned 
whether they can be considered in the light 
of "novelties" at all; so it is only to clear up 
certain points about them that I have in- 
cluded them in my list. It is quite true, as 
the growers claim, that next to Delphiniums 
the Anchusas are the best hardy plants with 
blue flowers, but it is quite as untrue that they 
generally grow six feet high, or that they bloom 
all summer, or that, strictly speaking, they 
can be classed as perennials at all! Their real 
blooming period is six or seven weeks at best, 
their real height from three to five feet; and, as 
for their life-time, it is not much longer than 
that of the Foxglove — at least no one should 
count on their lasting more than one additional 
season after they have come into bloom. 
The immense succulent crowns soon split up 
with age, water collects in the hollows, and by 
spring there is nothing left but an unattractive 
black mass of decay. Encouraging the forma- 
tion of strong new growth by cutting the stems 
to the ground immediately after flowering 
will help to some extent (the same is true of 
the Foxglove), but it is something of a gamble 
at best. As for the flowers, one can't praise 



them enough; it is a toss-up between Dropmore 
and Opal as to which possesses the most 
delicious shade of blue — I am inclined a trifle 
toward the latter. Far inferior to either is 
Perry's Variety, which I am glad to see is 
already dropping out of the catalogues. It 
is of a much deeper blue, to be sure, but the 
flowers are much smaller and the whole plant 
is of a most disagreeably lank and leggy habit. 
Proceeding alphabetically let's make the 
next stop at the Aconitums, two varieties of 
which the catalogue says are "splendid acquisi- 
tions." Sparks's Variety, blooming in late 
June, has a most graceful, branching habit, 
with finely divided leaves and flowers of the 
richest deep violet. It is a much taller grower 
than the old Napellus, and altogether quite 
supersedes that kind. As a pendant we have 




For August and September bloom there are several varieties 
of the dwarf Asters (ame)lus section) 

Mr. Wilson's aconite {A. Wilsoni) which, with 
me, has bloomed in early October, not in 
September, as has been repeatedly stated. 
It is a very robust grower — five or even six 
feet tall, with coarse Delphinium-like leaves 
and very large, fully inflated flowers, cff the 
most delightful shade of rich lavender, — ■ 
a shade that for cool purity of tone recalls cer- 
tain Irises of the pallida group. It is not so 
branching as Sparks's, so the older it grows and 
the more spikes to a clump the better the 
appearance. 

THOUGH their seasons of bloom do not 
over-lap quite accurately, Aconitum Wil- 
soni makes a charming combination with 
Anemone Queen Charlotte; and let me say 
that the latter plant is still to my mind 
the queen of all the pink Anemones. Alice, 
which has been trumpeted as an improve- 
ment over Her Majesty, is most decidedly 
nothing of the sort, though a rather hand- 
some flower in its own way. It is a deeper 
pink, but, unfortunately, also a more pur- 
plish tone; in fact one step more and it would 
not be far removed from those horrible 
aniline shades that crop out occasionally in 
Annual Asters. Kriemhilde and Loreley, 
two other new-comers, appeal to me much 
more. Which is which, I have been unable 
to discover, for they look exactly alike to me, 

17 



but at any rate they have flowers more nearly 
double than Queen Charlotte, but with 
narrower petals, stained a deeper pink at the 
tips. I find them rather variable both in 
form and color, but never do they attain 
the "reddish lilac" credited to them by the 
introducer. 

Artemisia lactiflora is a very robust and 
rank growing plant, four or five feet tall, with 
huge, gracefully paniculate heads of flowers 
something in the style of the Tall Golden-rod. 
The individual flowers are very minute, and 
never seem to really open, but the whole plant 
gives a charming foamy effect of white that 
is well set off by the fresh green leaves, droop- 
ing and deeply cut. Its odor, if not exactly 
that "of Hawthorn," is decidedly pleasant — 
pungent and mildly aromatic and not at all 
rank. Artemisia lactiflora is beginning to 
grow shabby just as the Hardy Asters come 
into bloom. It is good indeed to see our 
American flower gardeners at last awakening 
to the possibilities of these glorious native 
plants — after they have been appreciated for 
so long abroad! Prophets in their own coun- 
try indeed! None of the newer varieties that 
I have seen are poor; perhaps the best of all 
is Climax, which has very large daisy-like 
flowers with soft yellow centres, that fairly 
load down the big tall plants. Their color 
is that unapproachable lavender seen only in 
these plants and in a few Irises, such as the 
incomparable pallida dalmatica. Feltham 
Blue is another excellent single; Beauty of 
Cohvall, generally listed as the "best double," 
proved something of a disappointment to me 
— the color and shape of the individual flower 
are excellent, but they open irregularly, and 
the plant seemed rather stiff in habit. St. 
Egivin is not a clear pink, as I had expected, 
but a delightful lavender-pink. It is a rather 
short and compact grower, and fairly smoth- 
ered with bloom. 

Aster grandiflorus is quite all that has been 
claimed. Blooming in early November, even 
after Aster tataricus, its rich purple flowers 
are more than welcome. In color they closely 
approach the wild New England Aster, but 
they are a trifle larger and the plant is under 
three feet in height. The dwarf Amellus 
section, blooming much earlier in August and 
September, have never particularly appealed 
to me, though undoubtedly they give fine 
effects in large masses. Of these Perry's 
Favorite is an excellent lavender-pink, and 
Beauty of Ronsdorf, with less pink and more 
lavender, is equally good. 

TN THE Delphiniums there is surely an em- 
"*■ barrassment of riches. Although Kelway 
and Son had been offering hundreds of varieties 
for some years back, it is only within the last 
season or two that we in America have begun 
to get a taste of the newer hybrids. Of these, 
Capri, Mrs. Brunton, Moerheimi, Theodora, 
and Lamartine are generally classed in one 
group as the "Belladonna Hybrids," and they 
far surpass their parent in both their graceful 
branching growth and their wonderful free- 
dom of bloom. Indeed this freedom of bloom 
is perhaps their most striking quality; where 
the older varieties- gave only two crops of 
flowers, these give at least four. Indeed with 
me Belladonna Semiplenum bloomed almost 
continuously from the first of June to the 
middle of October, one crop of flowers spring- 
ing up before the others were faded. 



18 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



August, 1917 




Moerheim's Larkspur is 
well described as a white 
counterpart of Capri 



f t h e sin- 
gles, Capri is a 
very tall grower 
with large flat 
blossoms of the 
most delicate 
sky blue. It is 
a much better 
grower than Per- 
simmon, which it 
otherwise re- 
sembles. Next in 
depth of color is 
Mrs. Br union, 
whose blue is also 
more intense, with 
a lustre like blue 
enamel. This vari- 
ety is of dwarfer 
growth (about three 
feet) with very 
wide, branching 
spikes of bloom and 
particularly well- 
formed flowers. 
Next comes Theo- 
dora, to me the 
most beautiful and 
distinct of single Delphiniums. Its graceful 
spikes of flowers are of the richest corn-flower 
blue, with an unusual soft brown centre. This 
latter together with its soft and finely cut sage 
green foliage help to give it a different quality 
from any other Larkspur, but its chief glory is 
its color; massed, it gives an effect that cannot 
be approached for richness and depth. La- 
martine is the darkest of all; its very deep 
navy blue, set off with a pure white eye, is very 
striking, though not so harmonious as Theo- 
dora. The variety Moerheimi has been so 
lauded that we might reasonably be prepared 
for a slight disappointment, but happily noth- 
ing of the sort is in store for us. As the origi- 
nator has stated, it is the exact counterpart, 
in form and habit, of Capri, but in color a 
pure white, with a cream white eye. The 
flower is precisely like a much magnified white 
Chinese Larkspur, which sets one speculating 
as to its parentage. Those unfortunate gar- 
deners who have difficulty in growing Lilium 
Candidum should not fail to avail themselves 
of Moerheimi as the best of substitutes, for 
grouping with the blue Larkspurs. 

I must confess to a rather decided prejudice 
against Double Delphiniums. As a rule, they 
strike me as being altogether too showy; 
"over-dressed," one might say, So I shall 
leave their extended description to some one 
more sympathetic to their charms. I must 
say a good word, however, for the excellence of 
Mrs. Creighton and Zuster Lugton as cut 
flowers. Both these varieties are in shades 
of very deep blue t and violet, which, indoors, 
take on a peculiarly luminous effect, like bits 
of old stained glass. Belladonna Semi-plenum, 
as its name might suggest, escapes all the usual 
faults of the double kinds; and for this variety 
I have nothing but praise. Its loose semi- 
double flowers are of a slightly deeper blue 
han Capri, with a little dash of lilac on each 
petal. This does not "mud" the color in the 
least as one might expect; at a distance it is 
entirely invisible, and close at hand it only 
gives the flower an added charm. 

Modern Irises That Outclass the Old 

TT WILL be well to consider the Irises in 
A detail at this time especially as their plant- 
ing time is at hand whereas the other subjects 
can wait a month, and better indeed, some 
perennials stay in the catalogues year after year 



with little or no change or improvement. But 
others, more plastic in the hands of the plant 
breeder (or perhaps merely more popular with 
the public), are being constantly developed. 

In the case of the German Iris, this develop- 
ment has been especially marked. 

As the usual story runs, a majority of the 
newer Irises were appreciated in England and 
the continent long before they reached this 
country. Nevertheless, since the introduc- 
tion by one of our largest nurseries of the new 
Goos & Koenemann seedlings, shortly after 
they were first disseminated abroad, the list 
of available European novelties has grown 
steadily longer, until to-day practically every 
progressive nursery catalogues at least a 
few. And a new impetus to the growing of 
the newer Irises has undoubtedly been given 
to the American flower gardeners by Mr. B. 
H. Farr, who, since 1910, has been sending 
out his own seedlings at the rate of four or 
five a year. That Mr. Farr has been almost 
without a rival in the American field may 
seem a bit strange, considering how easy a 
plant the Iris is to experiment with. 

One of the most striking characteristics o 
a majority of the newer Irises is the large size 
and great substance of their blooms. The 
massive form of the pallida and early-flowering 
germanica types predominate, and no doubt 
this has been secured by using these types as 
seed parents to be crossed with the smaller, 
but often more brilliantly or richly colored 
variegata and squalens sections. This com- 
bination of brilliant coloring and large size 
is particularly noticeable in the Goos & Koe- 
nemann novelties. One might easily imagine 
that four at least of these Irises are descended 
from a single seed parent, even from a single 
pod, so closely are they related in their general 
scheme of coloring: white or yellow standards, 
and broad falls of some purple shade, with wide 
light colored margins: 

Rhein Nixe has pure white standards and 
deep violet-blue falls, with broad white mar- 
gins; Loreley has the same violet-blue falls, 
but margined cream color, while the standards 
are a light lemon yellow. Princess Victoria 
Louise repeats the same color scheme as Lore- 
ley, but with falls of a light reddish-purple 
In Nibelungen the standards are of a clouded 



•ft.'*s" 



A- 





The Monkshoods in Sparks 's 
and Wilson's varieties bloom 
from June to October 



The Milk-flowered Ragweed is really useful for mass effects 
of white foam in late summer (Artemisia lactiflora) 



fawn-yellow; the 
same shade margins 
the falls, which are 
a deep purple. None 
of these varieties 
is particularly 
subtle or harmoni- 
ous in coloring, but 
all have an attrac- 
tive freshness and 
brilliancy, and are 
not too garish to 
combine easily with 
Irises of similar 
types. Of the four, 
Rhein Nixe and 
Princess Victoria 
Louise are perhaps 
the most desirable. 
Two other Goos 
& Koenemann seed- 
lings are of a differ- 
ent type. Pfaue- 
nauge, or Peacock's 
r .ye, is a name that 
raises high antici- 
pations, but to my 
mind the plant is 
comparatively dis- 
appointing; very 
dwarf, not large in 
flower, and though 
distinct, too somber in color to be pleasing. 
Iris King (Iriskoenig), however, is a magnifi- 
cent flower, one of the finest of all in its depth 
and richness of coloring. The bloom is large 
and widely expanded, the standards a fawn- 
yellow, of unusual quality, the falls a deep 
maroon-red, of peculiar velvetiness of texture 
with a narrow margin of deep yellow. This 
same variety, by the way, is sometimes seen 
in English lists under the name of King of 
Irises, and in French catalogues as " Reine 
des Iris." This last a rather amusing per- 
version. 

Certainly the French are quite able to stand 
on their own merits as raisers of new Iris, when 
they have produced such splendid sorts as 
Alcazar, Archeveque, Oriflamme, Monseig- 
neur, Prosper Laugier, and Edouard Michel. 
None of these, strange to say, is the creation 
of M. Victor Lemoine, whose name has been 
long associated with the most wonderful im- 
provements in both herbaceous plants and 
shrubs. 

The first three varieties mentioned above 
are of the early flowered germanica type, and 
in coloring are related to such well-known 
kinds as Amas, Kharput, and the common, 
but by-no-means-to-be-despised, " Blue Flag." 
All three are of robust growth, with immense 
blooms that give a particularly imposing 
effect in the garden. 

Alcazar has standards of a light dull violet 
and falls of deep purple, flushed and veined 
bronze toward the base — a somber yet strik- 
ing coloring, that might well deserve the name 
"Nuee d'Orage," really the title of another 
French introduction, said to be equally fine, 
but which I have not yet seen in bloom. 
Archeveque has a brighter, and to me a richer 
and more pleasing coloring, with plum-colored 
standards and very deep-glowing purplish- 
plum falls, suggesting the petals of a pansy in 
their extreme velvetiness of texture. Some gar- 
dener of our middle Atlantic states, where the 
blooming periods of Irises and late 1 ulips over- 
lap, should try combining this magnificent Iris 
with that equally magnificent Tulip Walter 
T. Ware. Unfortunately that gardener will 
have to be a person of considerable means, if 



A. XT G U.S T , 19 1 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



19 



he invests largely in these two plants at their 
present prices! Oriflamme, the last of the trio, 
is also the large'st, possibly the largest of all 
German Irises, with lavender standards and 
long drooping violet-purple falls, quite in the 
manner of Amas. 

Monseigneur (or Monsignor) is both a curi- 
ous and handsome flower. The ground color- 
ing of both standards and falls is a rather pale 
slaty violet, but in the falls this is most densely 
and intricately veined and overlaid with deep- 
est claret-purple. "A very beautiful piece of 
rich coloring," as one catalogue aptly de- 
scribes it. 

Prosper Laugier is a genuine improvement 
on Jaquiniana, formerly the most beautiful Ins 
of the squalens section. The standards of 
Prosper Laugier are of almost the same 
clouded, iridescent bronze, the falls, broader 
and more wide-spreading than Jaquiniana, 
are of the richest wine-color, veined deeper at 
the base. 

As for Edouard Michel (of the pallida type), 
an improvement on both Caprice and the older 
Mme. Paquitte, it is one of those Irises to which 
no description does justice. The flower is of the 
largest, with falls thick, broad and fluted, and 
both standards and falls are stained — saturated 
— no word quite expresses it, with the most 
luscious deep claret-red. The flower stems 
are above the average in height, and they 
bear the flowers aloft with a very fitting 
dignity. 

Crossing to England, we find a bewildering 
number of new Irises, of all degrees of merit, . 
many entirely unknown in this country. Of 
all these sorts, the most unusual and strangely 
attractive is Isoline; a flower that, literally, 
must be seen to be appreciated, as it is almost 
impossible to give any adequate idea of its 
peculiar quality of coloring. Standards of 
dull clouded pinkish-lilac, falls old rose, suf- 
fused' purplish, and shot with coppery gleams 
that seem to converge in the distinct "old 
gold" beard — this is an approximation of the 
general effect, but the whole flower has a 
unique opalescence impossible to imprison in 
words. The blooms are large, well-formed 
and of great substance, with long, drooping 
falls, and the plant is tall and vigorous in 
habit, with leaves of unusual size. 

The general effect of Isoline, if not pink, is 
distinctly pinkish, and there are a number of 
Irises that also must be placed near the red 
rather than the blue end of the spectrum — in 
particular Windham (described under the Farr 
seedlings), Queen of May, Her Majesty, Mrs. 
Allan Gray, Trautlieb and Lohengrin, all of 
the pallida section (Some of these could 
hardly be called new, but I group them here 
for the convenience of the flower-gardener 
who might wish to know the relative value of 
the various so-called "pink" Irises). 

Queen of May was the first to be introduced, 
but it is still one of the best in its vigorous 
growth, tall flower stem (3^ ft.), and large, well- 
shaped flower. The color is a light lilac, of 
rather pinkish tone, shading a trifle deeper in 
the falls, which are veined darker toward the 
base. A brighter, clearer color is Her Majesty, 
though a plant shorter and less robust in 
habit. The standards are a really exquisite 
shade of lilac-pink — almost an old rose — the 
falls have a deeper and more elaborate veining 
than Queen of May. With the exception of 
Windham, Her Majesty is the nearest ap- 
proach to a true pink of any in this group, 
and when cut or seen close to, the bloom 
is one of the most attractive of all, but, in 
common with most flowers having distinct 
veins or eyes, is hardly as effective in the gar- 



den, particularly in large masses, as the self- 
colored sorts such, for instance, as Mrs. Allan 
Gray. This variety is of a pale uniform pink- 
ish lilac, not so bright as Her Majesty, but of 
beautiful soft tone and silky texture. The 
medium-sized flowers are of a particularly 
neat and graceful outline, and the plant has 
the odd and delightful habit of often sending 
up a second crop of flower stems in August, 
generally considerably larger than the ones 
of June. Trautlieb is another self-colored 
lilac-pink, shading to white at the base of the 
petals; small, but charmingly clear and dainty 
in coloring. Lohengrin is the least pink and the 
largest of this group; a superb widely ex- 
panded, thick-petaled flower of rich silvery 
lilac, shading deeper on the falls; much the 
tone of a Cattleya Orchid, as the originator 
has noted. 

It goes without saying that these "pink" 
Irises should never be seen near the vivid 
yellow and red-brown variegatas, and in 
combining them with the lavender and violet 
sorts it is well to remember that it is best to 
use those approaching nearest to blue as they 
make the pink appear purer and more intense 
by contrast. 

Of the other English varieties, Caterina is a 
sort of variant on the incomparable pallida 
dalmatica; hardly an improvement, though 
a fine enough Iris in its own way. Its conical 
lavender standards are of a rather more blu- 
ish tone than dalmatica; the falls, long and 
drooping, instead of horizontal, are veined 
brownish at the base. Caterina is very frag- 
rant, and a remarkably tall grower — often 
four and one half feet. 

There are numberless other English sorts, 
some of which I have not tried, some I have 
tried and found wanting (like the atrocious 
Mrs. Arthur Dugdale, surely the ugliest Iris 
in existence) and still others that are at pres- 
ent hanging in the balance, like the strange 
hybrids of Iris paradoxa, Parvar and Paracina, 
wonderful in theie somber and velvety purple- 
blacks, but apparently difficult to handle and 
shy or uncertain bloomers. Last to bloom is 
the sumptuous Black Prince (or as it is some- 
times called in this country, Black Knight) 
introduced ten years ago, but still scarce and 
expensive, and still the finest of all the very 
dark purple germanica sorts. 

The Farr seedlings already referred to are 
some thirty in number, and as variable in 
merit as they are in size and color. Here, 
particularly, it must be largely a matter of 
personal taste in choosing "the best"; never- 
theless, I think few will be disappointed in the 
kinds described below, though they might 
wonder at the omission of certain names. 

Of the thirty, five seem to me to be of the 
highest quality, comparable with any sorts 
now grown: White Knight, Anna Farr, Minne- 
haha, Quaker Lady, and Windham. In White 
Knight, originated by Prof. Saunders but 
dissembled by Farr, we have at last what has 
been so long needed — a late white Iris, as 
good in its season as the early-blooming 
florentina. It is solidly white, a big im- 
provement over such near-white sorts as 
Miss Willmot. Whether it surpasses Wal- 
lace's new Kashmir White I do not know, never 
having seen the latter variety in bloom, but 
at least it would seem that White Knight is 
near enough to perfection to suit the most 
exacting. And as White Knight is the best 
of white Irises, so Anna Farr is the finest of 
the light colored sorts. Its standards are 
white, lightly bordered pale lavender-blue; 
its falls, thick and of a porcelain-like smooth- 
ness, are the same pure white, with a few lav- 



ender-blue markings at the base. A noble 
flower of great size and the highest beauty. 
Minnehaha, almost equally large and massive, 
possesses a coloring totally unlike any other 
Iris I have seen, with standards of a soft, pale 
creamy yellow and falls of the same shade, 
deeply veined with converging lines of maroon. 
This should prove a valuable variety for use 
in hybridizing, for what we now most need in 
German Irises are large-flowering sorts in the 
pale and rich yellow shades of Flavescens and 
Aurea. 

Quaker Lady should be classed with Isoline 
for subtle and evanescent charm. Standards 
are a smoky lavender, with yellow shadings, 
falls an exquisite soft "ageratum" blue, 
shading to old gold at base, with a deep yellow 
beard. Though the yellow shadings light up 
the flower as if with a golden flush from within, 
the whole effect is curiously soft and subdued. 

Windham, which might be called a glorified 
Queen of May, is undoubtedly the finest 
variety of its color. Standards are an ex- 
quisite clear, pale lilac-pink, falls deeper with 
still deeper veinings; both standards and falls 
shade to white at the base. As perfect in 
size, form and habit, as in coloring, Windham 
is indeed an Iris difficult to over praise. 

Very close in merit to the varieties just de- 
scribed are seven others: Mary Garden, Nav- 
ajo, Wyomissing, Montezuma, Pauline, Mary 
Gray, and Juniata. 

I have known persons who actually dis- 
liked the variety Mary Garden, but, bizarre as 
the coloring undoubtedly is, to me it has a 
decided fascination. Mr. Farr's description 
is so accurate that I quote it verbatim: 
"Standards pale yellow, flushed pale lav- 
ender; long drooping falls, creamy white, 
minutely dotted and veined maroon; stigmas 
clear yellow." 

Navajo is a huge, striking flower, with 
bronze-yellow standards, and deep maroon 
falls lightly veined yellow — a sort of cruder 
and more startling edition of Iris King. 

Wyomissing, though hardly as remarkable 
as description or color plate would lead one 
to suppose, is nevertheless very distinct and 
delicate — a sort of pale flesh-color, with dull 
pinkish shadings and veinings at the base of 
the falls. It combines effectively with the 
well-known variety Mrs. H. Darwin. 

Another very large and imposing Iris from 
the same source is Pauline, whose silky petals 
are a solid, deep, rich mauve, contrasting 
oddly, yet effectively with its deep orange 
beard. 

Montezuma is almost as curious as Mary 
Garden, though hardly so fine. Again I quote 
the originator: "Standards deep golden, mi- 
nutely dotted brown; falls yellow and white, 
veined purple anddotted brown: unique." To 
which I should add that the total effect is a 
sort of metallic golden-bronze. 

Mary Gray and Juniata are obviously de- 
scendants of pallida dalmatica. The first, a 
large and lovely flower, is deeper and bluer 
in tone than dalmatica; Juniata is also deeper, 
but more purple, more on the order of Albert 
Victor. It is notable for its unusually tall 
flower stem — five feet — and for its luxuriant 
mass of long, drooping foliage. 

Glory of Reading, Lewis Trowbridge, Mt. 
Penn, Powhatan, Rose Unique, E. L. Crandall, 
and Pocahontas (the last two variations on the 
Anna Farr type) are all worth growing for one 
reason or another — the remaining seedlings 
are unimportant. 

[Discussion of plants other than IRIS will be 
continued next month. — Ed.] 



A Strawberry Specialist's Intensive "Systems" 

F. H. VALENTINE, £z 

INTENSIVE BERRY CULTURE IN HAND TILLED BEDS YIELDING 40,000 QUARTS TO THE ACRE 



A METHOD of strawberry growing 
that produces "at the rate of" 
40,000 quarts to the acre, or even 
10,000 to 20,000 quarts to the meas- 
ured acre, is worthy of attention. Tice C. 
Kevitt, the strawberry specialist, claims that 
his system will do this — and more. He is 
constantly studying the strawberry, experi- 
menting in new ways of handling it as a crop, 
and in the production and testing of new vari- 
eties. Thus it comes about that he has an 
"old system" and a "new system." I say 
"has an old system," because beds set under 
that plan are still fruiting'. 

Look at the Old System 

'TPHERE is no question that the "old system" 
produced big berries and lots of them. 
Those familiar only with the matted row 
method of growing strawberries can hardly 
realize how quickly these big berries fill the 
baskets, which is what makes these heavy 
yields possible. Experienced hor- 
ticulturists, after careful examina- 
tion of the beds in full bearing, 
have estimated yields as high as 
50,000 quarts to the acre. But 
the method involved a tremen- 
dous amount of hand labor, which 
is a drawback when operations are 
to be conducted on an extensive 
scale. 

By this old system, strongly 
rooted plants were set in beds five 
rows wide, just one foot apart each 
way, each plant thus occupying 
one square foot of space. The 
spaces between the beds were wide 
enough for a man to get through 
comfortably in doing the work. 
From these spaces, he could reach 
to the middle of the beds in hoeing 
and in picking the fruit, so he 
need never set foot in the beds. 
The runners are all kept off and 
the beds absolutely free from 
weeds. By this means, great 
strong-rooted stools are formed 
which go on producing year after 
year. Of course, fertilizers are applied, and the 
beds are mulched in the fall. So long as fertility 
is maintained and the plants are kept vigorous 
and in good health, so long may one expect 
good crops of fruit. One quart to the hill is a 
modest estimate with a good yielding variety, 
and I have seen hills of the Glen Mary that 
would produce much more. This is certainly 
intensive culture. But to keep off all runners 
and cultivate entirely by hand requires much 
labor — a commodity not over-plentiful in the 
market, and costing much money. For the 
amateur with a small area, and able to give 
constant attention, it is a very good method. 

Now for the New System 

"\JL7~HAT Mr. Kevitt calls his "new system" 
™ requires more plants to a given area, 
but arranges them differently so that a wheel 
hoe or hand cultivator may be used, and hand 
labor be reduced. In the new system, the 
rows are two feet apart, and three plants are 
set to each foot of row. This is pretty close 
setting. The plants may be potted or layers, 
and be set in late summer or fall. The 
photograph shows a field, set November 15th 
last, as it was on June 23d. The plants 



were carrying a heavy crop of fruit, and Mr. 
Kevitt estimated the yield at 10,000 quarts 
per acre which, I think, was conservative, if 
a good proportion matured. Double this 
yield is expected the second year. Here cer- 
tainly a crop is produced with a minimum of 
labor. It receives no cultivation till after the 
first crop is gathered. After setting, at any 
time before freezing weather, the rows, not 
the spaces between, are covered to a depth of 
three inches with coarse, strawy manure, 
swale hay or any good mulch, as a winter 
protection. As soon as the plants show life 
in the spring, the mulch is raked off the plants, 
but left close around them. After fruiting 
is over, they are cultivated and kept clean. 
The spaces are wide enough to allow the 
use of a hand cultivator. For continuous 
fruiting, the runners should be kept off; but, 
if new plants are desired, some may be allowed 
to grow. But no plant except the strawberry 
must be permitted. The commercial fer- 




Strawberries grown by the "new system." Set out November 15th, photograph made June 23d 

Variety Glen Mary 

tilizer used is dried blood and bone. The 
essentials of this system are: 

(a) Fertile soil well filled with humus. 

(b) Strong, well-rooted plants. 

(c) Protective mulch during winter, to be 
kept around the plants during summer to con- 
serve moisture, keep down weeds and keep 
the fruit clean. 

(d) Moderate application of a suitable 
commercial fertilizer. 

(e) Frequent and thorough cultivation 
during summer. 

See the Possibilities in This System? 

"\X7"HILE it may be as well to set the plants 
» » a little earlier, they may be put out after 
almost any crop is off in the fall, a crop of fruit 
be gathered early the next summer, and if 
desired, the ground plowed and late corn, cab- 
bage, or other fall-maturing crop be grown. 
Of course, after a strawberry bed is well estab- 
lished, it would be more profitable to keep it 
producing year after year. But the securing 
of the first crop before any cultivation is re- 
quired, gives a good margin of profit on the 
start. 

For horse cultivation, Mr. Kevitt recom- 

20 



mends rows three feet apart and plants one 
or two feet apart in the rows. 

The Glen Mary is the variety usually 
grown for market as it is strong and vigorous 
in plant, a heavy bearer of large, handsome 
fruit that ripens through a long season. Mr. 
Kevitt says that in more than 20 years' ex- 
perience and testing more than 100 varieties, 
he has never fruited any variety from which 
he has realized as much money. There are 
varieties of better quality which are preferable 
for the home garden. Of these, the Chesa- 
peake is one of the best though a little weak in 
plant. 

Mr. Kevitt had a "field day" June 23d 
(postponed from June 16th because of the 
lateness of the season) to give horticulturists 
generally an opportunity to inspect the re- 
sults attained, particularly by his "new sys- 
tem." He also gave them the opportunity 
to pass upon the apparent merits and demerits 
of a large number of varieties of what he calls 
"a new race of strawberry 
plants." These were the selec- 
tions from 30,000 hybrid seed- 
lings grown in 1913. Several 
of them appear to have much 
merit, but more than one — or 
two — seasons are necessary to 
prove the worthiness of a new 
candidate. This is shown by 
the fact that last year a number 
of horticulturists selected Beal 
as the best of these seedlings, 
while this year several others 
appear more promising than 
that variety. Not only is more 
than one season required, but 
tests on a variety of soils and 
under varying climatic condi- 
tions are necessary. The present 
season's weather conditions are 
classed as very unfavorable. 

A Look at Some Novelties 

AMONG these new hybrid 

*-*■ varieties which some of the 

visiting horticulturists preferred 

to the Beal, are the Seitz, of a rich 

red color inside, with a strong vigorous plant 

growth; the Lobb, good but soft; Von Hinden- 

burg, which was preferred by one old market 

grower to any other; Frey, a finely colored 

dark berry; Davis, medium but of uniform 

size, heavy bearer, large hull, color good, made 

a most favorable impression; Runyon which 

showed up well. 

The ideal strawberry plant must have 
strong vitality to carry it through adverse as 
well as favorable weather conditions; must 
have a mass of long, fibrous roots that go 
deep for moisture and plant food; must 
produce a large number of fruit crowns that 
send out strong fruit stems to sustain the load 
of fruit; must be perfect-flowered; must have 
strong and abundant foliage to protect the 
fruit as well as to maintain the vigor of the 
plant; must send out strong runners to repro- 
duce its kind. 

The fruit must be borne abundantly, be of" 
a good bright red color, even the inside, firm 
in flesh, sweet and luscious, and of aromatic 
flavor. For home use, a lack of firmness may 
be excused if superior quality be present. 
Possibly some one of these new seedlings may 
be the ideal for which we are looking; — possibly!! 



Saving Labor in Land Cultivation 



FRANK E. GOODWIN 



Missouri 



TRACTORS FOR GARDEN USE, THEIR POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITATIONS FOR GENERAL CROPS WHEN LABOR 

IS SCARCE 



THE urgent ap- 
peal of the Ad- 
ministration 
for largely in- 
creased acreages of 
food crops was won- 
derfully responded to 
by a vastly greater 
army of volunteers 
than will be called to 
the colors. Within a 
few days after the 
Call to the Farms, 
millions of acres 
hitherto used for 
parks, lawns and or- 
namental gardens 
were scarred deep 
with the plow, and 
the deep scars were 
smoothed with har- 
rows, and dedicated 
to the production of 
"things to eat." 

The successful pro- 
duction of food crops 
requires fertile soil, a 
properly prepared 
seed bed, seed en- 
dowed with strong 
vitality, and work. 
Once the young vege- 
tables have pushed 

their tender leaves above their earthy bed, 
they must have constant care to bring them 
to maturity in profitable quantities to re- 
pay the gardener for his outlay of time and 
effort. The most perfect seed bed, planted 
with carefully selected seed of greatest pos- 
sible vitality, and started under ideal growing 
conditions will repay only with losses if fre- 
quent weeding, cultivation, and spraying are 
overlooked. 

When the crops have ripened they must be 
harvested at the proper time — neither too early 
nor too late; in weather that is neither too 
damp nor too cold. 

Summed up in a word, the successful, profit- 
able growing of food crops depends most 
largely upon labor. 

The urban dweller, depending upon his own 
individual efforts, may bring a quarter acre 
garden to maturity by devoting an hour 
morning and evening, and all of Saturday 
afternoons to his task. If he is the father 
of a couple of half-grown boys he may in- 
crease this to half or three quarters of an 
acre. One man steadily employed as care- 
taker of a small estate may, with the owner's 





For hauling loads around the grounds. The engine-driven 
machine is always ready and needs but little attention when 
not in use 



The old way and the new. The small gasolene driven machine designed to surplant the horse in cultivating moderate-sized 

areas 



assistance, make an acre garden. But above 
an acre competent labor must be employed. 

Where is labor, skilled in crop growing for 
pleasure and profit, to be obtained? A million 
able-bodied men are called to arms. The farms 
require an army of laborers to make and mar- 
ket the commercial crops. The speeding up of 
factories furnish employment for all who will 
work. Competent help is scarce and will grow 
to greater demand when the Government is 
well started in filling its requirements. Where, 
then, shall the grower of food crops look for 
relief? 

The small farm tractor — humble brother to 
the pleasure automobile. 

Necessity, mother of invention, gave birth 
to the farm tractor for general use but a few 
years ago. True steam tractors came into 
limited use shortly following the Civil War, 
but these we will pass over with this brief 
mention. 

The internal combustion engine, fed with 
gasolene, which made the automobile, the 
motor boat, and the aeroplane possible, also 
became the heart of the farm tractor. And 
while to-day gasolene flows through the main 
arteries to the heart of this powerful machine, 
kerosene is fast replacing_gasolene as fuel, and 
distillates are used in very limited quantities. 

The power of the motor is directed to 
wheels or "crawlers" by reducing gears. The 
wheels furnish support for the mechanism and 
give traction to the machine so that it becomes 
the motive power which draws the plow, 
harrow, cultivator, and harvester upon the 
land. A separate gear engaging at the will of 
the operator, supplies power for belt-operated 
machinery while the tractor stands at "parade 
rest." 

While more than 160 firms are building farm 
tractors in considerable or small numbers, one 
can count upon the fingers of one hand the 
tractors which are adaptable for the farm of 50 
acres or less. A great majority of tractors are 

21 



designed to serve 
farm owners whose 
acres number from 
120 acres to as many 
thousands. The 
choice of tractors 
which may relieve the 
burdens of the man 
with few acres is re- 
stricted to three or 
four makes of ma- 
chines, each of which 
is vastly different 
from the other. 

Up to this time, 
and probably for 
some years to come, it 
has been necessary to 
build tractors of 
heavy weight to pro- 
vide tractive power 
sufficient to pull the 
implement or tool for 
work in the field. In 
almost every case it 
has required half of 
the motor's power to 
move the weight of 
the tractor itself. 
Thus it is that a 
tractor, operated with 
a motor of ten rated 
mechanical horse- 
power, will only provide five rated horsepower 
at the drawbar — the mechanical term of de- 
noting the pulling power of the tractor. 

But it must be distinctly understood that 
rated horsepower is not the same as animal 
horsepower. A tractor rated at five horse- 

Eower at the drawbar and ten at the pulley or 
elt, will not perform the same work that five 
horses will, for the reason that the tractor's 
rating is its maximum, while the horse itself 
has great reserve strength. 

Thus the 10-5 tractor will perform about the 
same work that two average horses will under 
most conditions. Its cost will be about the 
same. 

Owing to the very limited number of tractors 
which will attract the attention of owners of 
small tracts of 50 acres and under, the reader 
need not consume much time in looking over 
the market if he decides he can 'use a tractor 
with profit to his "farming" operations. His 
only concern need be which of the few he can 
most profitably add to his equipment. At the 




Rocks can be moved, stumps pulled, and ground cleared 
by a machine of this type. Useful for heavy construction 
work 



22 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



August, 1917 



beginning he should ascertain how many horses 
he would require to do his work, and select a 
tractor whose cost will be approximately the 
same. 

If the land owner is a "one-horse" man, and 
his acres are small in number, then he will re- 
quire nothing larger than a garden tractor. 
This is a walking engine; the operator being 
obliged to trudge along behind it, on foot, as 
indeed he would if he employed a single horse. 

Such a tractor will not "break" the hind 
with the plow, even though it has been under 
cultivation for years. Plowing will necessarily 
be done by horse, as heretofore. But it will 
cultivate the garden spot and do it even better 
than the horse, and is always ready for its 
tasks. It will keep the ground well stirred and 
should, under most conditions, serve the owner 
well. When not employed in the field it can be 
used to supply power for operating a small 
electric light plant, a grindstone, pumping 
jack, cream separator, churn, or other small 
machinery on the place. 

Another type of tractor costs the same as a 
good team of two horses, and will do the same 
amount of work. It will pull a single plow, 
and cultivates one or two rows at one opera- 
tion. Its drawbar pull is sufficient to operate 
small harvesting machinery, and when belted 
up to power-driven machines in the home and 
in the outbuildings will do more than horses can 
be expected to do. Its uses are practically the 
same as those of a strong two-horse team, and 
will give the same degree of profitable satis- 
faction as that number of horses. 

A larger type of farm tractor is adaptable 
for the place which requires from four to five 
horses to do the work when all are employed 
in a single operation. It is recommended to 
pull two plows of 14 inch bottoms each — the 
gang plow which large farmers use. It will 
easily cultivate two rows at one operation, and 
continue cultivation as long as it is needed. 
Heavy power-driven machinery can beoperated 
by the pulley, and as a road tractor, pulling 
two or three trailers, or wagons, it. gives ex- 
cellent service. 

Many other tractors are manufactured for 
large farm use, but as most of these are not 
adaptable for cultivation purposes none of 
them will be described. 

Tractors are as well made as automobiles, 
and are as little liable to disabilities as the 
motor car. They are fairly "foolproof," and in 
the hands of a person with average mechanical 
ability will give good service at moderate cost. 



The man with little or no love for machinery 
should not be given charge of a tractor. 

There are certain things which the tractor 
operator must learn and observe. It will not 
operate without fuel, lubricating oil, and water 
in the cooling system. In all respects it is 
practically the same as an automobile. To be 
kept in good condition it must be given average 
mechanical care and attention. Being me- 
chanical it will wear out, and the wear will de- 
pend largely upon the care and skill of the 
operator. Fortunately for the readers who 
may purchase tractors, there are but few 
suitable for their purposes, and these are all 
manufactured by reputable concerns. 

In contemplating the purchase of a tractor 
to replace or relieve horses, it would be well to 
compute the cost of the tractor and its opera- 
tions, and compare with the cost and keep of 
horses to be replaced. 

The tractor requires no feed nor attention 
while idle. It can be operated 18 or 20 hours in 
24 if required. No rest is necessary after it has 
been in the field a few hours. In the hottest 
sun it goes about its work without danger of 
being overcome with heat. It is ready to start 
at command, without having to be fed and 
curried. It requires no more time to attach an 
implement to it than it does to harness a horse. 
It may "take sick" and so may the horse. At 
such times the expense of an expert is no 
greater than that of a veterinary. 

The fact that one does not have to maintain 
a number of acres to provide food for the 
tractor while it is in use, or idle, is a good argu- 
ment in its favor. Its " feed " can be purchased 
from a tank wagon, or in barrels from the 
nearest oil dealer, and it never requires a 
change of food stuff. 

On the other hand, the tractor produces no 
progeny; nor will it respond with loving notice 
to a caress from its owner or the women. It is 
a machine, dumb and without life except that 
which its operator puts into it. It will in- 
telligently obey every command when prop- 
erly cared for and operated, and will stand at 
attention where it is left until its owner re- 
quires it to go again. 

In closing it might be well to remind the 
reader that the tractor is not a dream but an 
actuality. It has been thoroughly tested and 
tried and found not wanting. It is endorsed 
and recommended by agricultural experts, 
state boards of agriculture, and users them- 
selves. It is a practical machine, and under 
most conditions has proven profitable and a 



wise investment. To some it will prove dis- 
appointing, and its advantages and disad- 
vantages should be well weighed before the 
check is passed over for payment. If a tractor 
is bought, be certain that it is put to work doing 
everything that it is made to do. 

The cost of small tractors, such as have been 
described in the foregoing, have been calcu- 
lated at the price of good, sound horses which 
they are intended to replace. Equipment is 
additional, as it would be if horsepower is 
employed. 

The Beeman garden tractor, smallest of 
all the power appliances, sells at $150, 
f. o. b. factory. It develops 4.9 horsepower 
at the belt, and about 2.5 at the draw bar. 
Attachments, such as cultivators, weeders 
and turning shares to equip the tractor will 
cost about $25 aggregate. The company 
issues a circular telling of attachments which 
can be used in connection with the machine. 

The Avery motor cultivator was and is 
intended primarily for cultivating large fields 
of corn, potatoes, and other crops which 
are planted in rows or drills. It has been 
found adaptable to operating planters of 
both the corn, cotton, and combined corn 
and cotton types. This tractor is not built 
for plowing, and is not furnished by the com- 
pany for that purpose. The writer believes 
that it can be used for plowing gardens, with 
a hitch which will operate a sulky plow, al- 
though I do not have permission from the 
manufacturers to so assure your readers. 

This motor cultivator will successfully 
operate a small harrow, and ought to do 
much of the work of the gardener. It sells 
for $400, equipped with eight or twelve shovel 
gangs. Next season it will be equipped with 
disc gangs also gangs for cultivating listed 
corn, and a planter attachment. All other 
tools which the user may wish to operate as 
his experiences will teach him he can, must be 
purchased separately. 

The Universal tractor is a real farm tractor 
in every way. Its cost is $850 complete with 
plowing outfit of two 14-inch bottoms. It is 
a powerful machine, and besides doing every- 
thing possible for a tractor to do on a farm 
of 100 or even more acres it will supply belt 
power which will enable it to replace a ten 
or twelve horse portable gasolene engine. 
This tractor has never been recommended for 
gardens, but if the fields are sufficiently large 
so that it requires six or eight horses to prop- 
erly care for them, it will be found profitable. 




Gasolene driven machines are available for planting and cultivating corn as well as 

other crops 




^HlpP^ 




. i - ■ tt - '■* ■ ' a iS :_i 1 



By applying the special set of wheels the small automobile is converted into a prac- 
tical tractor 



August, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



23 



Really Truly Specialists 



Scores of letters like these: 

From Beverly, Mass. — "Last season I pur- 
chased a few roots from ■, from , and 

from -; varieties which you do not list, and 

for all their talk of size and vigor of plants, they 
did not compare in either case with the roots you 
have supplied me with for several years." 

From St. Louis, Mo. — "The Peonies have just 
been received. The enormous size of your roots 
has agreeably surprised me. Last year I bought 

some roots from . One was for immediate 

effect at double price, and only one (not the 
extra sized one) bloomed. Without exaggeration 
I can say, that your roots are from three to six 
times as big and vigorous." 

From Luverne, Minn.— "Your roots are just 
bursting with healthy plant life, and if they are 
'one-year-olds,' they must have failed to take 
account of their second and third birthdays. 
The amount of fibrous roots in these clumps is 
just simply wonderful. As specialists in your 
line you seem to be, and I believe you really are, 
in a class by yourselves, producing Peony roots 
that are unequalled in the United States." 



There are lots of POOR Peonies; why not have the benefit of really expert 
advice. Our fame is nationwide. 'Most everybody everywhere knows of 
the ABSOLUTE SUPREMACY of our Peonies. Do you? One of the 
REASONS is because 



WE GROW PEONIES 
-NOTHING ELSE 



Suspicions of the other reasons will be awakened by our catalogue. In= 
stant confirmation of them if you could visit our grounds and see the plants 
growing — the stock we send to you. Ask those who have been here. 

"OUR REPUTATION HAS BEEN BUILT ON THE QUALITY OF OUR STOCK" 

DISTINCTIVE CATALOGUE NOW READY 



Mohican Peony Gardens,^ Sinking Spring, Penn'a 



Goos & Koenemann 
Irises 



far surpass the old-fashioned "Flags" in 
both size and brilliancy of colors, besides 
retaining the delightful fragrance of the 
parents. They are as hardy as oaks and 
increase in size and beauty from year to 
year. To popularize these wonderful 
new creations of the plant breeder's art, 
we will ship 

5 Leaders for $1 

Iris King — Lemon-yellow standards, falls deep 

satiny brown with broad margin of golden yellow. 
Rhein Nixe— Pure white standards, falls deep 

violet-blue with narrow white margin. 
Caprice — Solid violet blue. 
Isolene — Pale lavender standards, falls light 

purple, overlaid with brown, beard — yellow. 
Tamerlane— Light blue standards, falls deep 

purple. 

Prices, any of above, each 25c; $2.50 per dozen 

SPECIAL OFFER: 

I will ship, by express, one strong divi- 
sion of each of above 5 remarkable novel- 
ties, for $1. All guaranteed true-to-name. 

Panniac J Phlrw Order now for fall plant- 
reoniei and rniOX ing You'll find my col- 
lection confined to the choicest only. My prices 
are as reasonable as stock of the quality which I 
deliver can be sold for. It is my ambition to 
satisfy the most critical. 

A Catalogue with a Conscience 

Offers such kinds of plants, roots and bulbs 
only, as have measured up to the highest standards 
of the most critical trade. I replace anything 
that is not thoroughly satisfactory. On that basis 
I solicit your orders for above Irises and your 
request for the free catalogue. 

RALPH E. HUNTINGTON 



Painesville 



Ohio 



. 



■ 
Advertisers 



Horsford's 



You can begin setting hardy 

plants in August. The ear- 

ColO l' er kinds w iU have time to get established 

\M,T 4¥» before winter. Don't put off planting, but 

W CttllllCa send at once for Horsford's Spring Catalogue 

Pl^ntfi ant ^ Autumn Supplement of bulbs for fall set- 

*»**m.» ting. Many of the wild flowers such as Tril- 

Writefor Hums, Dog's Tooth Violets, Lilies and other Violets 

Catalogue iVniay be set in September. Paeonias in last of August. 

F- H. HORSFORD, CHARLOTTE, VT. 



SUNDIALS 

Real Bronze Colonial Designs 
From $3.50 Up 

Also Bird Baths, Garden Benches, Fountain 
Sprays and other garden requisites. 
Manufactured by 

The M. D. JONES CO. 
72 Portland St. Boston, Mass. 

Send for illustrated Price-List 





Evergreen Trees and Evergreen Shrubs for August Planting 



A LONG your foundations. In your veranda 
■^ corners. Out on your grounds. Wherever 
sure results are absolutely essential, plant Bay 
State evergreen trees and shrubs. 

They will insure you of sure results be- 
cause of their backbone. 

Backbone developed by our severe New 



England Winter. Backbone that gives them 
the stamina to stand transplanting and thrive 
satisfactorily practically anywhere. Back- 
bone that enables them to scoff at Winter's 
winds and frigidness. If this backbone kind 
of stock appeals to you, send for catalogue 
and claim a share of it for your own! 



TFvs. E^Sl?d^^feJ\iKseries 




672 Adams Street 
North Afoington, Mass. 




The fibrous vigor-giv- 
ing rootlets of Bay 
State stock, are a big 
backbone -factor. 



vill appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in writing — and we will, too. 



/ 



24 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



August, 1917 



:.:l:il:;ii! 



m 



:_ -Simat \ S^fi* |7&M 




IlP^yki 






pl|j 


•vW <tt^ ' ■ *j'-. ;H|" , "JB 


HMap^^^ 1 


fimfil v s Asi 


«fe^y 


LirMi'S^HHR^ 


pPlf 



Tall 
Bearded 



Iris 



For Immediate Planting 

Five New Kinds of Rare Beauty 
Isoline (Squalens) 
J Standards, soft pink; Falls, deep old-rose, 
yellow throated; very large and striking 
j§j flower. Award of Merit, London. $1.25 
jg each. 

Lohengrin (Pallida) 
U Standards and Falls, in shades of Cattleya- 
H Mauve; petals translucent and very re- 
H sponsive to strength or softness of the 

■ light. 3 ft. Award of Merit, London, 
H 1915— $1.00 each. 

Mrs. Alan Gray 

(Cengialti X Queen of May) 
B Standards and Falls, soft lilac; one of 
j§ the most beautiful; unique in usually 
m blooming again in late July and August. 
B 2£ ft. $1.00. 

Rhein Nixe (Amoena) 
g§ Standards clear white; Falls rich rasp- 
berry purple with distinct white edge. 
Bl Tall, vigorous branched spikes; 3^ ft. 
§j Award of Merit, London, 1915. 50c each. 

Storm Cloud (Squalens) 
H Standards pale dove gray, Falls deep 
§j violet; very large and handsome; 2 J to 

■ 3 ft. $1.00 each. 



Special Offer 

One plant each of the above vari- 
eties, delivered to any ad- 
dress in the United States, 
Prepaid, for 



vein 

$5 



Our list of standard varieties while not 
one of the largest, is the most select in 
the country. Catalogue containing full 
descriptions forwarded to any address on 
receipt of address. 

These Iris are sold under our usual guarantee 

of being absolutely true to name or 

replaced free of charge 

Charles H. Totty 

"The Novelty Man" 

Madison New Jersey 



i> ! ~~ 



/0-*- COMING EVENTS^n 

V9LUB SOCIETY NEW® 



Meetings and Lectures in August 

{Following dates are meetings unless otherwise specified} 

Minnesota Garden Flower Society at Como Park, 
St. Paul, by announcement. 

2. Marshfield, Mass., Garden Club. 

Garden Club of Lawrence, Lawrence, L. I. Sub- 
ject: Sweet Peas and Lilies. 

3. Pasadena, Cat, Horticultural Society. 

4. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, N. Y., 

Lecture: Floral and Scenic Features of Cuba. 

6. Lenox, Mass., Garden Club. 

New Bedford, Mass., Horticultural Society. 

7. Lake Geneva, Wis., Gardeners' & Foremen's As- 

sociation. 
Garden Club of Pleasantville, N. Y. 

8. Short Hills, N. J., Garden Club. 
Lenox, Mass., Horticultural Society. 

Nassau Co. Horticultural Society, Glen Cove, L. I. 

10. Westchester N. Y. & Fairfield Conn. Horticultural 

Society. - 

11. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, N. Y. 

Lecture: Books on Gardening. 
Dobbs Ferry, N. Y., Horticultural Society. 
11-12. Massachusetts Horticultural Society, Boston, 

Mass. Gladiolus and Phlox Exhibition. 
13. Park Garden Club, Flushing, L. I. 

Rochester, N. Y., Florist Association. 

New Rochelle, N. Y., Garden Club. 

New York Florists' Club, New York City, N. Y. 

16. Marshfield, Mass., Garden Club. 

17. Pasadena, Cat, Horticultural Society. 
California Dahlia Society, San Francisco, Cal. 

18. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, N. Y. 

Lecture: Trees and Flowers of the Yellowstone 

National Park. 
20. Lenox, Mass., Garden Club. 

21-23. Thirty-third Annual Convention and Trade 

Exhibition of the Society of American Florists. 

Grand Central Palace, and Botanical Garden, 

N. Y. 
23-26. American Gladiolus Society, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Annual Meeting and Exhibition. 
Horticultural Society of New York, New York 

City, N. Y. Exhibition and Lecture. 
New York Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, N. Y. 

Exhibition of Gladioli. 
25. Dobbs Ferry, N. Y., Horticultural Society. 

New York Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, N. Y. 

Lecture: Insect Enemies of Plants. 
27. Park Garden Club, Flushing, L. I. 

Great Horticultural Meeting in New York 

T^HIS year sees the Thirty-third Annual 
■*■ Convention and Trade Exhibition of the 
Society of American Florists in New York. 
There are two phases of attraction to the 
public: The regular trade exhibit which will 
be held in the Grand Cen- 
tral Palace, New York City, 
August 2ist to 23rd, where 
also the principle sessions 
of the Society will take 
place. Simultaneously there 
will be the Convention Gar- 
den for which purpose the 
attractive location has been 
accorded by the Director of 
the New York Botanical 
Garden in Bronx Park. 
The display here consists of 
exhibits of growing plants 
established well in advance 
of the Convention and 
which form a more or less 
permanent display. 

The accompanying map 
shows definitely the loca- 
tion of the various exhibits, 
and by reference to the key 
numbers the visitor can 
readily ascertain the nature 
of the various displays. In conjunction with 
this organization there are also meetings of 
various affiliated associations, and in particu- 
lar the Annual Meeting and Exhibition of the 
American Gladiolus Society, when the excep- 
tionally valuable prize list is offered in this 
division. 

The garden lovers visiting New York dur- 
ing the period of the Convention will be amply 
repaid by a visit to the Convention Garden as 



they will there see a demonstration in growing 
specimens naturally planted of many of the 
novelties of plants and flowers in season. 

Further particulars concerning the Na- 
tional organization can be obtained from 
John Young, Secretary, 53 West 28th Street; 
in connection with the Gladiolus Exhibit 
from Henry Youell, Cedar Street, Syracuse, 
Secretary of the American Gladiolus Society. 

A map of the Convention Garden is given 
herewith, the number references to the ex- 
hibits being as follows: 1, B. Hammond 
Tracy, Gladiolus — 2, Vaughan's Seed Store, 
Gladiolus — 3, B. Hammond Tracy, Glad- 
iolus — 4, John Lewis Childs, Gladiolus — 5, 
Conard & Jones Co., Cannas — 6, A. N. 
Pierson, Inc., Phloxes — 7, 8, 9, do., Roses — 
10, do., Phloxes — 11, Arthur T. Boddington, 
Cannas — 12, Vaughan's Seed Store, Cannas 
— 13, B. Hammond Tracy, Gladiolus — 14, 
Vaughan's Seed Store, Gladiolus — 15, B, 
Hammond Tracy, Gladiolus — 16, Arthur 
Co wee, Gladiolus — 17, Arthur T. Boddington. 
Cannas — 18, John Lewis Childs, Lycoris 
squamigera — 19, Raymond W. Swett, new 
seedling Dahlias — 20, American Bulb Co., 
Cannas — 21 to 27, Vaughan's Seed Store, 
Cannas — 28, W. A. Manda, miscellaneous 
plants — 29, Thos. Meehan & Sons, Mallows 
— 30, Bobbink & Atkins, Mallows — 31, Wm. 
Tricker, Aquatics. 

Rose Garden for Portland, Ore. 

A GROUP of people representing ninety- 
-^*-nine different organizations of the city, 
including the Royal Rosarians, the Portland 
Rose Society, the Portland Chamber of Com- 
merce, the Portland Floral Society, The Ro- 
tary Club, the Research Club, the American 
Institute of Architects, the Parents' and 
Teachers' Association, met January 11 and 
organized a Portland Association National 
Rose Test Garden. The cooperation of the 
city government comes through its Park De- 
partment. 

The Rose Test Garden is part of the propa- 
ganda of the American Rose Society and at a 




meeting on Febuary 8th it was officially ac- 
cepted as the test garden for the Pacific 
Northwest and with the local organization ap- 
pointed Mr. Currey, Mr. Clark, and Mr. 
Tucker, which committee together with the 
Portland Association and the City Govern- 
ment of Portland will formulate plans for the 
location and government of the garden and 
provide rules and regulations for all tests and 
contests. 



The Readers' Service will gladly furnish information about Gardening 



August, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



25 




THE GLEN ROAD 
IRIS GARDENS 

Wellesley Farms, Mass, 

list only New Introduc- 
tions and the finest 
Standard Varieties. 



Hardy Guaranteed 
Trees and Plants 



We guarantee our trees to make the growth 
the planter has the right to expect. This 
means: You plant our trees properly, give 
them due care and attention, and then if any 
of them fail to grow as you have reason to 
expect, we will replace them without charge. 
You are the judge of what you should expect. 

"Inside Facts of Profitable Fruit 
Growing" and "How to Beautify Your 
Home Grounds'* sent prepaid for 10 
cents each. 




WILLIAM P. STARK NURSERIES 
Box 498, StWlk City '/fa>. 



PEONIES 

Fifteen fine named Peonies for $2.50, or 25 for S5.00, all 
different and truly labeled, a chance to obtain a fine collec- 
tion at half price, comprising such varieties as Festiva Max- 
ima, Delachei, Achillea, Lady L. Bramwell, Couronne d'Or, 
Prolifica Tricolor, Louis Van Houtte, and various other fine 
sorts. With any order of above for $5. 00 I will include one 
plant of Baroness Shroeder, free. I have the largest stock in 
America of Lady Alexandra Duff (absolutely true) and many 
other fine varieties. Send for catalogue. 

W. L. GUMM, Peony Specialist 

Remington, Indiana 




\A/ALLACE'S 

latest corri' 

plete Illustrated 

Iris Booklet. 

Now ready for 
distribution. 

This limited edition 
will be mailed gratis 
upon request. 

JOHN SCHEEPERS 
& COMPANY 

Fhwerbulb Specialists 

2 Stone St., New York City 



SHADE AND PRIVACY 

Around Your Home 

There is no need that you should, for one single day, be without the comforting screen of 
big evergreens! Twenty years ago we decided to eliminate the waiting phase from home land- 
scape making. With the help of Hicks Big Trees you can enjoy the blue sky, the white 
clouds and the cool breezes around your home this summer without being disturbed by 
sights, sounds and the dust of every passing automobile or by adjacent buildings. 

Sir!** Wall^ Suburban places of Europe are surrounded by high brick walls. We 
hJlUc TV alia can gj ve you wa ii s th a t cost less and are more beautiful, a wall of 
fragrant Firs, Pines or other Evergreens. August is a good time to plant them. You can 
get the best selection of trees and you can arrange them while you are on your country 

place, while your gardener is not as busy as 
in the spring. Make the sidewall of your out- 
door room an Evergreen Boundary. 6 to 
16 feet tall. 

Our representative will call, help solve your 
tree problems and stake out your ground ac- 
cording to your ideas. Evergreens of the 
kind we offer may be shipped safely a thou- 
sand miles. Our stocks embrace all sizes. 
It took us twenty 
years to get them in 
shape for you. 

Satisfactory 
growth is guaran- 
teed, since our trees 
have been so thor- 
oughly prepared 
that records show 
almost no loss, mak- 
ing free replacing 
necessary. 




Your family can have an evergreen boundary now 



Write for free book, 

"Evergreens for 
Summer Planting" 



Hicks Nurseries 

*'The Home of Big Trees" 

Box M 
Westbury, L. I., N. Y. 



Big Shade Trees 



We will deliver and 
plant, within fifty miles of 
New York and anywhere 
on Long Island with the 
guarantee that they will 
grow satisfacrorily, 2 Sil- 
ver Lindens, 18 ft. tall and 
2 Norway Maples, 20 ft. 
tall, all 8 ft. broad trees, 
15 years old, that we will 
move in full leaf for £50. 
You may pick them out 
yourself. 

Because Hicks' Nurseries 
are famous for Big Trees do 
riot think that is all we grow. 
We grow thousands of all 
sizes, from 10c up. Learn to 
look upon Hicks' Nurseries 
as your Plant and Tree De- 
partment Store. Complete 
nursery catalogue on request. 
Write us TO-DAY. 



: m 



Fairfax Roses 

Do you want an abundance of roses all 
summer? Then plant Fairfax Roses. They 
are grown slowly under natural conditions 
(not forced) will bloom the first season for 
you under ordinary care, and will be a con- 
stant delight for many years. 

Book on request giving instructions as to 
the proper method of growing roses. 



Box 6 



W. R. GRAY 

Oakton, Virginia 



Pot Grown 
Strawberry Plants 

Plants set out in July and August will 
give a good crop of berries next season. 

All the best Varieties; pot grown. 

25 for $1. 100 for $3.50 by express 

Descriptive Catalogue mailed free. 

W. E. MARSHALL & CO. 

Seedsmen 
166 W. 23d St. New York 




ny Carpenter 
Can Erect It 

All construction questions are worked out, the material is cut-to-fit 
exactly, the plans are before him, and the owner knows he will get a perfect green- 
house; designed by experts, complete in every particular, and of best materials possible — all combined in 



Low 



Callahan CUT-TO-FIT Greenhouses A HS 



In 



any size nee 



ded. 



They solve the question for the man who knows the advantages of under glass growing. 
Low freight classification helps keep the price down. 
Callahan Sectional Greenhouses for your home may be erected by any handy man. Tell us your needs. We 
have a house for any grower, professional or amateur. Write for particulars. 

THE CALLAHAN DUO-GLAZED SASH CO. 132 Fourth St., Dayton, Ohio 



Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in writing — and we will, too 



26 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



August, 1917 



: ■ . ' . . ■! ■■ 'rr ; r ,>: 



iiBimiiiipiiiiiiB 



Wolcott's 

/or 

Hardy Plants 






■I1III11 . I ! JiilllllllUlllllllliliaiijil 

Hardy Plants rule supreme with us. Because 
we cannot grow them all, we only grow those 
most dependable under all conditions of soil 

and climate. We endeavor to offer the newest and choicest 
of the dependable standards and every plant we sell is 
guaranteed true-to-name. Our greatest hobby is 

Primroses to Plant this Fall 

for Spring Bloom 

Among the rarer sorts, the following are particularly 
charming and suitable for immediate planting: — 
Beesiana, purple with yellow eye, 75c. each. 
Bulleyana, golden yellow, shaded orange, 50c. 
Capitata, violet blue, dusted white, 50c. 
Denticulata, very large lilac, 50c. 
"Red Hugh,** exceedingly choice, fiery scarlet, $1. 
"Mrs. Berkeley,*' pale blush with saffron eye, 75c. 

Special Offer: We will send one strong plant of each 
of" the above selected sorts for $3. 

A Booklet It i s a ver Y modest free booklet, but 

Wku'll P n ;^ir f u ^ °f f acts about our "pets," the 
lOUimnjoy choicest hardy plants the world 
affords. Grown under ideal, yet exacting conditions by 
people who love plants, Wolcott's Hardy Plants are differ- 
ent from the commercial product. Let our booklet and 
plants convert you into a hardy plant enthusiast. Write 
TO-DAY. 

Wolcott Nurseries Jackson, Mich. 



Lutton Greenhouses 



Give 
Satisfaction 



Attractive 
Efficient 
Durable 




WM. H. LUTTON CO. 

263-269 Kearney Ave. 
Jersey City, N. J. 

Horticultural Architects and Builders 



Greenhouses 
Conservatories 
Cold Frames 





Iron Fence a Modern Necessity 

GET OUR BOOK 

IRON FENCE protects lawns and flowers, increases B 
property values, compels cleanliness. It keeps chil- B 
dren safe from automobile speed maniacs and pro- 
tects careful drivers from careless children. There arc 
many imperative reasons why you need 

^IHON FENCE ^ 

■AC/ ' The Standard of the World X^f 

Write for our De Luxe Book of Modern Architectural 
Designs in [ron Fence, Gates, and Lawn Furniture. 
Exact styles to harmonize with special types of archi- 
tecture found in modern residences, country estates, jj 
town houses, public and commercial buildings. 

This book, is sent free. Get your copy to-day. 

The Stewart Iron Works Company, Inc. 
655 Stewart Block CINCINNATI, OHIO 

"The World's Greatest Iron Fence Builders" 



Old-Time Southern Recipes 

J. M. PATTERSON 

HpHE work of food production still goes 
•*■ on, and this month every one should be 
busy preparing for their winter gardens, but 
there is much to be done for the preservation 
of food. 

Because of the difficulty of getting the tin 
and glass containers other methods have 
been devised for the preservation of food and 
the Government had recently issued a bulle- 
tin on the subject of drying food stuffs. 
But our mothers and grandmothers had de- 
vised means for the preservation of food, and 
we are turning to them in our dilemma and 
are bringing to light a number of good old- 
time receipts. 

Therefore if the tin cans and glass jars are 
reserved for the succulent vegetables, the 
others can be conserved by drying and may 
be packed in 'earthen jars or in tin or paste- 
board boxes lined with oil paper. 

Dried Fruit 

Begin drying fruits just as soon as the seed 
matures, or as soon as the fruit is two-thirds 
ripe, and continue as long as you can handle 
it without mashing to a pulp. 

Caution — In drying either fruits or vege- 
tables in the sun, screen wire or mosquito 
netting should be stretched over a suitable 
frame to keep out the flies and other insects; 
and everything, of course, must be scrupu- 
lously clean if a superior flavored, healthy 
and wholesome product is desired. 

Dried Cherries. Stone the cherries and spread on dishes 
Put them in the hot sun. (Look after them occasionally for 
fear of worms having been in some of the cherries. To safe- 
guard against this put them in a hot oven for five or ten minutes.) 
(When dried sprinkle sugar on them and pack in stone jars.) 

Peach Chips. Peel and slice peaches thin, boil them until 
clear in a syrup made with half their weight in sugar, lay them 
on dishes in the sun and turn them until dry. Pack them in 
earthern jars or tin boxes or cans with powdered sugar sifted 
over each layer. Should there be syrup left, continue the 
process with other peaches. They are very nice when cooked 
with pure honey instead of sugar. 

There is an excellent old time receipt for 
the preservation of tomatoes called Tomato 
Paste. 

Tomato Paste. Take perfectly sound and ripe tomatoes, 
scald and take off skins; put them in a colander to drain and 
pour off the thin liquor that drains from them. Press the 
tomatoes through a sieve. Put in a kettle and boil slowly 
until reduced to thick pulp. Spread this on large bread pans 
and either dry out in the oven or in a modern evaporator or in 
the sun until it is a stiff paste, fn the latter case, be careful to 
cover all with cheese cloth or fine wire netting to keep out in- 
sects. This can be rolled in a sheet or cut in squares and kept 
in earthern jars, the tops tied over with a cloth, or in close tin 
boxes and cans lined with oil paper. If preferred the paste need 
not be dried, but can be put in wide mouthed bottles, after being 
boiled down thick, and sealed while hot. 

This paste can be used m the winter for a number of things: 
by adding water, as seasonings for soup, or with bread crumbs 
for a baked dish, and as a basis for sauces. 

Fruit Leather made of any kind of fruit 
is not only a delicious confection, but does 
not require sugar except in the case of very 
sour fruit, and if soaked in water several hours 
and cooked a few minutes can be eaten with 
cream or made into various desserts. 

Strawberry Leather. Take thoroughly ripe strawberries, 
mash to a pulp, spread on platters and dry in the sun or oven; 
when dry, dust with powdered sugar and roll up like a jelly 
cake, cut into suitable sized pieces and pack away in jars. This 
may be eaten as a confection or soaked in water and used for 
pies, short cake, sauce, tarts, etc., etc. The powdered sugar is a 
matter of taste and may be left out if desired. 

To dry strawberries put the berries in a moderate oven, heat 
through thoroughly, but not enough to become soft and juicy, 
spread out in the sun or finish in the oven. Treat blackberries 
and dewberries exactly the same as recommended for straw- 
berries. If a seedless roll is desired, this may be done by press- 
ing the pulp through a fine sieve before drying. 

Peaches, Pears, Apples, Plums, and Quinces 
or any fruit can be made into leather in the 
above manner and either rolled in sugar or 
cut in squares and put away in tin boxes or 
cans which are lined with oil paper. 

Next month we will continue the subject 



1 11 1 11 11111IIIIIIII I II inTTTl 



m 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 iTrrrrr 



Protect the Growing Things 

Now, while they are at their best, is 
the time to give them the necessary pro- 
tection that preserves their beauty and 
lengthens their life. Guard them with 



CEtSIOR 



RUST PROOF 



FENCES, BED-GUARDS 

trellises, tree-guards, etc. Made of extra 
heavy steel wires, held tightly together by 
patented steel clamps. Heavily galvan- 
ized A FTER making, which prevents rust. 

Ask your hardware dealer 
Write us for catalogue B 




Plant Evergreens Now 





DON'T wait till 
Spring. 
August and September 
are ideal months. 

Good full rooted, plump topped 
trees cost so little more than poor 
ones, why not have them? 

Send for Evergreen 
Help Hint Booklet. 



Juliuy "r^gehri* Ca 
M Thf Sife of The Trof 



tutherford NJ. 



M 



PLANT IRIS* 



this fall, and you will have vigorous clumps and strong 
blooms next summer. Our beautiful collection is one of 
the largest in America and comprises over 150 varieties. 
Send for catalogue. 

THE WING SEED CO. 
Box 1426 Mechanicsburg, Ohio 



GERMAN IRIS 

12 choice varieties including Aurea, Darius, 
Exquisite, Florentina, Johan de Witt, Pallida 
dalmatica, Queen of May and others equally 
choice for $1.00. 25 in 25 varieties for $2.00. 

Send for list of Iris and Peonies 
Geo. N. Smith, Wellesley Hills, Mass. 




For Safe 
Tree Surgery 

The Davey Tree Expert Co. 

1204 Elm St., Kent, O. 



Davey 

Tree Surgeons 



// a problem grows in your garden write to the Readers' Service for assistance 



August. 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



27 




DREER'S 

Mid-Summer Catalogue 

offers the best varieties and gives directions 
for planting in order to raise a full crop of 
Strawberries next year; also offers Celery 
and Cabbage Plants, Seasonable, Vegetable, 
Flower and Farm Seeds for summer sowing, 
Potted Plants of Roses, Hardy Perennials, 
and Shrubbery which may safely be set out 
during the summer; also a select Jfst of sea- 
sonable Decorative Plants. 

Write for a free copy mid 
kindly mention this publication 

Henry A. Dreer 

Philadelphia, Pa. 



1 



DUTCH BULBS 



are coming i 



t 



Spec 



The Quality of "Diamond Brand" Bulbs of 1917 crop 
promises to be superfine! We are not so sure about the 
Quantity, but hope enough will reach us to go around. 

isil C\ffoiA* To popularize tlie giant-flower- 

IUI l///cr. ; ug D.UOVIX TULIPS we will 

blooming bulbs each of CLA1U BUTT, clear salmon 

pink, PltlDE OK HAARLEM, deep rose shaded 

scarlet and GRETCIIEX. very light salmon, (M 

30 line bulbs in all, postpaid for "P 1 

FREE: — Treasures of Bulbland 

describes the choicest Hyacinths, Tulips, Daffodils, 
etc. Delive-y in September. Write for your 
copy TO-DAY. 

NETHERLAND BULB CO., 32 Broadway, N. Y. 



PRINKLERS 

for Every Need 

Simple, compact and effective "rain- 
makers" that do good work under all con- 
ditions. Let them help youmake yourgar- 
dens bountiful and your lawns beautiful. 

lAT SMALL COSTiiiii»iiiiiii 

There are four types, each made in several sizes. $6.85 
will buy a perfect "Border Mist" Junior Sprinkler. A 
"Garden Rain" Machine at $15.7$ provides as complete 
an outfit as one may wish. We guarantee every sprink- 
ler. Write for descriptive folder — free. 

THE SKINNER IRRIGATION COMPANY 

Phone 5220 Franklin 131 Hudson St., New York 




I ■ .-.: .- .... :, , 1 


.iJIlllllIlllillllBllll 


:;...: . "" ; 


rinniniiiiiiiiiijiiiiiiuminiimi 


itimmiiiiiinnmimiiiiiii 


tinniiimiiiiiimiiimiimfuimiiiiiiiiimt! 



MOON'S SHRUBBERY 

Softens the angular lines of house foundation 
value of the home, besides the pride afforded 
your property. Ask for Catalogue No. A 

THE WM. H. MOON CO,. Nu 
MorrisviUe, Pennsylvania 



increases the intrinsic 
beautify! 




EVERGREENS— An Investment 



Annuals are good, perennials are better, but evergreens 
are best and we have never met a man who could dis- 
pute this. Properly selected and carefully planted ever- 
greens serve generations. They are highly ornamental 
365 days in the year and each year sees them increase in 
beauty, usefulness and value. 

Plant Them NOW! 

August transplanting is an assured success when our oft- 
transplanted, carefully nursed and root-pruned speci- 
mens are used. Practical suggestions which kinds to 
choose for different purposes and thorough instructions 
how to plant them yours to command in a Free Treatise. 



Uniform Prices for Austrian 

and Scotch Pines, as 

follows : — 

2 to 2i feet tall, each $1.00; $9.00 for 10 
2| to 3 feet tall, each $1.25; $10.00 for 10 

3 to 4 feet tall, each $2.50; $17.50 for 10 

All symmetrical specimens, carefully dug and 
packed with large ball of earth. Safe arrival in 
good growing condition guaranteed. 



Austrian Pine, 
Scotch Pine 



For exposed hillsides or slopes, few 
evergreens equal Austrian Pine 
(shown alongside) in usefulness. 
Very beautiful when adorned with 
new growth. Scotch Pines are 

even more rapid growers than Austrian Pine, equally hardy and 

ornamental. 

Besides treatise mentioned above, our free catalogue is at your dis- 
posal. It presents the cumulative experience of over a century in 
the nursery business. Describes as complete and perfect a stock of 
evergreens as ever grew in 800 acre nurseries. Please ask for it. 

AMERICAN NURSERY COMPANY, Inc. 

800 Acres— at Flushing, L. I. and Springfield, N. J. 

Sales Office — Singer Building, N. Y. 





You Can Grow Vegetables, if you read 



Vegetable Lore 

By Maurice Fuld 



A NEW monthly magazine devoted exclusively 
■£** to the subject of "Vegetable Gardening by 
the Amateur." 

Just the information you need to make your 
little garden successful. 

Subscription $1.00 per year 

Sample copies mailed free 
MAURICE FULD, 1457 Broadway, New York 



MPGRM 





^^f^-' , '^^ : ' : *':'^*>4iiii^^-"'-':^^^ 5 ' : * f'WR PLANTS give a crop of finest berries in two 

^-r to ten months from planting — the Everbearing 
varieties in two months; the others the following June. Afull list of the best varieties, includ- 
ing the remarkable Van Fleet Hybrids, covering the whole season from earliest to latest. 

Our booklet No. 2 of Pot-Grown Strawberries tells all about them; how to prepare the ground and 
cultivate. IT IS FREE. If you would have bigger and better strawberries than your neighbors or you 
have ever had before, plant LOVETT'S POT-GROWN STRAWBERRY PLANTS. 

J. T. LOVETT, Box 125, Little Silver, N. J. 



Strawberry Specialists 
for thirty-nine years. 



Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in writing — and we will, too 



28 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



August, 1917 




Let us turn, for the moment, to that 
side of gardening appealing to the mind 
rather than to the more material senses. 
The response to our previous appeals for 
more and bigger and better vegetable 
gardens has been gratifying. But, so 
long as there are gardens, so long will 
we have flower beds that help brighten 
the world and cheer our lives. So, this 
month, let us call attention to 

Flower Seeds 

for Present Planting 

August is the 
month of the year 
to start Peren- 
nials from seeds. 
Perennials are 
those flowers that 
are perfectly har- 
dy and come 
again year after 
year. You wilj 
find two pages 
full of them de- 
scribed in our 
Mid-Summer 
Catalogue, offered 

S. & W. (Vs. Giant Pansies 

Sown during August, will live through the winter 
with but slight protection. Wintered over in a cold 
frame they will begin to bloom early in March. Out- 
doors in beds, they begin to favor us with glorious flow- 
ers, z\ to 3 inches in diameter, from early in May until 
real hot weather. Try these: 
Giant Winter Mixed, for early flowers in frames. 

PH. 25c. 
World's Best Mixture, finest we know. Pkt. 2$c. 
Masterpiece, grand strain with frilled flowers. Pkt. 2$c. 

Bulbs to Plant 
NOW! 

For August planting in pots, for house culture and 
Christmas tiowers, try: 
Freesia, Purity, the delightfully fragrant favorite, 

mammoth size, Doz. 60c; £3.50 per IOO. Plant six 

to twelve bulbs in a 6 inch pan. 
Roman riyacintns, the earliest of all to bloom and 

easiest to grow. White. £1.25 per doz.., £8.00 per 

IOO. 

Narcissus, Giant Paper-White, fine for growing in 
water, with pebbles to support bulbs. Large Bulbs, 
$c. each; 50c. per doz.; 32.75 per 100. Jumbo 
tiulbs, 10c. each.; 75c per doz., $3.50 per IOO. 
For planting direct into the garden: 

Madonna Lilies (LUium candidum), choice, northern 
grown bulbs, sure to thrive and hardy as oaks, mam- 
moth bulbs, 15c. each; gl.50 per doz., $10.00 per 100. 
All prices postpaid. 

Seasonable Suggestions for 
the Vegetable Garden 

August brings the eleventh hour opportunity to pro- 
vide root crops for winter storage. Extra Early Sorts 
of Beets, Carrots, Kohlrabi and Turnips will still reach 
good size from seeds before frost injures them. Our 
stock of all of them is complete. We also offer late 
Cabbage, Cauliflower and Celery Plants. By setting 
out S. & W. Co's sturdy potgrown strawberry plants 
this month, you gain a year's time. To familiarize 
yourself with August garden possibilities, write to-day 
for our 

|-)*L^ Y* t* Midsummer Catalogue 

* ***-^*-^ Interesting, instructive, prac- 

tical. Tells what to plant at this time of the year and 
how to do it. Offers timely accessories and implements 
which the home gardener needs most right now. We 
also have ready for mailing our new "Advance Bulb 
Catalogue" of Dutch, French, Japanese and American 
grown Bulbs. Write for both books to-day or just 
say "put my name on your mailing list." We will 
understand. 



"Stumpp& Walter Co 3 .' 




30-32 Barclay Street — 
NEW YORK 



Spraying Kills Young Squash Bugs 

I V HE common squash bug, sometimes 
-*• called the black squash bug to dis- 
tinguish it from the striped squash or melon 
bug, is a serious pest in gardens, at times. 
A farmer recently related to me his experi- 
ences in attempting to grow not only squashes 
but melons and other cucurbits. He claimed 
that these bugs utterly destroyed his crop 
for him so that after several attempts he 
had given up growing these particular vege- 
tables. 

The squash bug is a menace from the time 
the plant appears above ground until the 
crop is harvested. The newly started plant 
is attacked by the adults which have win- 
tered over. The damage done by the squash 
bug is this: they are sucking insects extract- 
ing the plants' juices for subsistence, and 
wherever the bug punctures a leaf to feed, it 
injects a little fluid supposed to be saliva 
which is poisonous to the plant, killing the 
leaf about the puncture. For this reason it 
is more serious on young plants than on old 
ones because of the fewer leaves. It is not 
uncommon to find young plants killed by 
a few punctures. 

The squash bug is a hard insect to fight. 
Poisons will not do the work because it does 
not chew. The adult beetles are almost 
impossible to reach by spraying, handpick- 
ing and trapping them being about the only 
methods of destroying them. I have always 
managed to prevent serious damage by laying 
shingles about the garden where the squash 
bug is working. They will gather on the 
under side, particularly on cool fall nights, 
and if the garden is visited early in the morn- 
ing they can be scraped off into a pail having 
kerosene in it. Destroying vines after the 
fruit is gathered is also a very material help 
in keeping down the pest. 

The young can be killed by spraying the 
vines with kerosene emulsion, diluting the 
stock solution with eight to ten parts of water. 
The time when the yoUng are present varies 
with the latitude. The adult appears in 
this latitude late in June and commences 
to lay eggs very shortly. It takes the eggs 
from eight to thirteen days to hatch, so that 
the young appear early in July. As soon as 
they appear spraying should be resorted to. 

Where this squash bug bothers melons or 
cucumbers, a trap crop of early squashes 
planted alongside of the melons will prove 
far more attractive to the bug, so that little 
or no damage is done to the melons. 

Repellants are sometimes used and with 
success. Land plaster or gypsum saturated 
with kerosene or turpentine makes a com- 
bination that the squash bug does not care 
to associate with. 

Penna. H. Clarke. 

Where radishes, mustard, cress^, cabbage, 
or other plants of the mustard family have 
been growing early in the season or last season 
use carrots, beets, celery, or some other crop of 
a different plant family. The mustard family 
is subject to a disease called club which lives 
in the soil and often does serious damage 
when plants of the family follow each other 
closely. 



"How to 
Grow Roses" 



A delightful handbook for 
rose lovers. Tells how to 
plant, prune, spray, etc 
Editor Barron of the Garden 
Magazine, says: "The book 

f is a very thorough round-up of what the 
amateur wants to know about roses." Library 

edition, 121 pages— 16 in natural colors. 

Sent postpaid for $1. Contains coupon 

worth $1 with $5 order for plants. Order now. 

f ONARD Box ROSES 

^&JonesCo. 24 West Grove, Pa. 
Rob't Pyle, Pres. A. Wintzer, Vice-Pres 

Rose Specialists 
Backed by 50 years' experience 





Arthur T. 

Boddington Co., Inc. 

Dept. G. 

128 Chambers St., N. Y. 



Just a little 
"patch" will yield 
these luscious 
berries allsummer 

Strawberry plants set out this 
summer will bear abundantly 
next year. Complete cultural 
directions are given in our 

Midsummer Garden Guide 

— also valuable information 
about Seasonable Seeds, 
Bulbs for fall planting, insecti- 
cides, implements etc. Write 
for a copy, to-day 




A Charming Birdbath 

of Artificial Stone 
fifteen inches square, three 
inches thick, hollowed out 
round two and one half 
inches deep in centre sloping 
to three-eighths at edge. Inexpensive, Practical. Artistic. 

Price $2.00. Three for $5.50, f. o. b. Verona 
W. H. BAYlLES Verona, New Jersey 

INGEE POSFS 

Sturdy as Oaks MWSK/ljhJ 

Dingee roses are always grown on their own roots 
— and are absolutely the best for the amateur planter. 
Send to-day for our 

"New Guide to Rose Culture" for 1917 

— it's free. It isn't a catalog"— it's a practical work on rose 

growing. Profusely illustrated. Describes over iooo varieties 

of roses and other flowers, and tells how to grow them. Safe 

delivery guaranteed. Established 1850. 70 greenhouses. 

5THE DINGEE & CONARD CO., Box 837, West Grove, Pa. 




yMJM/AW//////////////SM^^ 



A Garden Library for a 
Dollar and a Quarter 

Bound volumes of THE GARDEN MAGA- 
ZINE represent the last word on gardening. 
It is really a loose leaf cyclopedia of horti- 
culture. You are kept up to date. Save 
your copies of THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 
and let us bind them for you. There 
is a new volume every six months, and Vol. 
24 is ready now. Send your magazines 
by Parcel Post and we will supply index, 
and bind them for you for $1.25. If you 
have not kept all of the numbers, we will 
supply the missing copies at 25c each, or 
we will supply the bound volume complete 
for $2.00. THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 
can be of more service this year than ever 
before, and you can get most out of the 
magazine when you bind it, and keep it in 
permanent form. Address: 

Circulation Department 
GARDEN MAGAZINE, Garden City, N.Y. 



g^gB^^^^^^^^^^^S^ S^^^a^^™B^^BB5BgS 



The Readers' Service is prepared to help you solve your gardening problems 



August, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



29 



Serviceable Attractions! 

Garages with Pergola Features, and other 
Suitable Things for Beautifying Home Grounds 
PERGOLAS and Lattice 

Garden Houses 

Gates and Arbors 

When writing enclose 10c 

and ask for catalogue. 

"H-30" 




HARTMANN-SANDERS CO. 

Factory and Main Office, 2155-87 Elston Ave., Chicago 
New York City office 6 East 39th Street 



WE WANT YOU 

to secure new subscribers to the World's Work, The New Country 
Life and The Garden Magazine in your town. Your spare 
time thus invested will be profitable; liberal commissions. Address 
Circulation Dept. 
Doubleday, Page & Company, Garden City, New York 



TULIP BULBS, Postpaid 

While my stock lasts, I can sell, price per ioo: 

Gesneriana, red . . $i.6o Kate Greenaway, faint 

Bouton d'Or. yellow . 1.20 pink . ... S2.00 

Caledonia, orange scarlet 1.60 Mrs. Potter Palmer, dark 

Mixed Parrots, feathered purple .... 3.00 

edges .... 1.20 Bar. de la Tonnaye, pink 2.00 

Mixed May Flowering, Wedding Veil, light gray 2.00 

all colors . . . .1.20 White Queen, blush 

Farncombe Sanders, red 3.00 white 2.00 

Clara Butt, salmon pink 2.00 Mixed Darwins, all 

Mad. Bosboom, cherry red 2.00 colors .... 1.60 

As many more varieties in list. Send for it. 

ORONOGO FLOWER GARDENS, Carthage, Missouri 



PEONIES 

All the good ones the world over 

E. J. SHAYLOR 

Specialist in fine Peonies 
Auburndale Massachusetts 



PEONIES 

Get catalogue of our Gold Medal collection 
E. A. REEVES South Euclid, Ohio 





All the Sunlight All Day Greenhouses 

KING CONSTRUCTION CO. 




Br 


372 King Road, North Tonawanda, N. Y. 

Write for Booklet 


m 






NOW is the Time to Plan Plantings — 

whether you plant this fall or next spring! 

Trees and Plants that are adapted to Wisconsin, Illinois, Iowa and Minnesota are our 

Specialties. Varieties that are hardy here will succeed anywhere. Many things can be safely 

planted in the fall in this latitude. Some cannot. Let us advise with you regarding this. 

Our illustrated descriptive book, Hardy Fruits and Ornamentals, will be of value to you. 

Write to-day stating what line of nursery stock interests you 



The Coe, Converse & Edwards Company 



Nursery Landscape Men 



THE most complete stock of 
hardy plants in America. Illus- 
trated catalog of hardy plants, shrubs, 
trees and bulbs sent free on request. 

ELLIOTT NURSERY COMPANY 

326 Fourth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. 




Box D, Ft. Atkinson, Wisconsin 



OF ALPINES AND ROCK 
PLANTS from the rugged slopes 
of the Rocky Mountains will con- 
dense more joy into a small space 
than any other style of Fall Gar- 
dening. The list includes rare and 
choice varieties of Anemone, Co- 
lumbine, Clematis, Delphinium, 
Gentian. Evening Primrose, 
Pentstemon, Yucca, Hardy Cacti, 
and many others not commonly 
cultivated, all hardy and easily 
grown. 

Besides native plants, we grow 
and catalogue all the best orna- 
mentals for the Northwest, in- 
cluding trees, shrubs, evergreens 
and hardy flowers. Either cata- 
logue free. 



Rockmont Nursery, Boulder, Colo. 



TRADEMARK REG.U.3.PAT0FE 



JUST WHAT YOU WANT FOR AN UP-TO- 
DATE MOVABLE POULTRY YARD 



"BUFFALO" Portable 

Poultry Runways are 
neat and easy to handle 
and erect; simply push 
legs into ground. Made 
from 1 5 inch diamond mesh, heavy galva- 
nized wire fabric and galvanized round iron 
frames with 1 inch galvanized Hexagon Net- 
ting along bottom, 12 inches high, strong and 
durable, last a life time. Can be moved to 
other locations at will. Greatest thing on the 
market for young chicks or duckling runways or 
can be used for grown chickens, ducks, geese, 
etc., and make any size yard you wish. Can also be used 
to advantage for enclosing small vegetable garden plots, etc. 

Price, each section 

$3-73 

1.60 

SX2 2.00 

6' " x 2' " 1.60 

Above prices effective April 1st, 1017. F.O.S. Buffalo and are for orders con- 
sisting of six section* or more. 

i can be shipped from stock immediately. Special sizes made 






Standard size sections as follows: 
7' long x 5' high . 
x 5' " gate 



2'6" 



i mentioned abov< 
to order on short notice. 

Send money order, check, New York draft or currency by registered mail and we will 
send you one of the greatest articles in existence for poultry or dog kennel purposes. 

Booklet No. 67-A will be sent upon request. 

Place a trial order to-day, we know you will be well pleased. 



^itn 



ENLARGED VIEW 



BUFFALO WIRE WORKS CO. GwSffitfkJ 467 Terrace, Buffalo, N. Y. 



Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in writing — and we will, too 



30 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



August, 1917 



. . ,.. 





INSIDE 

THE 

GARDEN HOME 

JAMES COLLIER MARSHALL 



■DHI^^^ 



[ 





CONVENIENCES FOR THE COTTAGE 

Mr. James Collier Marshall, Director of the Decorating Service of The Garden Magazine's Advertising Dept., will solve your problems of home 
decoration — color schemes, hangings, floor coverings, art objects and interior arrangements, making purchases at the most favorable prices. 
This service is free to our readers. Address inquiries to "Inside the Garden Home," The Garden Magazine, 1 1 West 32nd Street, New York. 



IT IS easy enough to furnish a large house if the 
wherewithall to do it is available, but it is no mean 
task to outfit a cottage successfully when one must 
take into consideration limited space as well as cost of 
each piece. 

This was borne in on me forcefully not long since 
when a reader asked me to tell where might be had a 
table with a lid-covered drawer for letter writing, such 
as are found in most hotel bedrooms. Wrote my in- 
quirer: "I have a tiny house with only one guest room 
furnished I think satisfactorily, though I want to add a 
table of the sort that may be both centre table and 
writing desk, yet of the smallest size and simplest 
appearance. My guests shall be comfortably though 
simply served." 

My search for this table led me through all the shops 
to the manufacturer's showrooms until I found what I 
wanted, and it occurred to me that we frequently over- 
look the comfort of our guests in outfitting our houses 
in simple ways that are easy to rectify. For instance, 
whether the house be large or small, rarely does one find 
a trunk or suitcase rack in his room. There is nothing 
that gives such satisfaction in either unpack- 
ing or packing one's belongings as to be able 
to get at the bag comfortably. 

Every one knows the alternatives — using 
the bed and soiling the spread, a chair — and 
defacing it, the floor and ruining one's dis- 
position! The worst of it all is when a rack 
is found it is invariably ricketty. However, 




Your guests will 



appreciate 
stand. It 



this mahogany trunk and suitcase 
costs only S3.50 





A good many wooden tables have been put on the 
market with flower boxes arranged in the ends but they 
have always seemed incongruous. The wicker one 
reproduced here, the first of its kind to be so built, gives 
no such unpleasant impression. Indeed, quite the 
opposite may be said of it, since its lines are not only 
not marred by the floral insets but improved thereby. 
Exceptionally well built, its proportions are correct — 
every inch being well accounted for. It is notable as 
being equally serviceable for use in the centre of the 
room or at its side, and while it was designed for a 
summer porch, it might in perfect taste be employed 
inside the house the whole year through. 

Apropos of tables and their dressings, I am reminded 
that the old time vogue, a custom that has never waned 
in England, of placing jars of fragrant salts on the 
tables in the living rooms of the house to freshen the air 
has come again into favor. These may be either of 
plain or cut glass or crystal filled with gaily tinted salts, 
or after the newer fashion, the jars and bottles may be 
decorated and the salts tinted to match the decorations. 
The idea is as gay as the salts are refreshing and the 
vogue promises to become a sensible custom. 
Anent fresh scents, let me tell also that a 
well known hostess has a maid carry 
through her drawing rooms just before the 
guests arrive a dish of burning lavender, 
which gives off" a faint but delicious scent 
that lasts all evening. This custom of per- 
fuming the house artificially is as old as his- 
tory, and one that loses nothing through age. 



Note the dignity and dainty lines of this mahogany 
cellaret wmcn adapt it to any setting 



The fine proportions, simple lines and wisely conserved space recommend this 

table highly 

the one pictured here is a fine exception, being excellently made and 
good looking enough to suit any setting, folding easily into a limited 
place in the closet when not in use. 

Another interesting, if not altogether necessary, piece of furniture 
is the circumspect looking cellaret shown here whose nice proportions 
and dainty lines when closed in no manner prepare one for its very 
complete outfitting. As will be seen the roll top conceals three decanters 
on a revolving stand as well as six wine and six toddy glasses. There 
is room also for a cocktail shaker, the preparation of which appetizing 
drink is conducted on the porcelain topped slide seen below. The 
drawer is arranged with compartments for cards, score pads, poker 
chips and other first aids to these amusements. This is a most satis- 
factory article of furniture for the household that boasts no cellar, 
the summer cottage, or for a bachelor's rooms. 




Its reserved manner gives place to hospitality when 
the top of the cellaret is rolled back 



August, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



31 



rKELSEyi 

HEALTH HEAT 



AFTER 25 years of making and selling 
XX boiler heats; furnace heats; and the 
Kelsey Health Heat; we are convinced 
that for real heating economy and all 
around satisfaction, there is no heat like 
the Kelsey Health Heat. 

Because the Kelsey heats with freshly 
heated fresh air, automatically mixed with 
just the right healthful amount of mois- 
ture, you don't feel its heat when you come 
into a room, but you do feel its comfort. 

No heat gives as much heat from as 
little coal. We can prove it. 



Send for Booklet 

HE ftELSEV 

WARM AIR GENERATOR J 

232 James Street, Syracuse, New York 

NEW YORK— 1 03-P Park Avenue 
CHICAGO— 21 7-P West Lake Street 
DETROIT— Space 95-P Builders Exchange 
BOSTON— 405-P P. O. Sq. Bldg. 



T 




WA TP-supqy . 



DEMINC 



DEMING 



air pressure systems force 
toeveryfaucetamplesupplies 
of clear, pure water under high pressure. Oper- 
ated simply, dependably by handpump, motor, 
gasoline engine or windmill. Helpful 32- 
page book gladly mailed free. Write now. 

THE DEMING COMPANY 

118 Depot St., Salem, Ohio 



Beautify Furniture 

Protect Floor and Floor Coverings 
from injury by using 

Glass Onward Sliding 
Furniture Shoe 

in place of casters. 

If your dealer will not supply you 

write us. 

ONWARD MFG. CO. 
MENASHA, WIS. DEPT. T 





DARWIN TULIPS 

Rembrandt and Hybrid Tulips 

direct from the sole originators 

E. H. Krelage & Son 

Complete Bulb Catalogue Free 
on request to 

J. A. deVEER, Sole Agent, 100 William St., N. Y. 




ENTERPRISE PROTECTIVE FENCE 

protects and beautifies 

An Enterprise fence is an unclimbable barrier — security against tramps, 
prowlers, thieves and other undesirable persons. In addition to giving 
ample protection, it beautifies and lends distinction to city homes, country 
estates, etc., etc., and enhances property value. 

Investigate — Send for Illustrated Catalog 

Write to-day for illustrated catalog. It describes hundreds of styles, quotes prices, and ex- 
plains our free offer to make a blueprint showing all details of fence needed to protect and 
beautify your premises. 

ENTERPRISE IRON WORKS, 2439 Yandes Street, Indianapolis, Ind. 



Specialists for 33 years in All-Iron and 
Iron-and -Woven -Wire protective fencing 



Send to-day for 
this catalog 





<AEOW£f 
PolfERY" 

GIVES ENDURING CHARM 



Send for our illustrated—-' 
'catalogue of Flower Pots. 
Boxes,Vases.Benches. Sundials. 
Gazing Globes, Bird Fonts and 
other Artistic Pieces for Garden 
and Interior Decoration, 

GaeowayTerraCdTta (b. 

3214 WALNUT ST. PHILADELPHIA. 



BIRD HOUSES 

Our Folder illustrating the best, most successful and largest 
line on the market, is Free. Write to-day and compare values. 

CHICAGO BIRD HOUSE CO., 709-11 So. Leavilt St., Chicago, 111. 



Narcissus Bulbs Ready Now 

Mixture good for naturalizing and giving bloom 
throughout the Narcissus season, 100 bulbs, 
SI. 00, postpaid. 

ORONOGO FLOWER GARDENS, Carthage, Mo. 



HR0KAGE 

Farm, Garden and Orchard Tools 

Answer the farmers' big questions: How can I 
grow crops with less help? How dig potatoes 
with fewer horses and men? How save every 
tuber before the frost and in time for the best 
market? 

Engine 
Potato Digger 





■will dig your potatoes in two-thirds the usual 
time. Saves two horses for other work. Oper- 
ated by 4% H. P. air-cooled "New Way" 
Engine you can stop the Digger and the 
engine will clear the machine. Automatic 
throw-out clutch prevents breakage. Engine 
is quickly interchangeable for Iron Age En- 
gine Sprayer. We also make three other 
styles, one of which will surely meet your 
condition. We make a full line of potato 
machinery. Send for booklet to-day. 
BATEMM ATF'G CO. 
Box S5N Grenloeh, N. J. 



.m&s 



Destroy Tree Pests Kill San Jose Scale. Apple Scab, 
Fungi, lice, bugs and other enemies of vegetation by 
spraying with 

GOOD'SShFISH oil 

SOAP N?3 

Does not harm the trees-Fertilizes soil and aids healthy 
growth. Used and endorsed byU.S. Dept. of Agriculture. 

rDCp Our valuable book on Tree and Plant 

ri\EiC Diseases. Write for it to-dav. 
JAMES GOOD, Original Maker, 2111-15 E. Susquehanna Ave., Phila. 




HARDY PHLOX 

Will Beautify any Garden: They have a good many 
points in their favor. Good growth, odor and hardiness. 

I have the largest collection in the world. 

Over 300 varieties. Also Delphinium and Iris. 

Send for list 

W. F. SCKME1SKE, Hospital Station 
Box 11 Binghamton, New York 




Unusual Hdmes^ Guaranteed Costs! 




New plan book "Gordon- Van Tine 

Homes" shows inexpensive simplifications of 

best architects' work. All wholesale prices. Ready- 
cut or not Ready-cut. Local references. Material 
complete — No Extras — S300 Up. Save $200 to $500. 
BooHFREE. Send for it. NOW! 




QordoivVan Tine Co. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed or Money Back 



6300 Case Street 
Davenport, Iowa 



Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in writing — and we will, too 



32 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



August, 1917 



TOWNSEND'S 
TRIPLEX 

Floats over the uneven ground 
as a ship rides the waves 



The Greatest Grass- 
cutter on earth, cuts a 
swath 86 inches wide. 

S. P. Townsend & Co. 

23 Central Ave., Orange, N. J. 




The public is ivarntd not to purchase 
mowers infringing the Townsend Patent 
No. z^oQjiQ, Dec. igth, igit 



Send for catalogue illustrating all 
types of Townsend mowers. 




for $0 hens 



HODGSON PORTABLE HOUSES 



The Hodgson poultry and dog houses enable you to take care of the stock with the least amount of trouble. This dog kennel is well- 
ventilated, sanitary and storm-proof. The poultry houses are made of red cedar, vermin-proofed, and are absolutely complete inside. 
All neatly painted and made in sections that can be quicklv bolted together bv anyone. Send for illustrated booklet. 

E. F. HODGSON COMPANY Room 3n > ^^^Ti^^^X^^^^^ 



hdii^^iMJ^ i Underground Garbage Receiver 

lVNr ' '■.«»..> MAS& installed at your home — means less danger from infantile pa- 
ralysis germs. Act NOW — for your protection. Eliminate the dirty garbage pail. Be- 
fore buying send for our catalogue. It will pay you. 

12 years on the market Look for our Trade Marks Sold direct factory 

C. H. STEPHENSON, Manufacturer, 40 Farrar Street, Lynn, Massachusetts 




&IR0NAGE 

Farm, Garden and Orchard Tools 

Answer the farmer's big questions. 
How can I ?et my crops sprayed when 
help is scarce? How protect my crops 
against buss and blight? 

IRON AGEJSgZT 

meets the need for a fast-working, hi^h- 

pressure field sprayer Covers 4 or 6 rows — 55 or 100 

pal. tank. Write to- 

4 or 6 rows <& day for free booklet. 

BATEM AN 
M'F'G CO. 
-,\\, B0X35Q 
\ Grenloch,N.J. 





'■:•*' *>*&■ >^k *J%£i > 




Reiber Bird Homes 

are always filled with birds — 
summer and winter — in summer 
for nesting — in winter for shelter. 
Reiber Bird Baths and Feeding 
Stations should occupy a place 
in every garden, school grounds, 
park and estate. The 

Reiber Bird Book 

describes and illustrates them, 
sent free on request. 

Reiber Bird Homes, Wes t web^ter? s N. y. 





The Careof Your Trees 

Let us take it right off your shoulders. "The 
Bartlett Way" of Tree Surgery is safe and 
sure. None but real experts employed. En- 
dorsed by forestry schools. Representatives 
everywhere. Send for "Tree Talk." It's 
alive with tree helps. 

THE F. A. BARTLETT COMPANY 
538 Main St., Stamford, Conn. 



PEONIES 




Aurore $1.00 

Baroness Schroeder - - .75 

Gerinaine Bigot • - - 1.00 

Gloire de Charles Gombault .75 

Karl Rosenneld - 2.00 

King of England (Jap.) - 1.50 

La Fayette - - - - 1.00 



Madame D'Treyeran 

Madame Augusta Dessert 

Madame Savreau 

M. Martin Cahuzac - 

Mr. Manning 

Petite Renee 

Therese - 



J2.00 
1. 00 

3.00 



-75 
3-50 



H. F. CHASE 



Catalogue on request 

Fernlea 



Andover, Mass. 



ORCHIDS 

Largest importers and growers of 
Orchids in the United States 

Send twenty-five cents for catalogue. This amount will be refunded 
on your first order. 

LAGER & HURRELL 
Orchid Growers and Importers SUMMIT, N. J. 




OSES 8/" NEW CftSTLE 



—the most authoritative book on rose planting, cultiva- 
tion and pruning ever published. Beautifully printed in 
colors, this valuable guide gives special prices and tells 
all about our famous Roses, Plants and Bulbs. It's the 
lifetime experience of America's largest rose growers. 
You will be astonished at our low prices. Tells how 
we prepay express charges, anywhere in the U. S. and 
guarantee safe delivery. Write to the Rose Specialists 
for your copy to-day. 

HELLER BROS. CO., Box 821, New Castle, Ind. 



Your Country Needs 
Good Celery 

Don't waste half of it by 
imperfect blanching. 

The Ball Lightning Celery 
Bleacher is the most perfect method 
ever invented. It blanches the entire 
stalk a beautiful ivory white, crisp as ice 
in a'~out 14 days after being applied. 
Requires no exoerience. Used and recom- 
ended by all the leading Agricultural Col- 
es in the U. S. A. 

Write for my new BOOK describing this 
and several other wonderful inventions 
for the garden. 

The Ball Manufacturing Co. 




Department E 



Glenside, Pa. 



Farquhars Pot Grown 
Strawberry Plants 

Plant early for full crop next year. 

Write for copy of our Summer Cata- 
logue containing full list of varieties. 

R. & J. Farquhar & Co. 
9 S. Market St., Boston, Mass. 




School of Horticulture for Women 

AMBLER, PA. 

Two years' practical and theoretical course 

in Horticulture. Next entering class for 

diploma students January 15, 1918. Fall 

course of ten weeks for amateurs begins 

September 11th. Write for particulars. 

Early registration advised. 

Elizabeth Lelshton I.oc. Director, Box 105 



SALAD SECRETS, ioo recipes. Brief but complete. 15c by 
mail. 100 Meatless recipes, 15c. 50 Sandwich recipes, 15c. All 
three, 30c. B. H. Briggs, 456 Fourth Ave., Newark, N. J. 

"HOW TO GROW ROSES"— Library Edition; 121 pages— 16 in 
natural colors. Not a catalogue. Price $1, refunded on $5 order 
for plants. The Conard & Jones Co., Box 24, West Grove, Pa. 

MR. ROBERT PYLE — the well-known Garden Lecturer and 
Rosarian invites correspondence from garden lovers and societies. 
Subject — ■ "The American Rose Garden" illustrated with finely 
colored lantern slides. Address: West Grove, Pa. 

WATER WEEDS of all kinds are easily removei from lakes, ponds, 
streams, etc., by the Submarine Weed Cutting Saw. Send for 
particulars. Aschert Bros., West Bend. Wis. 



Middle aged working gardener; single 
man or small family. Apply by letter to Room 
607. No. 15 East 40th Street, New York City. 



WANTED. 



Irises, Hardy Plants, Lilies and 

Japanese Garden Specialties 

Send jor our new 1917-18 Catalogue 
Over 500 fine varieties of Irises 

Rainbow Gardens 



1980 Montreal Avenue 
St. Paul, Minn. 



IRISES— A Specialty 

We are offering all varieties of Germanics or Tall bearded Irises, 
priced at 15c each at $5.00 per 100; all varieties priced at 25c at $8.00 
per 100. This is just one half usual price and should be taken advan- 
tage of by those who wish to get Irises for beautiful mass effects in 
planting around your gardens and lawns. 

All stock carefully packed and labeled. Don't fail to include 100 or 
more of the grand Irises in your orders. Catalogue on request. 

THE GARDENS 

Erith N. Shoup Dayton, Ohio 




The Readers 1 Service mil gladly furnish information about Nursery Stock, etc. 




Illustration from The House Beautiful for July 

There's Many a 
Homeless Family 
Living in a Fine House 

WHY ? Because they let some one 
else plan their house for them, and 
furnish it, and it isn't their house. It 
doesn't look like home or feel like 
home ; and it isn't home, for home is 
a place filled with the things we 
cherish. 

The House Beautiful 

is the magazine of the home lover. 
It helps you to plan your own house, 
to choose your own furniture, to de- 
velop your home-making personality. 
It tells you how, by authoritative 
articles on house, furnishings and 
surroundings. It shows you how, by 
suggestive illustrations of other 
people's successful homes. 

Are you planning to build, remodel or 
refurnish? 

Would you improve your yard, your porch 
or some room that you don't like? 

Are you going to paint, paper or decorate? 

Do you wish to learn the most scientific 
methods of running your household? 

Are you interested in gardens, arts and 
crafts, good furniture, rugs, hangings, artistic 
doors and windows? 

In a word, have you an ambition to make 
that home of yours — the center of your life — 
a better, happier place in which to live? 

Yes?— Then you need THE HOUSE 
BEAUTIFUL. 

Don't depend on the newsstands. Fill out 
the attached coupon and mail it to-day. 

Special Offer: Six Months for One Dollar 

Regular rate $2.50 a year, 25 cents a copy 

THE HOUSE BEAUTIFUL G. M. 8-17 

3 Park Street, Boston 

Enclosed find $1.00* for which send THE 
HOUSE BEAUTIFUL for six months to the 
following: 

Name 

Street 

City Sfafe 

•Foreign postage 55c extra; Canadian postage 30c extra. 



HP' 



^16 




How do You 
Kill Weeds? 




I 



PHE old way has been 

A by hand- weeding — 

paying excessive labor 

costs several times during 

the year. 

But, to-day, owners of 
estates and homes, as well 
as leading railroads, 
municipalities, country 
clubs, parks and ceme- 
teries maintain beautiful 
weed-free paths, gutters, drives, 
roads, tennis courts and rights 
of way by the use of ATLAS 
WEED-KILLER. 



One gallon of Atlas 
clears 600 sq. ft. for the 
entire season. Apply in 
ordinary sprinkling can — 
diluted with 20 parts 
water. Weeds die a few 
days after first application 
— then, no more trouble for 
the entire year. Compare 
with costly hand-weeding 
which must be done over and 
over again. 

(For killing weeds in lawns 
use LAWN SILICATE. 
Write for particulars.) 




\TIAS W££D-KILL£R 



Grass and Weed.- Killing" Chemical 



Sample Offer: 

We will furnish you a trial 2 qt. can of Atlas Weed- 
Killer on receipt of $1.00 and this coupon, prepaid 
if you mention your dealer's name. 





Dog House 



"T\0 away with all the troubles, worries and ex- 

J -^ penses that go hand in hand with building. 

Buy a Hodgson Portable house. Whether you 

wanttoerecta cottage, garage, play house, poultry 

house or what-not, you'll find "just the 

thing" pictured in the Hodgson catalog. 

These houses are shipped to you in painted 

sections well finished and all ready to bolt 

together. You can put up any Hodgson 

house yourself — in a jiffy. Send for catalog. 

E. F. HODGSON CO. 

Room 228, 116 Washington Street, Boston, Mass. 
6 East 39th St., New York City 



HODGSONPor/^/eHOUSES 




Mysterious as the opal, its structure more wonderful than the orchid, the beauty of the Iris is wholly 
ethereal. If you yield to its magic spell it will lead you across the border into a wonderland of delight. 

FARR'S GOLD MEDAL IRISES 

A WARDED not only the highest honors (the Gold Medal and Certificate of Merit) at the Panama-Pacific Exposition, but also awarded 
-f* the highest praises by those who have seen Farr's Irises growing in many of the exclusive gardens of America. 

These beautiful Irises were originated at Wyomissing, and are a selection from many thousands grown in my gardens. Some of the 
most distinct and beautiful varieties are included in this assortment of fourteen Irises which I call the 



Panama-Pacific Collection 



Chester Hunt. S. celestial-blue; F. dark marine-blue, 
bordered pale blue, shaded base. 27 in. 75 cts. 

Hiawatha. S. pale lavender, flushed rose; F. royal pur- 
ple, bordered lavender. 28 in. 75 cts. 

James Boyd. Immense broad incurved standards form- 
ing a high dome-shaped centre; clear light-blue. F. 
dark violet, tipped and edged lighter. Named in 
honor of Mr. James Boyd, Haverford, Penna., winner 
of Silver Cup and a Gold Medal for a display of 
Irises made in Philadelphia in 1915 (all plants from 
Wyomissing Nurseries). 20 in. 75 cts. 

Juniata. S. and F'.' clear blue; large, fragrant flowers. 
The tallest of all the Beardless Irises, with unusually 
long drooping foliage. 50 cts. 



Mary Garden. S. pale yellow, flushed pale lavender; 
long drooping falls, creamy white, minutely dotted and 
veined maroon; stigmas clear yellow. 28 in. 75 cts. 

Massasoit (New 1916). Standards and falls a very 
distinct shade of metallic Venetian blue — quite diffi- 
cult to describe accurately. 75 cts. 

Nokomis. S. pale lavender-white; F. velvety dark 
violet-blue, bordered white. Medium size flowers; 
tall-growing, free blooming. 50 cts. 

Pauline. S. and F. rich pansy-violet; deep orange 
beard. Fragrant; large. 3 ft. 75 cts. 

Powhattan. S. light bishop violet with deeper border; 
F. deep purple with crimson shade, large, horizontal 
spreading flower. 38 in. 75 cts. 



Quaker Lady. S. smoky lavender with yellow shadings; 
F. ageratum-blue and old-gold; stigmas yellow, 
yellow beard. 38 in. 75 cts. 

Red Cloud. S. rosy lavender-bronze; F. velvety 
maroon-crimson, reticulated yellow, stigmas old- 
gold. 2 ft. 75 cts. 

Rose Unique. S. and F. bright violet -rose, the nearest 
approach to a pink Iris. 75 cts. 

Shrewsbury. S. rosy bronze; F. violet purple, with 
lighter shading; heavy orange beard. 75 cts. 

Wyomissing. S. creamy-white, suffused delicate soft 
rose; F. deep rose at the base shading to a flesh- 
colored border. 75 cts. 



The Entire Collection of 14 Varieties For $10 



SPECIAL OFFER OF TWO 1918 NOVELTIES. In the 1918-19 edition of Farr's Hardy Plant Specialties I shall 

introduce two new Irises of remarkable beauty. 

Paxatawney. S. pale parma-violet, with sulphur yellow Swatara. S. lobelia-blue, suffused bronzy yellow at 
suffusions deepening at base. F. darker, with brown base. F. bright violet, with conspicuous orange 

and yellow reticulations. 36 in. $1. beard. Large flower. 36 in. $1. 

With an order for the complete Panama-Pacific Collection I will include one plant of each of these new Irises, provided 

you indicate your desire to add them to your garden. 



Two Unusually Fine Irises 

White Knight. The whitest of all Irises; 
sweetly scented. $1. 

Iris King. S. clear lemon-yellow; F. rich 
maroon, bordered yellow. 50 cts. 



Farr's Hardy Plant Specialties (Edition 191 7- IS) describes all of my seedling Irises, and upward of SOO other varieties, many of which are illustrated in color. Peonies, 
Oriental Poppies, Aquilegias, and other hardy plants for fall planting are described and illustrated. Most garden-lovers have this book, but if you do not have a copy, write me to-day. 

BERTRAND H. FARR — Wyomissing Nurseries Co., 104 Garfield Ave., Wyomissing, Penna. 

In the September issue of Garden I will tell you all about the wonderful collection of Peonies that my painstaking care has made the largest assortment in America. 

So many have asked me to help them plan their garden that I have found it necessary to form a special department in charge of a skillful landscape designer and 
plantsman. I shall be glad to assist you in any way desired, whether by oil-hand suggestions or by advice, which will be cheerfully given without charge. For the 
preparation of detailed plans a charge will be made. 



THE COUNTRY LIFE PRESS, CARDEN CITY, NEW YORK 



hALL FLAW 11M 



e o 



FK1NU UK1VL 



The GARDEN 



MAGA 



September 
1917 





Price 
25c 



% 






T-pQi-a-K^ 






"Training the Recruit" 



Ferns for 
Ground Covers 

One customer of 
ours recently used 
40,000 of our hardy 
ferns to create a per- 
fect ground cover and 
give a proper finish 
to a massive planting. 
I can fill orders of 
that size, beginning 
with the middle of 
September. 




About 
Rock Gardens 

The Rockery idea 
in gardening is rising 
rapidly in popular 
favor. Those who 
love the dainty fern 
and many other at- 
tractive forms of 
plant life found in the 
rock garden, will find 
me well stocked with 
plants for rockeries 
of all descriptions. 



The Lure of New England's Hardy Orchids 

To many readers of The Garden Magazine Hardy Orchids will sound like a paradox. Orchids generally awaken 
thoughts of greenhouses and conservatories, of prices for the flowers that are beyond the reach of the average. And 
yet, there are Orchids that are so hardy that they live outdoors through the most severe New England winters. Year 
after year they delight us with their quaint and curious flowers. The lovely Lady's Slippers or Moccasin Flowers, 
the Orchis, Ladies' Tresses and Rattlesnake Plantain, how they please us by their faithful coming again and blooming. 

For years hardy orchids have been my hobby. 
First I collected them because I loved them. Later 
I grew them to sell again, to get others to under- 
stand them as I do. After all these years, my 
favorites are still 



The Picture Above 



The Lady's Slippers 



Their botanical name — Cypripedium — is their 
worst handicap. Cypripedium acaule is often 
called the Red Lady's Slipper, but the flowers are 
really rose-purple, as shown above. It thrives in 
any well-drained, light weight soil. I grow it in a mixture composed of 
three parts sand and two parts leafmold. See prices alongside. 

C. parviflorum or Small Yellow Lady's Slipper is particularly charming growing in 
masses, in shady positions, left undisturbed for years. 20c. each; $2.00 per dozen; 
$10.00 per hundred. 

C. pubescens or Large Yellow Lady's Slipper needs ample moisture, a shady spot, 
but it prefers well-drained soil composed largely of humus and leaf-mold. 20c. each; 
$2.00 per dozen; $10.00 per hundred. 

C. spectabile, the Showy Lady's Slipper is the finest and most showy of all. I 
grow it to perfection in pure spagnum moss, spread 4 to 5 inches deep on top of 
ground where there is constantly much moisture. 25c each; $2.50 per dozen; $15.00 
per hundred. 

rJjWAlvD (jlLL/lll 1, Wila^Flower Specialist 



shows Cypripedium acaule thriving to per- 
fection in its native haunts. Well-mulched 
with a thick layer of pine needles, it is a 
subject of unlimited beauty and wide use- 
fulness. One-crown plants 20c. each, $2.00 
per dozen; $10.00 per hundred. Two-crown 
plants 30c. each; $3.00 per dozen ; $15.00 per 
hundred. Single and dozen lots postpaid. 
In 100 lots by express only. Plant this fall. 



WildFlowers, the Woodland'sCharm 

Do you recall the "posies" of childhood days 
when, as a youngster, you used to ramble through 
the woods in search of things that appealed to the 
childish imagination? Do you remember the 
Bloodroot and Dogtooth violets, the Snakeroots, 
Trilliums and Hepaticas? In common with many, 
I, too, fell in love with these fascinating children 
of the wild flora. Now, as a full-grown man, I 
grow them by the thousands so that their charms 
may be enjoyed by others sharing my sentiments. I have kinds for all 

soils, for sunny or shady places, for wet or dry situations. Write for my catalogue or 
tell me which most appeal to you among wild flowers. I shall t gladly help you in 
working out any planting ideas you may have. 

Fall Planting Insures an Extra Year of Flowers 

Nearly all the plants growing in my nursery can be transplanted in the fall with 
full assurance that they will grow. Plant Trilliums, Lilies, Cypripediums. etc.. now, so 
they can start blooming early next spring. Write for my free catalogue describing all 
and illustrating many of the unusual plants I grow. If you have in mind the planting 
of a wild or woodland garden, a rockery or any other garden scheme of unusual charac- 
ter, let me send a competent man to confer with you. A post card brings the Catalogue. 

3 Main Street, Southwick, Mass. 






I l i!. l l|l,ll. l l.ll.l l ul.iil l| l 1 | 



September, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



33 




PEONIES, the glory of June, are the aristocrats of the nardy garden. They surpass the rhododendron when planted in 
masses, and rival the rose in delicacy of color and fragrance. Peonies never can become common; those who become 
the possessors of these rare sorts will have an asset of distinct worth, which will increase in value from year to year. 
The collection of Peonies at Wyomissing contains the new and rare introductions— many of them at present found only 
in the gardens of Peony connoisseurs. For those who desire to possess some of these distinct varieties I have made a 
personal selection of sorts showing a wide range of colors and type, and here offer them in collections for fall planting: 

ROYAL COLLECTION 

Twelve of the grandest Peonies 
in existence, regardless of price. 
Albatre. White and lilac. $1.50 
Baroness Schroeder. Flesh-white. 
$1.50. 

Germaine Bigot. Lilac Rose. 
$2.50. 

George Washington. Dark- 

crimson. $1.50. 

James Kelway. Rose-white 

$2.00. 

Karl Rosenfield. Dark-crimson. 
$4.50. 

Milton Hill. Lilac-rose. $3.00. 
Marguerite Gerard. Hydrangea 
pink. $1.50. 

Mme. Auguste Dessert. Violet- 
rose. $2.50. 

RosaBonheur. Violet-rose. $5.00. 
Sara Bernhardt. Mauve-rose. 
$4.00. 

Simmone Chevalier. Lilac-rose. 
$2.00. 

Royal Collection, complete, $27 

Royal Collection and Collection B 

All the above varieties and hundreds of others in my complete collection at Wyomissing, are fully described in the 1917-1918 Edition of my book 

FARR'S HARDY PLANT SPECIALTIES 

Money cannot buy a treatise on Peonies and Iris so complete and authoritative, because no other book of this character is in existence — yet I will 
mail you a copy free if you will send me your name and address, and mention the Garden Magazine, for I want you to know Peonies as I know them. 
September and October is the best time to plant Peonies, for then with the strong roots I send, you will obtain a large percentage of bloom the first season. 

BERTRAND H. FARR, Wyomissing Nurseries Co., 104 Garfield Avenue, Wyomissing, Penna. 



COLLECTION B 

Twelve of the best standard 
Peonies at a moderate price. 

Alexander Dumas. Violet-rose. 
50 cts. 

La Coquette. Light pink. 50 cts. 
Duchesse de Nemours. Pure 
white. 50 cts. 
Comte de Paris 
50 cts. 

Dr. Bretonneau. 
cts. 

Edulis superba. 
50 cts. 

Festiva maxima. 
M. Hyppolite Dellille. Lilac-rose. 
50 cts. 

Princess Beatrice. Violet-rose. 
50 cts. 

Triomphe du Nord. Solferino- 
red. 50 cts. 

Delachei. Violet-crimson. 50 cts. 
Rubens. Dark-crimson. 50 cts. 
Collection B, complete, $5 
for $30. Aristocrat Collection and Premier 



Violet-rose. 
Pale lilac. 35 

Mauve-pink 
White. 50 cts. 



"ARISTOCRAT" COLLECTION 

Twelve beautiful varieties, each 
an aristocrat among peonies. 
Adolphe Rosseau. Purple-gar- 
net. $2.00. 

Albatre. White; centre lilac rose. 
$1.50. 

Albert Crousse. White, necked 
crimson. $1.50. 

Armandine Mechin. Bright crim- 
son. $1.50. 

George Washington. Fiery crim- 
son. $1.50. 

Grandiflora. Delicate shell pink; 
late. $1.50. 

LaTendresse. Milk white. $1.50. 
L' Indispensable. Lilac white, 

pale violet rose centre. 75 cts. 
Mile. Rosseau. White; lilac cen- 
tre. $1.50. 

Mme. Forel. Violet rose. $2.00. 
Simmone Chevalier. Lilac-rose. 
$2.00. 

Venus. Hydrangea pink. $2.00. 

Aristocrat Collection, complete, $16 

Collection, $20. The Four Collections, Royal, 



"PREMIER" COLLECTION 

Twelve peonies of the highest 
order of merit at moderate prices. 
Boule De Niege. White, flecked 
crimson. 75 cts. 

Due de Wellington. White, sul- 
phur centre. 50 cts. 
Don Juan. Crimson amaranth. 
$1.00. 

Felix Crousse. Bright red. 75 cts. 
La Tulipe. Lilac white, striped 
crimson. 75 cts. 

Mme. Muyssart. Silver tipped. 
75 cts. 

Mme. Moutot. Tyrian rose. 75 cts. 
Mme. Thouvenin. Pure mauve. 
$1.00. 

Mile. Leonie Calot. Rose-white. 
75 cts. 

Marechal Vaillant. Mauve pink. 
50 cts. 

Marie Lemoine. Purewhite. 75 Cts. 
Mons. Jules Elie. Soft lilac rose. 
$1.00. 

Premier Collection, complete, $7.50 
B, Aristocrat and Premier for $48 



Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in writing — and we will, loo. 



34 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1917 



\Sughans Darwin 

Cottage Tulips 



PLANT ajl! 
THE BULBS r-, 
THIS FALL // 




THESE majestic tulips are without a rival in Spring flowers. Their adaptability 
to our American climate due to their hardiness and vigor, their stately bearing 
and exquisite shades make them now the most extensively planted of all spring- 
flowering bulbs. Planted in beds, in clumps among perennials, or bordering shrubs, 
their effect in May is beautiful beyond belief. 

During our forty years of dealings in every bulb growing 
district of the universe we have worked up a successful 
and reliable business connection, strengthened by periodical 
visits of a representative, and latterly a yearly visit to the 
war-burdened bulb districts of Europe. This should satisfy 
antinp- our readers that our efforts to please have been worked 
^^^___^i to the limit, and proven by our thousands of constant cus- 
tomers. Last year when many firms disappointed on deliv- 
VaUghan S eries, Vaughan's Seed Store were there on time, and with full 
— —— ■"-■ -~ ~" — "~ quantities. These are big reasons for placing your order here. 

Twelve Splendid Late Tulips 



DARWIN VARIETIES 
BARTIGON. (24 in.) Glowing crimson scarlet, vigor- 
ous, lasts well in sun, very highly recommended. 
Doz., 50c; per 100, S3.50; per 1000, $30.00. 
MASSACHUSETTS. (25 ins.) Deep rosy pink petals, 
with lighter edge. Long cup-shaped blooms on 
stout stems. A splendid pink, recommended. 
Doz., 50c; per 100, S3. 00; per 1000.S25.00 
CLARA BUTT. (20 ins.) Clear salmon pink, with 
lighter edges. We know no better tulip of its color. 
Doz., 30c; per 100, S2.00; per 1000, S17.00. 
WHITE QUEEN. (22ins.) Pale blush, changing with 
age to almost pure white. An exquisite and indis- 
pensable flower. 

Doz., 45c; per 100, S2.60; per 1000, S23.00. 
REV. H. EWBANK. (20 ins.) Deep lilac, toning to pale 
lavender. Lasts splendidly; a collection is incom- 
plete without it. 

Doz. 50c,; per 100, S3.00; per 1000, S27.00. 
ZULU. (23 ins.) Violet black, reflecting a glistening violet 
sheen. Effective when contrasted with lighter shades. 
Doz., 90c; per 100, S6.00; per 1000, S55.00. 

(Above prices do not include pre-payment) 

No. 1. — Special Prepaid Offer for the above Six 

12 of each (72 bulbs) all named for S3.25. 



COTTAGE VARIETIES 

MRS. MOON. (30 ins.) Golden yellow pitcher- 
shaped bloom; tall, upright, sweetly perfumed. 
Doz., 65c; per 100, S4.50; per 1000, $40.00. 

THE FAWN. (20 ins.) Pale yellowish fawn color, 
combined with rosy lavender and pale blush mar- 
gin. Doz., 50c; per 100, S3.25; per 1000, $28.00. 

EMERALD GEM. (18 ins.) Bright orange-scarlet, 
with sea-green base, margined yellow. Sweet 
scented and very late. 
Doz., 50c; per 100, $3.50; per 1000, $30.00. 

FAIRY QUEEN. (22 ins.) Rosy-heliotrope, blending 
to rosy-lavender, with yellow margin. Inside 
purplish mauve and yellow. 
Doz., 50c; per 100, $3.25; per 1000, $27.00. 

GLARE OF THE GARDEN. (18 ins.) Glowing crim- 
son scarlet, dazzling in sunlight; best late tulip of 
its color. Doz., 65c; per 100, $4.50; per 1000, $40.00. 

COLUMBUS (Gala Beauty). (18 ins.) Golden yellow, 
feathered and splashed with crimson stripes. A 
striking combination of colors. Sweet scented. 
Doz., S1.70; per 100, $13.00; per 1000. $110.00. 

(Above prices do not include pre-payment) 

No. 2. — Prepaid Offer for the above Six 

12 of each (72 bulbs) all named for $4.75. 



No. 3 — The Two Collections Prepaid for $7.50 Free Catalog with each order. 
Write for Complete Autumn Catalog, (56 pages) ; mailed free everywhere. 

There are many beautiful bulbs and plants, which can only be planted successfully in the fall, that are often 
overlooked by those who do not realize the importance of Autumn-planting. Our Catalog is a complete and help- 
ful guide for this important season. Write today. (Mention Garden Magazine.) 

°»S?«* VAUGHAN'S SEED STORE 3, - 3s JftfcAco" 1 ' s '' 








PEONIES 

NE of the largest, showiest, richly colored and spicily fragrant 
of all garden flowers. 

My American grown roots are all clean, hardy and guaranteed true to name. 
Over one hundred of the best varieties. 

For most satisfactory results they should be planted in September or October. 
Send to-day for my booklet "Your Spring Garden." It also tells about Tulips, 
Narcissi, etc. 



172 Broadway 



Paterson, N. J. 




A Peony Treat of 



Character 

To introduce the "elite" of my peony field 
into your garden, I will send the following 
peerless six at a substantial saving, in roots 
of a quality that will make you order more 
— Felix Crousee, deep crimson; Mad. de 
Verneville, dainty blush; Mile. Leonie 
Calot, soft flesh; Festiva Maxima, grandest 
white; Mons. Jules Elie, pink; Eugene 
Verdier, pink with crimson centre. All of 
these are the unquestioned leaders of their 
type and class. 

Six Premier Kinds 
Strong 3 to 5 Eye Roots 

Because of size of roots, this collection can be 
shipped only by express. 



$3 



If You Like Phloxes 

here is a selection of great merit — Athis, Elizabeth 
Campbell, Jules Cambon, Sieboldii, Pantheon, and 
Eiffei Tower, a retail value of $1.25. 

Eight Splendid Sorts, one Strong (fcl 
Plant each, postpaid *?*■ 

Our stock of Hardy Phloxes is unrivalled in both 
quality of kinds and quantities on hand. 

A Large Stock of Hardy Plants 

suitable for present planting is described in my cat- 
alogue — gladly mailed free. It lists only such plants 
as I can guarantee to be true-to-name and offers 
them at unusually attractive prices for quality 
stock. Write me or order above — satisfaction 
guaranteed. 

RALPH E. HUNTINGTON 



Painesville 



Ohio 



SISJIiaiiMlilffiJlliiliJIill 



California Bulbs 
and Plants 

Many of California's beautiful native 
plants do well in eastern gardens' and 
their charm and novelty justify extra 
care. My Catalogue A lists them, and 
gives fullest cultural directions. 

Hardy Perennial Plants 

The "great charm of English gardens is in these, 
and my gardens at The Terraces contain the finest 
collection west of the Alleghanies. 
My 'New Catalogue E brings to the door of the 
flower-lover of the Pacific slope a wonderful collec- 
tion of fully 200 Irises, superb Phlox, perennial 
Larkspurs, Hollyhocks, Poppies, Michaelmas 
Daisies in fine varieties, and a host of other rare 
and beautiful flowers. It tells him how and where 
to grow each. I can ship in his best planting 
season, and I pay express charges or postage to 
his door. Fbr the Eastern grower I have all of 
this list and many novelties. Catalogue E on 
application. 

Any of my catalogues will be forwarded to readers 
of the Garden Magazine who send me their name 
and address. 

CARL PURDY 

The Terraces 

Box A Ukiah, California 



SAVE THE TREES.— Kill San Jose Scale, Aphis, 
i £ •Vr-ilfc . White Fly, etc., by spraying your trees with 

IGOOD'SSSFISH OIL 

SOAP N?3 




•& Sure death to tree pests. Contains nothing injurious to 
trees — fertilizes the soil. Used and endorsed by U. S. 
Dept. of Agriculture. 

FRFP ° ur valuable book on Tree and Plant 

rivCCi Diseases. Write for it to-day. 
JAMES GOOD, Original Maker. 21 11 -15 E.Susquehanna Ave., Phila. 



The Readers' Service will give you suggestions for the care and purchase oj cats and dogs and other pets 



September, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



35 



1 






! 



: 




Burpee's Sweet 
Peas 

W. Atlee Burpee & Company have long been 
famous as American headquarters for Sweet Peas. 

We were the first to introduce the Spencer type 
into America. Such famous varieties as King White, 
Fiery Cross, Primrose Spencer, Apple Blossom, King- 
Edward Spencer and many others (all our intro- 
duction) serve to justify our claims. Each year many new varieties 
are tried out, but only those which prove themselves of exceptional 
value are offered to our customers. 

Burpee's New Early- or 
Winter-Flowering Spencer Sweet Peas 

It is with great pleasure that we offer the following Novelties in Sweet Peas, as we are confident 
this new early-flowering race of Spencers will greatly increase the value of the Sweet Pea. 

Burpee's Early-Flowering Spencer Sweet Peas are particularly adapted to sections where the 
ordinary summer-flowering varieties have not proved satisfactory. In our Southern States, Japan, 
Australia, New Zealand, and in all the tropical and sub-tropical countries, the new Early-Flowering Spencers, if sown during the early fall months, will produce 
flowers in abundance throughout the early spring and will continue blooming freely until killed by extreme heat. 

Nine of these varieties were awarded nin eteen Certifi cates of Merit by the following: 

Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, Philadelphia American Sweet Pea Society, San Francisco 

The International-Show, New York 




Early King 

Reduced one-half 




Early Enchantress 

Just half size 



With a keen appreciation of the splendid future of the Sweet Pea, and particularly of 
New Early Flowering or Long Season Spencers, we began crossing the Spencer Flowering 
Sweet Peas with the Early Flowering Grandiflora as far back as the Summer of 1909. 

We now offer with the greatest confidence the splendid Novelties listed below. These are all 
true, thoroughly fixed in type, and are a great improvement on the various colors. 

If grown in the open they flower several weeks ahead of the Standard or Summer Flowering 
Spencers, and with proper treatment continue to bloom quite as long as that type. 

Burpee's Early Enchantress — Flowers immense, measuring 1\ inches in diameter; 
exquisitely waved or frilled, stiff stems. A bright rose pink, deeper toward the edges of 
standard and wings, softening in tone toward the centre of the flower. Pkt. (20 seeds) 
25 cts. ; 5 pkts. $1.00, postpaid. 

Burpee's Early Loveliness — The color is white, the entire flower being suffused 
soft pink until it reaches the edges, which are distinctly picoteed with rose-pink. A flower of 
immense size and great substance. Beautifully waved. Pkt. (20 seeds) 25 cts.; 5 pkts. 
$1.00, postpaid. 

Burpee's Early King — A glowing, rich bright crimson, of great size and perfect form, 
averaging fully two inches in diameter, produced freely in threes and fours on strong stems of 
great length. Pkt. (12 seeds) 25 cts.; 5 pkts. $1.00, postpaid. 

Fordhook Pink and White — Similar to the old Blanche Ferry, having a bright rosy 
pink standard with creamy white wings lightly suffused rose. Flowers often measure fully 
1\ inches in diameter, while the form is perfect. The beautifully waved blooms are carried 
on stiff stems of great length, usually in threes and often in fours. Pkt. (20 seeds) 25 cts. ; 
5 pkts. $1.00, postpaid. 



Fordhook Pink— A distinct shade of pink suffused with lavender throughout. Flowers 
of large size, exquisitely waved, and usually produced in threes and fours on long stems. Un- 
der artificial light it is particularly pleasing. Pkt. (20 seeds) 10 cts.; J4 oz. $1.00; oz. 
$1.75, postpaid. 

Burpee's Early Pink Beauty — The color is soft rose-pink on white ground, richer 
toward the edges, gradually softening in color as it reaches the centre of standard and wings. 
The flowers are of great size, beautifully waved and finely placed on the immense stems, 
which usually carry three or four of the magnificent blooms. Pkt. (20 seeds) 25 cts.; 5 
pkts. $1.00, postpaid. 

Burpee's Primrose Beauty— An attractive and pleasing shade of deep primrose, 
flushed with rose. Flowers of great size and beautifully waved in true Spencer form. Pkt. (12 
seeds) 25 cts.; 5 pkts. $1.00, postpaid. 

Fordhook Rose — A charming shade of rosy carmine. The flowers are of largest size 
and usually borne in threes and fours on long stiff stems. Pkt. (20 seeds) 10 cts; [4 oz. 
$1.10; oz. $2.00, postpaid. 

Burpee's Rosy Morn — A magnificent flower of great size and substance. Flowers 
grown under ordinary field culture have measured fully two inches in diameter. The color is 
a pleasing shade of rose with crimson-scarlet standard, while the immense flowers are usually 
borne in threes or fours on stiff, long stems. Pkt. (20 seeds) 15 cts.; J£ oz. $1.25; oz. 
$2.25, postpaid. 

Burpee's Early Sankey — This truly magnificent white was awarded a Special Silver 
Medal when exhibited at the great International Show in New York, March 20, 1915, also Cer- 
tificate of Merit at the Spring Show of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, Philadelphia, 
March 23, 1915. Pkt. (12 seeds) 25 cts.; 5 pkts. $1.00 postpaid. 





■6 



Lavender King 

Natural size flower 



Yarrawa — First exhibited at the great International Flower Show, 
New York, March, 1914, where we were awarded a Certificate of Merit by 
the American Sweet Pea Society. Britrht rose-pink with a clear, creamy base. 
Floradale Grown Seed exclusively. Pkt. (30 to 40 seeds) 15 cts.; 2 pkts. 
for 25 cts.; *4 <>z. 60 cts.; oz. $2.00; % lb. $6.00; lb. S20.00, postpaid. 



Write for "Burpee's Offering" 
our Fall catalogue 

It lists many flowers for fall sowing | 
Sent free upon request 

W. Atlee Burpee & Co. 

Seed Growers 

Burpee Buildings Philadelphia 










Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in writing— and we will, too 



36 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1917 



■■nil 




The Queenly 
Festiva Maxima 
in all its glory 



A Quarter 
Million 
Roots. Over a 
Million Flowers 
in one field 



Beauty Beyond Compare 

Without attempting to tax your imagination, we ask you, 
readers, to think with us, of fields about ten times the size of that 
shown above. We ask you to forget all about the old-fashioned "pineys" and 
learn to think of visions of floral loveliness, combining exquisite colors, well- 
shaped flowers of great size, with delicate fragrance — and you will understand 
why we are "peony-mad." One cannot see Peonies as we see them every 
spring and not fall in love with them. But you may get a glimpse of what we 
see, if you plant 

G ZiialT Triumph Collection 

12 Superb Peonies $9 

Every one of them a "triumph" of the modern hybridizer's skill; every one a 
peerless masterpiece fit to adorn the gardens of those in quest of the proven best. 



81— Adolphe Rousseau $1.00 

12— Albert Crousse 1.00 

170— Auguste Villaume 1.00 

279— Baroness Schroeder 1.00 

194— Eugene Bigot 1.00 

380— George Washington 1.00 



9— Gigantea $1.00 

80— Grandiflora 1.00 

18— Mile. Rousseau 1.00 

8— Mireille 1.00 

158— Modeste Guerin 1.00 

2 10— Welcome Guest 1.00 



P" £ is as unique a brochure as it is beautiful. 

eOnieS rOI pleasingly "different" ' 



Total $12.00 

Order by number if you choose and note this 

Special Offer: — Any 6 for $5; the complete assortment 
of 12 for $9, delivered anywhere in the United States. 

You will find it a 
piece of advertising literature because 

Plo^cnrp"' the total absence of "commercialism." It relates how, 
IcaSUlc guided simply by the love for Peonies, our Mr. Good sur- 
rounded himself, in less than a decade, with the greatest collection of Quality 
kinds and the largest stocks of these varieties in the world! With this book in 
your hands, you will not find it hard to imagine the pleasure in store for you if 
you invest in Good & Reese perfect Peonies. Nor need it cost you much to 
materialize your dreams and wishes. Our immense supply of roots enables us 

to sell at moderate prices. Let us prove this to you by 

Springfield, Ohio writing for above Free Book TO-DAY. 



THE 
FLORAL CENTER 
OF THE WORLD 

20 Million Plants Sold 
Each Year. Seven Mil- 
lion of which are Roses 



■fl fl J O T\ C* Rose and Peony 

1 he bood & Keese Lo. specialists 

Box 90, Springfield, Ohio 







Alphano 

and The Making of Lawns 

Lawns are heavy and quick feeders. They need large quan- 
tities of readily available plant food. Spotted or thin lawns 
are generally starved lawns. Don't dig them up but save 
them with Alphano. Use Alphano in making your new 
lawns. The newly sprouting grass is more delicate than 
most young vegetable seedlings. It needs a large amount of 
plant food and moisture. Alphano provides maximum 
quantities of plant food and holds moisture well. 



Renovating 

Old Lawns 

Alphano gives old lawns a new lease of 
life. It builds up the soil beneath them, 
while invigorating the grass at the same 
time. For poor soil, use 5 bags for every 
IOOO (25 x 40) square feet of lawn, while 
on fairly good soil, 2 bags suffice. Rake 
or disk harrow' every square foot thor- 
oughly, after which spread on Alphano 
to a uniform depth. Rake or harrow in 
well. Then sow 3 pounds of lawn grass 
mixture to .each IOOO square feet. A 
healthy, vigorous, drought resisting lawn 
will result. 



Making New 
and Better Lawns 

After spading 'the ground a foot deep, 
spread Alphano at the rate of 100 to 400 
pounds to every 1000 square feet and 
rake it thoroughly into the soil. Sow 
your seeds, rake them into the surface 
and roll. Around newly built homes, 
where the grading is done with sub- 
soil, follow up above treatment six 
weeks later along these lines: — Make 
a mixture of two-thirds soil and one- 
third Alphano and spread at the rate 
of 300 to 500 pounds to every icxx> 
square feet. 



What Alphano Really is — 

Alphano differs from all other humus materials on the market. It 
is a rich soil humus, concentrated and mixed ^with additional avail- 
able plant foods containing Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potash, and 
fully charged with all the clover and other legume bacteria, to- 
gether with the independent soil organisms so essential to fertility. 
It has the good qualities of manure and chemisal fertilizer, with the 
bad features such as stench, weed seeds and burning action left out. 
The innoculation feature alone is worth all you pay for the material, 
and we know of nothing on the market to-day, giving so much 
humus and plant food value for so little money. 



RnnL-liif PRFF Whether you garden on a large or small scale. 



12 Years on the 
Market 



Half a Million 
Tons Sold 



f\lpIl<lIlU UUUIilCl 1 IVLJU you should use Alphano and know what it will 
do. It grows everything — vegetables, fruits, flowers. It is a complete organic ferti- §|^ 
lizer, the use of which cannot be overdone. So far as we know, it is the only com- ^_ 
plete organic fertilizer sold with a guarantee, and complying with the fertilizer laws 
of the various states in which it is offered. It should not be confused with any other 
so-called humus products on the market. Alphano is a complete organic fertilizer >§§§! 
and soil builder. A free book shows how to use it and what its use does. Ask for it §§|: 
or better still, order some Alphano to-day. ||s| 

5-100 lb. bags $5 #12. a ton in bags by carload « 

#15. a ton in bags #10. a ton in bulk by carload 

F. 0. B. Alphano, N. J. it 

ALPHANO HUMUS COMPANY 

17-C Battery Place New York ■ 

Hi 




the Readers' Service is prepared to help you solve your gardening problems 



September, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 





3k - P 



Cover Design — Training The Recruit 

E. D. Drake 

PAGE 

Among Our Garden Neighbors ------ 39 

Wintering Herbaceous Plants — Peonies That Fit — A 
Hedge of Lupins— A Rare Poppywort — Pansies all the 
Year in Tennessee — Chinese Cabbage — Canning 
Kohl-rabi — A Yellow Tree Peony — A Broomstick 
Scratcher — More About Intensive Celery Culture — 
Tulips in the Window Box — Making a Lawn in Fall — 
Late Strawberry Planting. 

Six Illustrations 

The Month's Reminder --------42 

Bulbs for Twelve Months, Indoors and 

Outside - - - - - W.C. McCollom 43 

Photographs by the author 

I Say: Sow Sweet Peas in the Fall for 

Early Bloom ----- G. W. Kerr 47 

Photographs by the author 

How Budding and Grafting are Done 

Wm.H.WoljJ 48 

Illustrations by the author 

Plant Peonies in September ------ ^g 

Selected illustrations; photographs by H. H. Saylor 
and W. C. McCollom 

Handling Gallinaceous Fertilizer in a 

Practical Way - - Sherman R. Duffy 50 

Plant Now — or Wait Till Spring? M.G.Kains 51 

Photographs by N. R. Graves and others 

"Pay Your Money and Take Your Choice" 

F. N. Thomas 53 
Photographs by N. R. Graves 

Food and Home Economies That Will Finance 

the War ----------- 54 

The Patriotic Garden 55 

Fall Preparedness for the Spring Drive — Checking 
the Invaders — Skirmishing Along the Frost Line— 
Can't Buy Fertilizer? Then Grow It. 
Photograph by W. C. McCollom 

Forcing Bulbs in A Greenhouse - - - - 60 
Old-Time Southern Recipes - /. M. Patterson 62 
Society Notes .and News ---'.----64 
Vilmortn, The Late Philippe de ----- 64 
Dahlia Festivals ----------64 

Why Not Bind Your Magazines? 
Bound volumes of The Garden Magazine give you an 
up-to-date Cyclopedia of Horticulture. Six numbers to 
the volume. Index supplied Free. The cost is only $1.25, 
when you send back your loose copies. 

LEONARD BARRON, Editor 








Published Monthly, 25c. a copy. Subscription, Two Dollars a Year. 
For Canada, S2.35; Foreign Countries, $2.65. 



COPYRIGHT, 1917, BY 

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY 

GARDEN CITY, N. Y. 



F. N. DOUBLEDAY, President 
ARTHUR W. PAGE, 
HERBERT S. HOUSTON, 
Vice-Presidents 



S. A. EVERITT, Treasurer 
RUSSELL DOUBLEDAY 
Secretary 



Entered as second-class matter at Garden City, New York 
under the Act of Congress, March 3, 1879 





This house was erected at that most fastiionable of the Northern coasts' 
summer resorts, Newport 

GREENHOUSES 

One With Four Garden Plots 

THERE are two compartments or garden plots on 
either side of the workroom. 

Those four plots, each 18 feet wide by about 33 long 
give a wide range of temperature controls. 

It makes possible the growing oi an extensive variety 
of flowers, fruits, and vegetables. 

As for the plan itself, much can be said in its favor. 

The workroom in its central location makes it easy 
to reach the compartments. 

It is correspondingly easy to heat, as the distribution 
of pipes is equal on both sides of the boiler. 

Should you not care just now to build all four com- 
partments — then have the two on one side of the work- 
room erected; and then add the other two later. 

In thinking of the practicalness of this plan, however, 
do not lose sight of the practicalness of the right con- 
struction for the greenhouse part. 

So much of its continued success, and your continued 
pleasure in its possession, depends on it, that it might 
be well to go slow in your selection of the concern 
whose construction you adopt. 

We would like the opportunity to tell you fully of the 
many things about our method of both building and 
doing business. Things that have earned for us the 
saying: "You can depend on depending on Hitchings." 

Our catalogue you are most welcome to. 

HHcKin gfJtoP m P a ? 



NEW YORK 
1170 Broadway 



General Offices and Factory — Elizabeth, N. J. 

BOSTON PHILADELPHIA 

49 Federal Street 40 So. 15th Street 



Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in writing — am we will, too 



38 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1917 



New Lilacs on Their Own Roots 

Of late years there has been a multitude of new varieties of Lilacs grown, and some 
of them have very great beauty; but, unfortunately, almost all the stock offered, both 
in this country and Europe, has been budded on privet and is practically worthless, for 
Lilacs grown on this are certain to die in a few years. Nurserymen bud Lilacs on 
privet because they can produce a large stock quickly and inexpensively; but one Lilac 
on its own roots is worth a score of budded plants. 

Fifteen years ago we bought all the available stock^of choice named Lilacs on their own roots in Europe, 
and since then we have been both growing and buying until we have a very large and fine stock. On 
account of their starting into growth so early in spring, Lilacs do best when planted in the fall. 

Prices, except where noted 
$1.25 each, $12 per doz. 

Large spikes of pure white 




The present day perfection of development in the Lilac is fairly represented by Dame Blanche which has 
large branched thyrses of large double white flowers 



Alba Grandiflora. 

flowers. 75 cents. 
Charles X. Large, shining leaves and great trusses 

of reddish purple flowers. 
Congo. Bright wallflower-red. 
Dame Blanche. Double; white. 
Dr. Lindley. Large compact panicles of purplish- 
lilac flowers dark red in bud. 
Emily Lemoine. Double; very large flowers of fine 

globular form. Rosy lilac; beautiful. 
Geant des Batailles. Bright reddish lilac, in large 

trusses. Very brilliant and effective. $1. 
Japonica. We have some extra-large specimen plants 

of this July-flowering Lilac. Immense spikes of 

pure white flowers. $1. 
Jean d'Arc. Double, enormous panicles of very 

large flowers; pure white. 
Frau Bertha Damman. One of the very best 

whites, immense panicles. 
Lamartine. Large panicles of mauve-rose flowers; 

very early. 75 cents. 
La Ville de Trayes. Large purplish-red flowers. 

Extra large six part plants. $2 each. 
Leon Simon. Double compact panicles; bluish- 
crimson. 
Lemoinei flore pleno. Double; carmine-violet. $1. 
LeGaulois. Double; dark red. Extra-large plants, $1.50 
Madame Lemoine. Superb; double; white. 
Marie Legraye. Large panicles of white flowers. 

The best white Lilac. $1. 
Michael Buchner. Dwarf plant; very double; pale 

lilac. 
Mathieu de Dambasle. Double, carmine violet. 

Extra large; heavy plants. $1.50. 
Negro. Dark violaceous purple. 
President Carnot. Double; lilac tint, marked in 

centre with white; extra-large, fine truss. $1; extra 

heavy, $2. 
President Grevy. Double; vinous violet. 
Souvenir de Louis Spaeth. Most distinct and 

beautiful variety; trusses immense; very large, com- 
pact florets; deep purplish red. 
Taussaint Laurentine. Dark crimson. 

Villosa. A late-flowering species, blooming a month later than 
other varieties, with deep pink flowers; extremely free-flowering 
and effective. Makes a large, splendid specimen. 50 cents. 

Virginite. Pure white. 

Viviand Morel. Extra-long spikes of large, double flowers of 
light bluish lilac, with white centres. 

Wm. Robinson. Double; violaceous pink. The flower-trusses 
are extra large and the bush is vigorous and hardy. $1. 

Charles Joly. Double; blackish red; distinct and extra fine. 

Miss Ellen Willmott. Double; pure white; a splendid new 
variety. $2. 

Waldeck Rousseau. New. Double; elegant panicles, 1 foot 
long; pale pink flowers. $2. 



Our Fall Catalogue of Hardy Plants, Peonies, Roses, Trees, 
Shrubs and Bulbs is now ready and will be sent on request 

Elliott Nursery Company, 307 Magee Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 



The Readers' Service is prepared to help you solve your gardening problems 



The Garden Magazine 








Wintering Herbaceous Plants. — Since writ- 
ing the notes about the newer perennials 
(published in last month's Garden Magazine) 
my experience with Thalictrum dipterocarpum 
leads me to believe that to insure its wintering 
over safely (in this section, at all events) it is 
necessary to select for it a particularly well 
drained spot in the border and give it some 
protection. I think, however, that it is 
mainly the damp and not the cold that proves 
fatal to it; plants under sashes have always 
wintered over perfectly for me, without 
mats or any other covering, beyond the single 
thickness of glass. — Frank M. Thomas, Penn- 
sylvania. 

Peonies that Fit. — I want help! All the 
Peonies in the lists of the dealers are alike in 
merit, but I want relative facts about some 
good varieties to buy at a moderate price, say 
about $2 for two-year roots. Please suggest 
these varieties: (i) a white with as much yel- 
low as possible, (2) a different shade of red than 
Felix Crousse, and (3), a different pink from 
M. Jules Elie.— E. A. W '., Pa. 
— I suggest, for the first, Solfatare, or Due de 
Wellington; for the second, Adolphe Rousseau, 
Raphael, Volcan, Mme. Bucquet, or Edouard 
Andre; for the third, Livingstone, Albert 
Crousse, Eugenie Verdier, Delicatissima, or 
Triomphe de l'Exposition de Lille. — A. P. S. 

A Hedge of Lupins. — We have invariably 
found that the most pleasing effects in and 
about the garden are the outcome of natural 
grouping and not the result of studied arrange- 
ment. Few spots on our "domain" can rival 
in attractiveness the one glorified by a big 
clump of golden Day Lilies veiled in a mist 
of wind-sown white Columbine, beneath the 
drooping branches of an old apple tree; or the 
tall, glowing "lamps" of Phlox against a 
curtain of wild Clematis that sways down 
from the trees. And so, too, it was almost by 
chance that our Lupin hedge came about. 

One spring we had sown a row of them, and 
when they came up very thickly they were 
neglected. The following year, they were a 
mass of enormous clumps far overcrowding the 
allotted space. A curving piece of turf 
surrounding a well is separated from the 
vegetable garden by a row of big red-currant 
bushes, and the cultivated space intervening 
between them and the grass plot suggested a 
border. So one rainy afternoon the Lupins 



were laboriously dug up, separated into smaller 
clumps by a process of "short division" and 
hastily set close together in a line following 
the curve of the turf. The rain continued to 
water them, and we gave them no care, or 
scarcely a thought till they began to bloom. 
How they flourished! Our hedge was the ad- 
miration of all the passers-by, and the spikes 



The Neighbors' Present Duty 

JTJ In reviewing the present situation, 
^il so far as it concerns those who 
have had the privilege of "doing their 
bit" in increased food crop produc- 
tion, Secretary of Agriculture D. F. 
Houston says: 

JIT "The producers have responded 
^il promptly to the appeal issued by 
the President at the beginning of the 
war, and Nature has been bountiful. 
The time has come for us, as con- 
sumers and conservers, to do OUT 
share. 

Jjj "Any housewife who desires addi- 
^il tional information is urged to get 
in touch with local organizations or 
with the local representatives of the 
Department of Agriculture, the State 
Agricultural Colleges, or directly with 
the Department of Agriculture in 
Washington, which will mail free of 
charge, on receipt of a post card re- 
quest, literature covering all phases 
of canning, drying, preserving, pickling 
and the home storing of perishable 
fruits and vegetables. 

tfTJ "By cooperating with the Depart- 
al ment at this time, the women of 
the country can render a definite 
national service." 



Copyright, 1917, by Doubleday, Page & Co. 



of bloom we cut from it were legion — thus in- 
creasing the abundance of flowers. They 
were, for the most part, the shades of blue, 
with a chance grouping of white at one end 
which straggled off artistically down the line 
and was lost among the blue ones. Seen from 
the street, beyond the fruit-hung currant 
bushes, with the vivid green of lettuce beneath 
them, they were most effective. This year 
we have tried to create as good an effect, in 

39 



imitation of the other natural one, by starting 
another hedge of various pink varieties, shad- 
ing down to a group of white ones. 

If some of you find yourselves overburdened 
with Lupins, perhaps you may like to "go and 
do likewise." — Charlotte Brassey-Brierley, 
Maine. 

A Rare Poppywort. — It is customary to 
dismiss Meconopsis from further attention, 
remarking that our atmosphere is too dry for 
their family. But under date of August II, 
Mr. A. E. Thatcher of Bar Harbor, Me., tele- 
graphed that "M. integrifolia opened perfect 
flowers." This is one of Mr. E. H. Wilson's 
notable discoveries in herbaceous plants and 
Mr. Thatcher flowers it for the first time in 
America. We shall refer to the subject 
again next month. — L. B. 

Pansies all the Year in Tennessee. — For 
three years I have not planted a seed and 
have Pansies every month in the year. About 
July or August, I allow the seed pods to ripen 
and sometimes even before, for it seems im- 
possible to keep all the blooms picked. I 
leave the old plants until they become ex- 
haused. By the time I pull them up, I find 
under the old- plants many young seedlings. 
If too thick, I transplant. In April, May, and 
June they are at their height. The bed is a 
solid mass of blooms. About once a month 
they are given liquid fertilizer (rather weak) by 
lifting the stems and pouring on the roots. In 
that way, the foliage and blooms are not in- 
jured. Sometimes in early spring, they are 
given a little pulverized sheep manure, but use 
it with care, for it is very strong. In the fall, I 
mulch with small leaves, such as Elm or Per- 
simmon, leaving it on in the spring, so the bed 
is really covered with leaf mould most of the 
time, which keeps their roots cool and moist. 
In December, ten days after zero weather, I 
gathered a dozen blooms (big heads but short 
stems), I must add they were under six 
inches of snow when the zero weather came, so 
of course were protected. I give water liber- 
ally in dry seasons, but they are usually able 
to stand weather conditions, as well as other 
flowers. They have only one enemy that I 
know of and that is the cutworm, but by being 
an "early bird," I usually catch the worm, 
for he is not far away and always leaves signs 
of his work. — B. N. Tomlinson, Tenn. 



40 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1917 



Chinese Cabbage. — The one difficulty in 
the growing of pe-tsai or Chinese cabbage is 
found in its exasperating tendency to go to 
seed before making heads of edible size. Often- 
times the only way to obtain a good crop is to 




Chinese cabbage, pe-tsai, is a useful summer salad 

sow the seed as late as early July. Fortun- 
ately this vegetable makes rapid growth, but 
it is desirable for the table in midsummer, 
when lettuce is not at its best. It has been 
my experience that there is wide variation in 
the different strains of Chinese cabbage. That 
which I planted last year early in the spring 
gave a summer crop that bothered me but 
little by seeding. This year's seed from an- 
other source was very much less satisfactory. 
I believe that the way to have pe-tsai when we 
want it is to save seed from chosen plants 
which head up well and early and to continue 
the process of selection until a good strain is 
obtained. This is an excellent vegetable and 
rapidly growing in popularity among people 
who are fond of salad plants. Eaten with 
sugar like lettuce it is delicious. Some 




New hybrid Tree Peony, La Lorraine, which has flowers of 
rich yellow, maroon red at centre 



of the greenhouse men are considering the 
commercial growing of Chinese cabbage under 
glass in winter, and last season one of the 
fancy grocery stores in Boston was selling it 
until well into the winter. — E. I. Farrington, 
Mass. 

Canning Kohl-Rabi. — My experiences in 
canning kohl-rabi may be of some value 
now that the cry is "can all you can." I found 
kohl-rabi a very welcome change from the 
commoner vegetables during the winter. As 
an experiment I tried a few cans, using only 
small "roots," about two and one half inches in 
diameter. They matured to this size in about 
eight weeks. If left too long they become 
hard and stringy. One advantage in growing 
them for canning is that they may be planted 
closer because they are picked before they begin 
to crowd. I plant the seed in drills one foot 
apart and about four inches apart in the rows. 
In canning I generally quarter the kohl-rabi, 
but some of the smallest I put in whole. I place 
them in a muslin bag in boiling water. After 
ten minutes I dash them into cold water in 
order to shrink them. Even the small shrink- 
age which they undergo helps to make the cans 
full when the process is finished. Then I fill 
the cans or jars, packing in the pieces as 
solidly as possible. A teaspoonful of salt is 
put on top and hot water poured over it until 
the can is full, up to half an inch of the top. 
This both dissolves the salt and distributes it 
evenly throughout the can or jar. Then the 
cover is soldered on in the case of the can or the 
cover of the .jar is laid on. The small centre 
hole of the tin can cap is left open, and the 
jar tops are only fastened lightly if at all. The 
cans are placed in the boiler with the water up 
to an inch of the top on the outside of the jars 
or cans and they are boiled for two hours. 
They are then taken out and the small centre 
hole is sealed and the cans are put back. If 
working with jars it is best to keep them in the 
water while clamping down the tight clamp, as 
a draft of air might crack the glass. The cans 
-md jars are now totally immersed and boiled 
for two hours more. Then let them cool 
standing in the boiler as the water cools. I 
have also canned kohl-rabi and carrots to- 
gether and found that the peculiar combi- 
nation of cabbage and turnip taste in the 
kohl-rabi makes a pleasing addition to the car- 
rot flavor. — Curtis Fisher Day, Somerville, 
Mass. 

A Yellow Tree Peony. — The accompanying 
illustration shows the yellow Tree Peony, La 
Lorraine, raised by Lemoine from P. lutea 
and P. Moutan, and of which a few plants 
are being grown by two or three prominent 
Peony growers of America. It was shown in 
splendid form at the recent exhibition at Phila- 
delphia by Mr. Farr; Mr. Havemeyer has dis- 
played it before the Horticultural Society of 
New York. The color is rich creamy yellow, 
with maroon red blotch at the base. Stems 
strong and woody. Foliage like the ordinary 
Tree Peony with purple on the midrib and pe- 
tiole. It flowered for the first time in 1 904, and 
has received numerous awards since — Paris, 
1909, Ghent 1913, London 1913. The plant is 
apparently hardy. Our photograph was made 
at Rochester, N. Y., in June last. — L. B. 

A Broomstick Scratcher. — The days of 
backache are here! The first fine ecstasy 
of beginning our gardens is over, and now the 
weeds crop up and the soil bakes and cracks. 
Any woman who isn't accustomed to using the 
ordinary garden tools finds them heavy and 



cumbersome, and she is hunting for something 
lighter to break up the crust of the hard baked 
soil. The only thing on the market seems to 
be a little short handled cast iron scratcher 
that you have to get down on your hands and 
knees to use — a back breaking process. 

There is, however, a very efficient little 
scratcher that any one with a little mechanical 
ability can make out of an old broomstick and 
a few feet of wire that will do more to lighten 
the drudgery of caring for a garden than any- 
thing else I know of. Mr. Harold Hume, of 
Glen St. Mary's, Florida, was the first one so 
far as I know to make one of these broomstick 
scratchers. In the light soil of Florida his 
little "Chinese garden" as he called it (that 
supplied all his vegetables), was cared for en- 
tirely with a little tool of this character. After 
seeing Mr. Hume's tool, Mr. Fairchild went to 
work and made a lot of them for our own use 
and for our friends, and we couldn't get along 
without them now. The teeth of this little cul- 
tivator are made of pieces of heavy wire bent 







k i 


tw 


I 


I 






n 

Ii 


/ i v * 


i 

4 

i "3B 


/\ 


( ) 


^~~?d 



The "broomstick scratcher," easily made, is an effective 
lightweight tool 



like the teeth of a rake, but there are only 
three of them and they are much longer and 
farther apart so that one can scratch all around 
and even over little plants. The teeth are held 
together either with some solder or else by 
twisting a finer piece of wire around them. 
This makes a tool much like the hand culti- 
vator to be had at any store, only it is larger 
and much lighter in weight. The whole is then 
attached to the handle of an outworn broom. 
The completed tool is so light and so 
effective that it really is a pleasure to use it. 
It won't take out big weeds, those you will still 
have to pull out by hand, but if you use this 
little cultivator often enough the weeds won't 
have much chance to grow. The ground 
won't bake hard either if it is often stirred and 
the moisture will be kept in the soil. 

When you have made one of these broom- 
stick scratchers, as we call them, and have 
found out what a real help it is, make a few 



September, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



41 




more and give them to your friends, for if it is 

a patriotic duty to have a garden oneself, 

why is it not also a patriotic act 

M^ to help one's neighbors make their 

gardens successful? Let us help 

all we can, and I know of no better 

way than to give them a tool like 

the one I have described. — Marian 

Fairchild, Washington, D. C. 

More About Intensive Celery 
Culture. — Since reading in the 
June issue Mr. Allen's descrip- 
tion of his method of raising 
celery by "the New Culture," I 
am led to think others might be 
interested in my method, which is 
even more intensive. 

Last summer from a space con- 
taining about 170 sq. ft. I cut and 
sold at the wholesale price of 
eight cents a bunch, between $20 
and $24 worth of celery. This 12 
to 14 cents a square foot 
might easily have been 
increased to 20 cents if I 
had retailed. The soil 
was poor and looked ut- 
terly unsuitable for cel- 
ery; but I had no better 
place vacant at the time. 
On July 17th, I set 600 
plants of Golden Self 
Blanching and Easy 
Blanching celery in twelve 
rows of fifty each, the 
plants five inches apart 
in rows and seven inches between rows; 
fourteen inches between every four rows 
thus making beds of four rows each. I 
had ordered a hundred pounds of cattle 
manure and the like quantity of prepared 
humus butdid notreceivetheseuntilnearly 
two weeks later when the mixture was 
applied between the rows and hoed in as well 
as could be done without injuring the roots. 
On August 28, I began cutting only two or 
three days after putting on the first celery 
bleachers and a week later was cutting from a 
dozen to a dozen and a half bunches daily. 
Though I put two stalks in most bunches 
many stalks were large enough to sell alone at 
ten cents. My garden had not had celery 
before, and byusingthecommercial manureand 
humus and watering daily and very thoroughly 
and spraying the young plants with bordeaux 
two or three times I had no trouble with rust. 
— N. S., Virginia. 

A Bulb Planter. — Last season I made a 
very useful bulb planter out of simple mater- 
ials. This enabled me to get my bulbs in at 
the best depth without any trouble at all. The 
point has recently been shown to be one of 
considerable importance for bulbs placed at 
too great or too little a depth do not give good 
results. As can be seen from the picture a 
stoutish stake was secured. This was be- 
tween a foot and eighteen inches in length, and 
it was pointed at one end. At intervals in 
the stick holes are bored in the sides into which 
wooden labels can be inserted. Each label 
bears the name of a particular class of bulbs, 
and these can be inserted at the height most 
suitable for the kind. Thus Narcissus do best 
when planted six inches; that is the base of the 
bulb is this distance below the surface. The 
depth for Tulips and Hyacinths is four inches, 
and that for Crocuses and other small bulbs 
two and a half inches. Of course when using 
the planter only one wooden label is in at a 




time according to the kind of bulb being 
handled. — S. L. B., England. 

Tulips in the Window Box. — As a plant 
for the window box the Tulip would appear to 
have been neglected. As most window boxes 
are so securely fastened that to remove them 
means some little trouble, a box of tin or light 
wood should be made of a size to fit snugly 
into the window box. Into this second box, 
the Tulips are planted. Only the early or 
bedding varieties are recommended. A good 
potting soil will suit the bulbs which are set at 
a depth of about three inches so that they may 
be covered with at least two inches of the soil. 
They are spaced three inches. Settle the soil 
by watering freely, but do not pack down with 
the hand. Then bring the box outdoors in a 
well drained location, covering all to a depth of 
two or three inches. The Tulips will behave 
exactly as they would if set out in a bed for 
spring bloom. Naturally the boxes are to be 
prepared at the same time that bulbs for bed- 
ding purposes are set out. In spring when 
the Tulips begin to peer through the soil in 
the box, which can easily be determined by 
removing some of the extra soil covering, set 
the box into the window box where the gen- 
ial warmth of the sun with good watering will 
develop bloom a little earlier than those in beds. 
On the other hand if you do not care to go to 
this trouble give your order to your florist and 
he can have the Tulips ready in time to shift 
them into the window boxes. Indeed, he can 
force the bulbs along a little bit and give you 
Tulip bloom as early as may be deemed safe in 
your locality. A hard frost will not interfere 
with the bloom of a Tulip and furthermore 
Tulips can be shifted when in bloom, though 
you will get the longest blooming period when 
they are shifted before the buds have opened. 
— C. L. Meller, N. Dak. 

Making a Lawn in Fall. — This is an ex- 
cellent time to remodel or make a new lawn. 
I speak from experience. A year ago I had a 
very unsightly lawn; originally it had been 
improperly graded, and, knowing it must at 
some convenient time be redone, weeds had 
been allowed full sway. The first of last 
September the lawn was peeled, and then gone 
over with pick and spade to a depth of fifteen 
or eighteen inches and all weed roots removed. 
The soil was then made very fine, heavily 
fertilized with bone meal, and at daybreak one 
fine morning when not a breeze was stirring to 




Use Tulips for the window box. They give early color 

carry the light seed other than where wanted a 
combination of Blue-grass and Red-top (the 
best mixture, apparently, for this region) was 
thickly and evenly sown, being lightly raked in 
and rolled. Sticks with white strips of cloth 
tied upon the ends, which gaily waved in the 
breezes, were placed about and kept the spar- 
rows from picking up the seed. Nature was 
kind, adding the last requisite, a gentle rain, 
and in a very few days the entire lawn was a 
most beautiful carpet of living green. Early 
this spring White Clover was very sparingly 
sown over the surface before it was rolled. 
Some weeds such as dandelion, plantain and 
dock, have appeared, as well as some annuals. 
No attention was given to annuals, but all 
perennial weeds have been carefully removed, 
a little soil and grass seed in each case ap- 
plied, and the wound carefully patted down, 
and this procedure will be persisted in yearly. 
There is not a bare spot anywhere. The 
accompanying picture with its pleasing back- 
ground of flowers and shrubbery, also fall 
planted, does not begin to give an adequate 
idea of this beautiful September made lawn. 
Not only is this time of the year desirable for 
the production of a good lawn, but fall usually 
affords greater leisure than spring; the ex- 
perienced gardener realizes the necessity of 
doing everything which it is possible to do in the 
fall to relieve the congestion of the spring's work, 
and the making of a sizeable lawn is no small 
task if well done. — R. R. A., Jamestown, N. Y. 

Late Strawberry Planting. — I was startled to 
read in August Garden Magazine that planting 
could be done as late as November 10 — but 
then, New Jersey is not Massachusetts! We 
plant here in August. — G. W. A. 

[ — Of course the farther north the earlier the 
advent of winter. — Ed.] 




Is fall planting practical?— Everything in the garden, shrubs, trees, lawn and border was fall set 



THE MONTH'S REMINDER 

PREPARE FOR THE HARVEST— GARDENING FOR THE WINTER— LATE WORK OUTDOORS 



NO OTHER month in the garden 
calendar is so likely not to be used to 
full advantage by the average 
gardener as this fine month of 
September. With weather favorable for good 
growth; with cool late afternoons which still 
give opportunity for a little garden work 
'"after hours"; with any number of things 
that can be done now instead of being put off 
until the crowded weeks of next spring — with 
all these there is little excuse for the gardener 
who cannot find plenty of opportunities for 
all his energies and his skill. 

A Chance on Late Plantings 

~\ X7TULE too late for many of the things 
' * which could be planted last month, 
there are nevertheless a number which can 
still be put in with a fair chance that they will 
"come through" in time. Even fairly well 
north, there are still some sixty days of grow- 
ing weather probable. This means that 
radishes, lettuce, spinach, and turnips may 
still be planted; while even with early beans 
and beets one can well afford to take a 
"sporting chance." Beans that are pro- 

tected from the first frost by leaves, hay, or 
irrigation are likely to bear a good crop after- 
ward. Beets will of course not mature, but 
they will have time, with fair luck, to reach 
the size when they are most delicious for eat- 
ing, and the tender roots may be canned. 

Get Ready — And Then Get Busy! 

"\ X 7TTILE a last pot shot at vegetable 
* ' planting may be taken, still that is only 
a minor part of the month's work, and no 
good gardener will feel that he has "done his 
bit" of fall planting if he stops there. The 
plantings of perennials, shrubs, evergreens, 
and hardy bulbs that should be made during 
the next six weeks are among the most im- 
portant things in the year's programme. 

If your orders for all these things have not 
yet been sent in, send them in at once. No 
need of waiting to get catalogues. Better still, 
however, look through the advertising pages 
of this month's and last month's Garden 
Magazine, and order direct from the items 
described and offered there. Don't be among 
those who feel that this year may not be the 
one to plant. Every tree and shrub you set 
out will within a very few years have added 
many times its own cost to the value of the 
place as a whole. Put your place in shape to 
command its share of the rising real estate 
values which the next few years will see. 

" Plenty to Eat and Dry Feet " 

HpHERE is no black art about fall planting; 
•*- commonsense and care tellj in good re- 
sults. There are a few general principles which 
should be kept in mind for all fall plant- 
ing. Be sure the drainage is good! This is 
even more important now than in spring 
planting, as the results of poor drainage are 
likely to be fat,al, due to rotting or to freezing. 
To improve drainage prepare new beds or 
borders, or the holes where trees or shrubs are 
to go, by digging out and putting in a layer of 
cinders or some similar coarse porous material. 
If any of the spots to be planted are so low 
that the use of drain tile is necessary to carry 
off surplus water, by all means do the required 
draining before planting is begun. 

Most of the plants set out in the fall will re- 
main in the same places for a number of years, 
if not for life; and they need something that 



will stay by them. They can get it in well 
rotted manure and coarse ground bone. For 
bulbs, hardy Lilies especially, the manure may 
better be omitted, and fibrous compost used 
in its place. A generous amount of ground 
limestone (not burned or caustic lime) will also 
be a good precautionary investment, except in 
the case of those few plants which prefer an 
acid soil, like Rhododendrons and their kin. 

Getting the New Plants Transplanted 

T^HE plants of various kinds, started 
■*• in July or August for new beds or for 
wintering over, will require attention again 
this month. Unlike dormant plants set out in 
the fall, these things should make as much 
growth as possible after transplanting. There- 
fore set into permanent positions as soon as 
possible — that is, as soon as they are large 
enough to transplant well, and conditions for 
transplanting are favorable. Pansies, English 
Daisies, and other similar things which make a 
compact bushy growth will require no pruning 
back, but those with very large leaves, or tend- 
ing to make a tall, single-stalk early growth, 
may profitably be cut back a third or so when 
being moved. A little tankage, chicken or 
sheep manure used when transplanting will 
help to keep these young plants growing vigor- 
ously until their natural time to cease growth 
for the winter; but be careful not to overstimu- 
late them, especially if they have not been 
making very rapid growth in the seedbed, be- 
cause of poor soil, dry weather, etc. 

Putting the Garden Indoors 

DON'T make the mistake of leaving plants 
designed for winter use, whether vege- 
tables or flowers, where they are growing until 
actual freezing weather threatens. As soon as 



DO THIS MONTH 

1. Make the last succession plantings. 

2. Begin jail planting of perennials, shrubs, etc. 

3. Prepare beds and borders for late fall planting. 

4. Get ready for early harvesting. 

5. Build new coldframes and hotbeds, and 

6. Overhaul and repair the old ones. 

7. Put the greenhouse in shape for the winter. 

8. Begin planting under glass. 

9. Put in plants for winter bloom. 

10. Make or remake the lawn now. 

11. Keep the new strawberry bed in shape. 

12. Sow cover crops wherever possible. 



they are large enough to transplant shift to 
frames or greenhouse, to get established under 
conditions as nearly as possible like those in 
which they have been growing. Be careful to 
have the frames or benches filled with soil that 
is both rich and clean. One danger point in 
getting lettuce, or stocks, or pinks, or other 
plants into winter quarters under glass is the 
effect of the sun through the glass. Weak 
whitewash or other temporary shading on the 
glass (outside), or cloth sash or even newspa- 
pers over the plants, for a few days after 
transplanting, will help greatly in getting 
them used to their new quarters. Water 
should be given rather sparingly until they be- 
come established, but frequent sprinkling or 
syringing of the walks, benches, etc., if the 
weather is hot and bright, will be of very 
material benefit. A little nitrate of soda — 
using about a tablespoonful to the 12-quart 
watering can — will show marked results if 
applied as soon as the plants are well rooted. 

4<2 



Begin Planting Under Glass 

^J.ET started with first fall crops from 
^-* seed, like radishes and beans; and also 
sowings for later plantings of lettuce. The 
more growth they can make with the sash off 
entirely, or all the "air" that you can give 
them, the better; they will be healthier, and 
you will not have to wait so long for the first 
good things from indoors. 

The Early Frost Gets the Slow Gardener 

Tj^VERY two or three years old General 
•*— ' Jack Frost catches a bunch of careless 
gardeners napping. He makes a flying trip 
without previous warning, and gets such 
easily injured things as beans, sweet corn, 
cucumbers, and tomatoes. Therefore the 
careful gardener takes pains not to get caught 
unawares as "first frost" date for his section 
approaches; not the average date on which the 
first occurs, but the earliest on which it has 
been known to occur — which is about three 
weeks in advance of the average. A week or 
more before that time, begin to reduce any 
surplus there may be. The tomatoes, of 
course, are good for any number of pickles and 
preserves. But in addition to that, the best of 
the full-grown but green fruits may easily 
be kept and gradually ripened by storing 
them in leaves or hay in a dry warm place 
— like an empty coldframe, with sash handy 
for cold nights and wet weather. Cucum- 
bers gathered green and kept in a rather 
cool, moist place, out of the light, will re- 
main in good condition for a long time, but 
if merely "touched" by the frost they will 
spoil very quickly. 

Get Ready With New Frames 

TF YOU have never before had a coldframe, 
A make up your mind to get one ready at 
once. Even if you have to begin at the be- 
ginning in learning to "run" it, the practice 
you can get this fall will stand you in good 
stead in the spring. Moreover — the frame 
will be ready for you! Don't be in the army of 
"wishers" again next March. At a reasonable 
cost you can get your frame, as well as the 
glass "sash" which goes on top of it, all cut 
and ready to put together in a jiffy; nothing 
for the man who receives it to do but put a few 
bolts in place and dig a little hole. It will also 
be wise to thoroughly overhaul the old frames 
at this time. Every cracked glass in the 
greenhouse, even if it is in no danger of coming 
out now, should be relaid in fresh putty and 
made absolutely firm, or better still replaced 
with a whole new light, using the one removed, 
for a sash or plant forcer. A glass once cracked 
is almost sure to cause trouble later on — and at 
just the worst time. 

Don't Forget the Winter Overcoat 

IN THE rush of work there will be if you 
try to attend to everything that can be 
done to advantage this month, don't forget 
to put a cover crop on every square foot of the 
garden that is cleared, just as fast as it is 
cleared, or before. You can rake up the 
ground and sow between the rows of late 
crops, such as onions and carrots and late 
potatoes, and the last planting of sweet 
corn. The more green stuff you can have to 
fork or plow under in the spring, the better 
your vegetable garden will be next season. 
Herein lies the first step in preparedness for 
next year s food campaign! — [See page 58J 




IB- *^tW ■ f ? 


-fffll 


^f^ 




■ --S 


»;:>«-- .71 


|h£ 


3?" 






or 


\ I M 




'i^ , 




-7 "i^S^ ~a 


r^a 




I^B - Ifl lr " "■" ' 








; 




1 j 












v« *" 






















: 


'■ 


r - 




BS3 bIb /J 












'"^"Ifi 




* i*d 






1^1' 




















; llj 









A good succession — three lots of Fre"esia in this greenhouse in proper relationship 



Outdoors the hardy bulbs are excellent for naturalizing in wide stretches or in the shrubbery 



Bulbs for Twelve Months, Indoors and Outside 

W. C. McCOLLOM 



AN"\' one ought to be able to get flowers 

f\ from bulbs, because the flower is al- 

r %, ready inside the bulb when received 

and the process of development is so 

simple as to be almost mechanical. 

As a class, bulbs will give great returns for 
the labor invested. The more common kinds 
will stand neglect and abuse with practically 
little, if any, result on their flowering. This, 
of course, does not constitute a reasonable ex- 
cuse for neglecting them entirely, as they are 
very responsive to good treatment and indeed 
this elasticity in their culture makes them 
"every man's flower." Even without a green- 
house fresh flowers can be had — from bulbs — 
all through winter. For early flowers in the 
formal garden, where can you find even an 
acceptable substitute: For naturalization 
they excel. A strip of woods or a meadow bog 
can be made into a veritable fairyland, and 
what would a rockery be without its little 
Scillas and Grape Hyacinths. 

Though bulbs are generally looked upon as 
spring flowers (it is true that the majority of 
those more commonly used, do flower in 
spring), there are others that flower during the 
summer and fall and, by proper selection, it is 
possible to have bulbs which flower every 
month, from the little Snowdrop in March, 
until September when the Fall Crocus 
(Colchicum) sends up its weird attractive 
flowers. 

' Don't buy cheap bulbs." This is not given 
as a reprimand, but rather as ad- 
vice. Bear in mind, that prac- 
tically all individuals of a given 
variety look very much alike. 
Yet some might be dear at one 
cent each, others cheap at five 



fa 



• ••: 




At this writing there seems to be a 
reasonable prospect of an adequate sup- 
ply of Dutch bulbs reaching America 
for planting this fall. 

It has been officially stated that an 
agreement has been entered by all 
authorities concerned covering the ne- 
cessities of the case. 

It may probablv be assumed, how- 
ever, that the supply will be limited 
and the necessity of early reservations 
is apparent, for "first come first served." 

It is also reported that a small supply 
of domestic grown bulbs will be avail- 
able, but this source is not as yet de- 
veloped sufficiently to offset the foreign 
conditions to any appreciable degree; 
and for some years to come, even under 
the best of circumstances, the domestic 
industry must of necessity be small. 



Before covering up to get root growth the bulbs are 
watered. Each lot is carefully labeled 



cents each. These bulbs have been carefully 
selected by experienced men in the field where 
they are collected and sorted according to 
their value, and I am always willing to accept 
these experts' appraisal of value over my own 
judgment. I therefore make a practice of 
buying the best, which (I must confess, how- 
ever) is judged on a price basis by going to a 
responsible concern. It is safe to shop on 
this method. 

" Buy early, plant early," is another bit of 
advice that has been shouted so long and loud 
that it seems to be almost over-familiar, like 
the customary' "Vote early" preelection slo- 
gan of the newspapers. But every day counts. 
Remember that bulbs have a limited time in 
which to make roots to sustain them over the 
winter and the better the root system devel- 
oped before the advent of exceeding cold, the 
better the results when flowering time arrives. 

1~~\0 NOT imagine for a moment that 
-"-^ by delaying your planting you are 
saving money because bulbs are getting 
cheaper. True, prices will be lower later on 
not because time is getting shorter, but simply 
because every selection from stock means that 
the better bulbs are taken out, until by the 
time the very cheap offers are made only the 
culls are left. 

Like most other things, bulbs delight in 
good treatment. Good wholesome growing 
conditions; good things to eat, and plenty to 
drink. These given and good results are 
certain. In eatables they prefer well-rotted 
manure, spaded into the ground to a depth of 

43 



about twelve inches but, lacking this, de- 
cayed vegetation or fertilizer may be used. 
They are water lovers and some substance 
which is retentive of moisture will be most 
satisfactory. Manure, therefore, serves a 
double purpose; it catches and stores the mois- 
ture, subject to the call of the plant and, de- 
composing slowly, releases foods in about the 
proportion that the plants assimilate it. 

The general rule for planting bulbs is to 
plant the bottom of the bulb about four times 
the depth of the bulb below the surface. In 
case of any divergence from this rule, I prefer 
deeper rather than shallower planting, as 
strong bulbs are sure to come through and the 
weak ones are a failure even under favorable 
conditions. Deep planting also encourages 
deep rooting. 

Planting for the Greatest Display 

U*ORMAL plantings offer a varied field of 
A the most exacting nature. Of course 
bulbs selected for this purpose must all flower 
at one time in order to get the desired effect. 
It is also essential that all the varieties be in a 
combination of uniform height. Different 
varieties of the same type may be used to give 
some color scheme but do not mix Tulips and 
Narcissi, for instance. Beds for formal 
planting needs be prepared thoroughly, of an 
even texture to assure identic conditions. The 
customary method is to spade or fork under 
some manure, leaving the surface smooth and 
evenly raked. Then the 
bulbs are placed at uni- 
form distances, starting 
in the centre, using a 




Lifting from the outdoor trench ready to be taken inside 
for "forcing" into bloom 



44 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1917 



plank to prevent tramping the soil unevenly. 
The planting should be done with a dibber 
planting tool that can be made from the handle 
of a spade or fork sawed off about six inches 
below the grip. This is forced into the ground 
to an even depth, thus assuring uniform plant- 
ing. Plant the bulbs from four to six inches 
apart and preferably on a little sand. 

Dutch Hyacinths are specially adapted for 
formal plantings. They offer a good range of 
colors in shades of blue, red, yellow, and white 




First step in potting. A layer of rough material to give 
drainage 

and are extremely fragrant. Their solid 
masses of color and extreme earliness make 
them very popular. 

Single Early Tulips of which there are 
numerous varieties ranging in the various 
shades of scarlet, crimson, red, yellow, orange, 
pink, violet, white, etc., are excellent for 
formal plantings. There are numerous strong, 




Individual bulbs placed securely on the soil of the partly 
filled pot 

bold colors in the Tulips and judgment must 
be used for the production of well blended color 
plantings. Double Tulips might also be used, 
but they flower later and must not be mixed 
with the early singles. 

Late flowering Tulips such as Picotee, 
Maiden's Blush, Bridesmaid and other var- 
ieties, including the Parrot Tulips, are also 
fine when massed together. Each must be 
used separately; any attempt to mix them in 
formal plantings will result in failure. The 
"coup de maitre" for formal plantings is the 
beautiful Darwin Tulip, standing three feet 
high with long graceful stems and keeping 
for weeks in perfect condition. The range 
of colors is all that could be desired, carmine, 
maroon, rose, salmon, blue, white and almost 
a perfect black. They are worthy of a setting 
all their own in any garden. 

Narcissus and Daffodils of various types can 



well be used in formal plantings. The singles 
are by far the surest and most satisfactory but 
the sweet smelling Jonquils might also be in- 
cluded but not actually mixed — i. e., the true 
rush-leaved, not the so-called of the cut flower 
men which is a Trumpet Daffodil. When the 
garden consists of a number of beds, some 
might be devoted to different varieties such as 
the Jonquil, Poet's Narcissus, and the Polyan- 
thus type. 

After the bulbs have finished their flowering, 




Finish off by pressing the soil firmly about the bulbs and 
covering their tops 

they may be lifted and placed on their side in 
shade, as somewhere on the north side of a 
building where the bulbs will ripen. Handled 
thus the bulbs may be used for several seasons; 
Narcissus even for a period of many years. 
Take care that the varieties are not mixed and 
that Tulips are not kept until they are a failure 
before replacing the bulbs. The space in the 



Bulbs for Forcing in the Greenhouse or Dwelling 



WHEN TO 
PLANT 



July-Nov. 

Aug.-Sept. 

Aug.-Sept. 

Aug.-Sept. 

Aug.-Sept. 

Aug.-Sept. 

Aug.-Sept. 

Aug.-Sept. 

Sept.-Oct. 

Sept -Oct. 

Sept.-Oct. 

Sept.-Oct. 

Sept.-Oct. 

Sept.-Oct. 

Sept.-Oct. 

Sept.-Oct. 

Sept.-Oct. 

Sept.-Oct. 

Sept.-Oct. 

Sept.-Oct. 

Sept.-Oct. 

Sept.-Oct. 

Sept.-Oct. 

Sept.-Oct. 

Sept.-Oct. 

Sept.-Oct. 

Sept.-Oct. 

Sept.-Oct. 

Sept.-Oct. 

Sept.-Oct. 

Sept.-Oct. 

Sept.-Dec. 

Oct.-Nov. 

Oct.-Nov. 

Oct.-Nov. 

Oct.-Nov. 

Oct.-Nov. 

Oct.-Nov. 

Nov. 

Dec-Jan. 



COMMON NAME 



Japanese Lily 

Brodiaea 
*Freesia 

*Roman Hyacinth 
♦Madonna Lily 
*Easter Lily 
♦Calla Lily 

Little Gem Calla 
♦Flowering Onion 

Windflower 

Mariposa Lily 
♦Crocus 

Sowbread 

Italian Hyacinth 
♦Dutch Hyacinth 

Cape Cowslips 

Jonquil 
♦Chinese Sacred Lily 

Pheasant's Eye 
♦Single Daffodils 
♦Double Daffodils 
♦Polyanthus Narcissus 
♦Paper-white Narcissus 

Guernsey Lily 

Star of Bethlehem 
♦Oxalis 

Buttercup 

Darwin Tulips 

Late Flowering Tulips 
♦Single Tulips 
♦Double Tulips 

Lily-of-the-Valley 

Sword Lily 

French Iris 
♦English Iris 
♦Spanish Iris 

Ixia 

Sparaxis 

White Trumpet Lily 

Belladonna Lily 



BOTANICAL NAME 



Lilium speciosum 

Brodiaea 

Freesia refracta 

Hyacinthus orientalis alba 

Lilium candidum 

Lilium Harrisii 

Richardia aethiopica 

Richardia aethiopica var. 

Allium Moly 

Anemone Coronaria 

Calochortus 

Crocus 

Cyclamen 

Hyacinthus amethystimus 

Hyacinthus orientalis 

Lachenalia 

Narcissus Jonquilla 

Narcissus orientalis 

Narcissus poeticus 

Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus 

Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus 

Narcissus tazetta 

Narcissus tazetta alba 

Nerine sarniensis 

Ornithogalunvarabicum 

Oxalis 

Ranunculus 

Tulipa Gesneriana vars 

Tulipa Cesneriana vars 

Tulipa suaveolens 

Tulipa sylvestris 

Convallaria majalis 

Gladiolus 

Iris persica 

Iris xiphoides 

Iris Xiphium 

Ixia 

Sparaxis 

Lilium longiflorum 

Amaryllis Belladonna 



DISTANCE 
APART 



6-7 inch potsf 
4 inches 
3-4 inches 
4 inches 
6-7 inch potsf 
6-7 inch potsf 
6-7 inch potsf 
5-6 inch potsf 
4 inches 
6 inches 
4 inches 

3 inches 

6-7 inch potsf 

4 inches 
4 inches 
4 inches 
4 inches 
4 inches 

3 inches 

4 inches 
4 inches 
4 inches 
4 inches 

5-6 inch potsf 

6 inches 

4 inches 

4 inches 

3 inches 

3 inches 

3 inches 

3 inches 

2 inches 

3 inches 
3 inches 
3 inches 

3 inches 

4 inches 
4 inches 

6-7 inch potsf 
6-7 inch potsf 



DEPTH TO 
PLANT 



4-6 inches 
2 inches 

2 inches 
4-6 inches 
4-6 inches 
4-6 inches 
4-6 inches 
3-4 inches 

3 inches 
1-2 inches 
3 inches 

3 inches 
Just covered 
4-6 inches 
4-6 inches 

3 inches 
4-6 inches 
4-6 inches 
4-6 inches 
4-6 inches 
4-6 inches 
4-6 inches 
4-6 inches 
Just covered 

4 inches 
2 inches 

2 inches 
3-4 inches 
3-4 inches 
3-4 inches 
3-4 inches 
Just covered 

3 inches 
3 inches 
3 inches 
3 inches 
3 inches 
3 inches 
4-6 inches 
Just covered 



SEASON OF 
BLOOM 



Dec-Apr. 
Feb.-Apr. 
Dec-Apr. 
Nov.-Apr. 
Jan.-Apr. 
Dec-Apr. 
Dec-Apr. 
Dec-Apr. 
Dec-Apr. 
Feb.-Apr. 
Feb.-Apr. 
Jan.-Apr. 
Dec-Apr. 
Jan.-Apr. 
Jan.-Apr. 
Feb.-Apr. 
Jan.-Apr. 
Nov.-Apr. 
Feb.-Apr. 
Dec-Apr. 
Jan.-Apr. 
Jan.-Apr. 
Nov.-Apr. 
Jan.-Apr. 
Jan.-Apr. 
Dec-Apr. 
Feb.-Apr. 
Feb.-Apr. 
Feb.-Apr. 
Dec-Apr. 
Jan.-Apr. 
Oct.-Apr. 
Feb.-Apr. 
Jan.-Apr. 
Jan.-Apr. 
Jan.-Apr. 
Feb.-Apr. 
Feb.-Apr. 
Feb.-Apr. 
Feb.-Apr. 



HEIGHT 

IN 
INCHES 



24-48 

12 

12-24 

12 

36-72 

36-72 

36-48 

12-18 

12-18 

6 

12 

6 

12 

6 

12 

12 

12 

12 

12 

12-24 

12 

12-18 

12-18 

12-24 

12-18 

12 

6 

24-30 

12-18 

12 

12 

6 

12-18 

12 

12 

12 

18 

12 

24-48 

24-30 



Cold storage bulbs available for early forcing 

Very delicate flower for cutting 

One of the best of all for cutting 

Forces well; free flowering; very fragrant 

Small flowering type; long spikes; good cut flower 

One of the best of all Lilies 

Requires rich soil and heavy feeding 

Miniature type of the Calla 

Very free flowering but of unpleasant odor 

Grow cool; very showy; excellent for cutting 

Richly colored flowers; should be more grown 

Very pretty in pans and pots 

Excellent for cutting or pot decoration 

Graceful flower for cutting; easily forced 

Good range of colors. Both double and single forms 

Uncommon bulb; pretty and worth attention 

Old-fashioned but still popular; sweet smelling 

Sweet smelling type is excellent for mixing 

One of the very best for cutting 

Contains both medium and large trumpet types 

Good for pans but rather heavy for cutting 

Contains several small flowering types; very good 

Very early; invaluable for cutting 

Another type of the Amaryllis 

Very attractive; fine for cutting; should be more grown 

Very pretty for hanging baskets and pots 

Very showy for growing in pots or pans 

Cannot be forced early 

Several fine types for late forcing 

Earliest type of Tulip for forcing 

Showy for pots and pans in decorative work 

Cold storage pips make flowers available at all times 

Cold storage bulbs are used for early forcing 

Grow cool; don't attempt to force until late December 

Grow cool; use light soil; feed freely after budding 

Grow cool; excellent for cutting 

Beautiful cut flower; must be grown cool 

Grow cool; don't start too early; fine cut flower 

Most satisfactory for late forcing 

Very showy, flowers sometimes 9-12 inches across 



♦ These are the best types for forcing in the dwelling. 



f Indicates size of pot for single bulb. 



September, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



4.5 




Tender bulbs (Lilies and Frsesias) are best put into a cold 
frame after potting 

beds can be planted with other attractive 
bedding plants for summer. 

Wild Gardening in Wood and Meadow 

A SSURED by one of the most effective uses 
** for bulbs is the so-called naturalization 
planting. Only such bulbs as keep increasing 
are used, and they are planted in locations 
where they may remain undisturbed for years. 
Meadow bogs that are not too wet, wild gar- 
dens, around water gardens, woodlands which 
are not too dense, borders of shrubbery, etc., 
offer opportunities for the establishment of a 
permanent planting of bulbs. The Narcissus 
family unquestionably offers the best bulbs for 
naturalization. It is reallly astonishing how 
rapidly the bulbs will increase under favorable 
conditions especially in a meadow bog 
or in a strip of oak woods, where the 
late leafing of the trees is favorable to 
the development of the flowers be- 
low. Practically all the more populai 
types of Narcissus are available. The 
beautiful native Trillium is invalu- 
able for woodland planting, its frail, 
delicate appearance always exciting 
admiration. In some places the old 
Tiger Lily can be used and will in- 



crease very rapidly and several of the 
Japanese species of Lily, like L. regale are 
quite adaptable. The Alliums are best suited 
for wild effects and not the buttonhole use as, 
belonging to the onion family, they have the 
odor of their class. Around the base of trees, 
borders adjoining summer houses, placed 
where close inspection is invited, Lily-of-the- 
valley is invaluable. The flowers form a per- 
fect mat in season and the foliage is attractive 
the year through. Other small-flower types 
that may be used are Hyacinth, Scilla, Grape 
Hyacinth, Crocus, Bulbocodium and Snow- 
drop. Anemone comes in many beautiful and 
brilliant colors and shades. The peculiarly 
colored mottled Fntillary, with drooping, egg 
shaped flowers will be found satisfactory for 
shady places, and the Mariposa Lilies (Calo- 
chortus) may be attempted, but it must have 
proper drainage and must be amply protected; 
if the soil be heavy, reeds, boards or other cov- 
ers must be placed over the plants in fall to shed 
water as the bulbs will not stand the freezing 
and thawing conditions of the Eastern winter. 

Rock Gardens for the Connoisseur 

T JNTVERSALLY the rock garden is fast 
*-' becoming one of the most popular forms 
of specialized gardening. There is so much 









VJ <ft ^ 






^^^k 1 


Ku 




HKifj 


,"^j- -^ 






Space under the greenhouse bench is used for the first step 
of forcing 

ingenuity and originality about them that they 
attract the creative mind. Being com- 
paratively new in popular favor, we are not 
confined to paths already hard traveled by 
others; each gardener has a chance to show what 
taste and constructive ability he has. Bulbs 
are indeed indispensable. Of course you use 
bulbs of permanent character and also avoid 
showy, gaudy colors, as the tone of a rockery 
should be subdued. Color? Yes! But quiet 
and refined, not like a formal garden in front 
of some large summer hotel. The aim is quite 
different, one is for effect and the other to 
attract closer attention and invite detailed in- 
spection. The small flowering Narcissus such 
as Poet's, or Polyanthus types, are permissible 
in rock gardens,'; but the large flowering type 
will be out of place. All small flower- 
ing Cape bulbs (such as Snowdrop, 
Scilla, Grape Hyacinth, and Crocus), 
flowering at different periods from 
March to June offer material for a 
continuity of bloom. Alliums are 
among the best bulbs for rock garden 
planting; their thin drooping foliage 
and large umbels of dainty flowers 
can be had in yellow, white, and blue. 
Trillium must not be allowed to suffer 



Bulbs for Planting Out-of-doors 



WHEN TO 






DISTANCE 


DEPTH TO 


SEASON OF 


HEIGHT 




PLANT 


COMMON NAME 


BOTANICAL NAME 


APART 


PLANT 


BLOOM 


IN' 
INCHES 


REMARKS 


Aug.-Sept. 


Madonna Lily 


Lilium candidum 


12-18 inches 


12 inches 


June- July 


36-48 


Very fragrant; long spikes; excellent cut flower 


Sept .-Oct. 


Flowering Onion 


Allium Moly 


4-6 inches 


4 inches 


May-June 


12 


Very free flowering and showy- 


Sept.-Oct. 


Windflower 


Anemone coronaria 


4—6 inches 


3 inches 


May- June 


6 


Must be protected over the winter 


Sept.-Oct. 


Meadow Saffron 


Bulbocodium vemum 


4-6 inches 


4 inches 


Mar.-Apr. 


3 


Very early and somewhat similar to the Crocus 


Sept.-Oct. 


Mariposa Lily 


Calochortus 


4-6 inches 


4 inches 


July-Sept. 


12 


Must be well protected over the winter 


Sept.-Oct. 


Indian Quamash 


Camassia camassia 


6-8 inches 


4 inches 


Apr.-May 


18-24 


Good cut flower; similar to the Anthericum 


Sept.-Oct. 


Glory-of-the-Snow 


Chionodoxa Luciliae 


4-6 inches 


4 inches 


Apr. 


3 


Very showy; good for rockeries and wild gardens 


Sept.-Oct. 


Crocus 


Crocus 


4-6 inches 


3 inches 


Mar.-Apr. 


3 


Fine for color masses in early spring 


Sept.-Oct. 


Winter Aconite 


Eranthis hyemalis 


4-6 inches 


4 inches 


Mar.-Apr. 


6 


One of our earliest spring flowers 


Sept.-Oct. 


Crown Imperial 


Fritillaria imperialis 


12-15 inches 


9 inches 


June-July 


12-18 


Fine bright colored flower; needs protection 


Sept.-Oct. 


Guinea Hen Flower 


Fritillaria meleagris 


8-12 inches 


6 inches 


June 


12 


Very odd drooping flower of peculiar colors 


Sept.-Oct. 


Snowdrop 


Galanthus nivalis, etc. 


4-6 inches 


4 inches 


Mar.-Apr. 


6 


The real harbinger of spring 


Sept.-Oct. 


Italian Hyacinth 


Hyacinthus amethystinus 


6-8 inches 


6 inches 


Apr.-May 


12 


A little more hardy than the Roman type 


Sept.-Oct. 


Feathered Hyacinth 


Hyacinthus orientalis 


6-8 inches 


6 inches 


Apr.-May 


6 


Very delicate; fine for cutting 


Sept.-Oct. 


Dutch Hyacinth 


Hyacinthus orientalis 


6-8 inches 


6 inches 


Apr.-May 


12 


Very sweet scented; showy bedding flower 


Sept.-Oct. 


Roman Hyacinth 


Hyacinthus orientalis alba 


6-8 inches 


6 inches 


Apr.-May 


6 


One of the favorites for cutting; fragrant 


Sept.-Oct. 


Wood Lily 


Lilium canadense 


8-12 inches 


6 inches 


May- June 


12 


One of our best bulbs for naturalizing in woods 


Sept.-Oct. 


Grape Hyacinth 


Muscari botryoides 


6-8 inches 


4 inches 


Apr.-May 


6 


One of the best for wild or rock gardens 


Sept.-Oct. 


Barrii Daffodils 


Narcissus Barrii 


6-8 inches 


4 inches 


May 


12-18 


Small cup type; very fragrant 


Sept.-Oct. 


Cyclamen Daffodils 


Narcissus cyclamineus 


6-8 inches 


4 inches 


Apr.-May 


12 


Very odd bell shaped drooping flowers 


Sept.-Oct. 


Jonquil 


Narcissus Jonquilla 


6-8 inches 


6 inches 


May-June 


12-18 


Very fragrant; excellent for cutting 


Sept.-Oct. 


Leedsi Daffodil 


Narcissus Leedsii 


6-8 inches 


4 inches 


May-June 


12-18 


Very effective small flowering type 


Sept.-Oct. 


Pheasant's Eye 


Narcissus poeticus 


6-8 inches 


4 inches 


May- June 


12 


One of the best for bedding and general planting 


Sept.-Oct. 


Double Daffodil 


Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus 


6-8 inches 


6 inches 


Apr.-May 


12 


Showy for color masses 


Sept.-Oct. 


Single Daffodil 


Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus 


6-8 inches 


6 inches 


Apr.-May 


12-24 


Very' hardy and spreads persistently. 


Sept.-Oct. 


Scilla 


Scilla sibirica 


6-8 inches 


4 inches 


Apr.-May 


6 


Earliest blue flower in spring 


Sept.-Oct. 


Parrot Tulip 


Tulipa acuminata 


8-12 inches 


6 inches 


May-June 


12-18 


Very showy; splashed red and yellow colorings 


Sept.-Oct. 


Darwin Tulip 


Tulipa Gesneriana 


8-12 inches 


6 inches 


May-June 


24-30 


Best Tulip for general planting 


Sept.-Oct. 


Rembrandt Tulip 


Tulipa Gesneriana 


8-12 inches 


6 inches 


May-June 


24-30 


Variegated Tulip; tall and stately; fine for cutting 


Sept.-Oct. 


Single Tulip 


Tulipa suaveolens 


6-8 inches 


6 inches 


Apr.-May 


12 


Earliest flowering type 


Sept.-Oct. 


Double Tulip 


Tulipa sylvestris 


6-8 inches 


6 inches 


May-June 


12 


Effective for bedding and masses of color 


Oct.-Nov. 


Fall-flowering Crocus 


Colchicum autumnale 


4-6 inches 


4 inches 


Sept.-Oct. 


3 


Very odd flower, both in color and form 


Oct.-Nov. 


Lily-of-the- Valley 


Convallaria majalis 


12-15 inches 


4 inches 


Apr.-May 


6 


Plant clumps; soon grows to solid masses 


Oct.-Nov. 


Summer-flowering Hyacinth 


Galtonia candicans 


24-36 inches 


6-8 inches 


July-Aug. 


30-36 


Large spikes of graceful drooping flowers 


Oct.-Nov. 


French Iris 


Iris persica 


4-6 inches 


3 inches 


May-June 


12 


Excellent type; needs protection 


Oct.-Nov. 


English Iris 


Iris xiphioides 


4-6 inches 


3 inches 


May- June 


12 


Must be well protected to endure winter 


Oct.-Nov. 


Spanish Iris 


Iris Xiphium 


4-6 inches 


3 inches 


May-June 


12 


Fine cut flower; not a robust grower 


Oct.-Nov. 


Ixia 


Ixia 


6-8 inches 


4 inches 


May-June 


12 


Needs extra care to winter; fine cut flowers 


Oct.-Nov. 


Hybrid Lilies 


Lilium hybridum 


12-18 inches 


12 inches 


July-Sept. 


24-48 


Numerous very valuable garden varieties 


Oct.-Nov. 


Tiger Lily 


Lilium tigrinum 


12-18 inches 


12 inches 


July-Aug. 


24-36 


Effective in masses for color schemes 


Oct.-Nov. 


Buttercup 


Ranunculus 


2-3 inches 


3 inches 


Apr.-May 


6 


Good for borders and rockeries; needs protection 


Oct.-Nov. 


Wand Flower 


Spar axis 


6-8 inches 


4 inches 


May-June 


12 


Fine flowers with extra care of winter protection 


Nov.-Dec. 


Liver Leaf 


Hepatica triloba ' 


4-6 inches 


4 inches 


Apr.-May 


6 


Attractive little flower for the collector 


Nov.-Dec. 


Golden Banded Lily 


Lilium auratum 


12-18 inches 


12 inches 


Aug.-Sept. 


24-36 


Showiest of all the great family of Lilies 



46 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1917 



for want of water, especially after flowering. 
The small flowering Iris such as the Spanish, 
English, and French types are certainly 
most beautiful when used in masses. The 
Mourning Iris (I. Susiana) will respond to 
the good drainage conditions of the rock garden, 
and equally because of the steep grades and un- 
usually good drainage such conditions afford, 
a number of so-called half hardy bulbs will 
find congenial quarters. These bulbs decay 
generally because of excessive moisture caused 
by the constant changes in our winter weather 
and, while that condition cannot be changed, 
its effect can be removed by proper mulching 
after the ground is once frozen and then in 
case of thawing, the excess of water drains 
away quickly. 

Where the proper protection is applied and 
the grade is favorable, such bulbs as Mont- 
bretia, Bulbocodium, Chionodoxa, Colchi- 
cum, and Camassia may be used. 

Growing Indoors for Early Bloom 

ONE of the greatest assets of the bulb is its 
adaptability to house culture. There 
are two distinct methods; (a) in pots or pans 
with earth and (b) using water in glasses, etc. 
Either will give results; but the latter method 
utterly destroys the bulb which must be 
thrown away. My preference is for the former 
as it looks more natural. 

For forcing in the house, plant the bulbs just 
as soon as they can be secured. They may 
then be placed in a cool cellar, or (preferably) 
buried out of doors until they make root. 
The bulbs, however, are hard to get at when 
wanted during winter, especially during 
snowy or heavy freezing weather; but when 
placed in the cellar they must be kept watered 
as all bulbs delight in an abundance of 
moisture. When the pots are filled with roots, 
it is safe to start forcing them as convenient. 

The water method is essentially the same. 
Small glasses, holding one bulb, may be used; 
but better, still use large bowls, about half 
filling them with clean white pebbles and a 
little broken charcoal to keep the water sweet. 
The roots cling to these white pebbles, and will 
give the bulbs support enough to keep them 
upright. The bowls or glasses are then put 
away in a dark, cool cellar until they have 
made sufficient roots. It is not necessary to 
change the water, but keep it filled up to a 
level, just at the bottom of the bulbs. When 
the water discolors and it is desirable to 
change it for sanitary reasons, the new water 
should be of the same temperature as that 
removed. 

All Hyacinths may be forced in this man- 



ner. Though the Dutch Hyacinth is most 
commonly used yet the Roman, Italian, and 
Miniature types are worth while and are 
quicker. Of the Narcissus family the chaste, 
fragrant, Paper-white Narcissus is perhaps the 
best, but any of the single or double Polyan- 
thus or Jonquil types may be used. Early 
flowering Tulips are also easy for forcing in the 




Here's a trick to be remembered in the spring. Covering 
bulbs that are pushing up flowers before the leaf growth is 
made in order to "draw" the leaves 

house. Any of the "forcing varieties" which 
are simply extra early varieties, can be used 
for the dwelling. 

The late flowering Tulips, such as the 
Parrots and the Darwins, can be forced in the 
house but not to bloom early; it is not safe to 
start the late flowering types before the middle 
of February. 

Freesias will also do well in the house. 
These bulbs are not hardy and, planted in 
August or September, may be placed outside 
and covered with about two inches of ashes 
until the growth shows through. They may 
then be removed to a cellar which is not too 
dark because since growth has started it is not 
advisable to stop it entirely. These bulbs will 
not force well in water. The bulbs may be 
saved from year to year, in fact the stock can 
be increased by saving the young bulbs which 
form freely. This is not true of other forcing 
bulbs which once forced (in soil) are of no 
further value for this purpose. They may be 



used for outside planting but not for forcing 
again. Crocus and Spanish Iris can also be 
forced in the house but neither will endure 
much heat. A cool window or the west side of 
a house where they get some sunlight will best 
suit. They must not be forced until they 
are thoroughly rooted. These two con- 
ditions cause practically all of the trouble that 
folks have in forcing these two bulbs — not 
waiting until the bulbs are substantially 
rooted or forcing them "too fast" — which 
means in too warm a place. 

Garden Planting in General 

CY)R planting in border shrubberies and 
A such like the hardy bulbs of all kinds are 
used according to the planter's fancy. In the 
perennial border or for mixing with other 
flowers of any kind Hyacinths are very use- 
ful. The beautiful Summer Hyacinth (Hya- 
cinthus or Galtonia candicans) is one of the 
best bulbs we have, flowering in July and 
August its tall spikes of drooping white flowers 
are extremely showy. The Darwin, Gesner- 
iana, late flowering Parrot, and both double 
and single early flowering Tulips are all 
available and indeed the problem is simply one 
of selecting those that please one's fancy and 
are suited for the conditions. The Daffodils 
afford some of the very best spring flowers and 
any place will be livened up with the cheerful 
yellow and white of these old garden favorites. 

Lilies offer us opportunities that we should 
not neglect to seize. Some of the most beau- 
tiful flowers of the garden are in the Lily 
family and the majority of them are hardy if 
planted about one foot deep on a little bed of 
sand made to carry off superfluous water until 
the bulb gets rooted. The various Japanese 
Lilies, especially the attractive Orange Lily 
are fine subjects for the garden. Lilium 
auratum with its beautiful white with crimson 
spots and gold band; Lilium Kiraetzeri, an 
extremely large flowering white lily; Lilium 
candidum the Madonna Lily, small but 
extremely prolific; Lilium Brownii, and the 
beautiful tall Lilium Henryi of an attractive 
yellow. 

Crown Imperials are unusual looking plants 
and could with advantage be used more in 
garden settings. This plant has large spikes of 
drooping crimson flowers that are borne in a 
terminal crown on a stem often two inches in 
length. Plant about nine inches deep and 
mound up the earth to turn water. Fritillaria, 
Colchicum, Scilla, Snowdrop, Trillium, Allium, 
and Lily-of-the-valley are all valuable. The 
management of bulbs in the greenhouse is dis- 
cussed on another page. 




Massed plantings before shrubs 



Scattered plantings in rockery, etc. 



I Say: Sow Sweet Peas in the Fall for Early Bloom 

Vj. W. K..LK.K., President American Sweet Pea Society 

[Editor's Note: Quiet but potent influences work wonderful changes in living things as time rolls on. Sometimes the evidences are external, 
and readily observed, at other times they are far more subtle, resulting in changes of the internal vital -processes. In the Sweet Pea internal changes 
have been very remarkable. The Spencer or large flowered type suddenly loomed into being, the plant otherwise being the same as of old; so also 
the Early-flowering habit crept up and after being recognised gives the start to a Winter-flowering or Early strain which differs from the family 
in thai one thing. As a result Sweet Pea growing is revolutionized.] 



OWhy should Sweet Peas be sown 
in the fall instead of spring? A. 
m Because results are so much better. 
Q. Why are results so much bet- 
ter from fall sowing? A. Because the plants 
make a much stronger root growth under ideal 
conditions, come into flower several weeks earlier 




A comparison of root development. Fall sown Sweet Peas 
make a greater growth ana can better withstand drought 

than from sowings made in spring, and give a 
much longer season of bloom. 

\ X7HEN sowing is delayed until spring it 
* * often happens that owing to weather and 
soil conditions we are not able to get on to the 
ground until well into April. What is the sequel ? 
The seed may germinate quickly; but, toward 
the end of May and during June, when we 
usually have a spell of hot weather, the 
plants may be six to nine inches in height and 
the roots may have penetrated the soil to the 
depth of six inches — but what follows? The 




An early April view of Sweet Peas sown second week of 
October, 1916, in frame. First flowers early in May 



plants if far enough advanced may rush into 
flower, give a few small blooms, when, owing 
to insufficient root growth, they are simply 
cooked in the hot, dry weather, the plants 
take on a sickly yellow hue, and in course, die. 
What about our fall sown plants? Assum- 
ing the seed is properly sown the plants will be 
well rooted even previous to the winter frosts, 
and although they may not make much top 
growth during the mild periods of weather 
which is usually sandwiched in between spells 
of frost, say from December until March, yet 
during all such periods root growth is taking 
place, with the result that when mild weather 
comes in March the plants may only be three 
or four inches in height, but the roots will have 
penetrated the soil to a depth of twelve inches 
or more, and top growth then commences 
in earnest. In this section (Philadelphia) 
such plants will begin blooming during May. 
If early varieties are used flowers may in early 
seasons be cut by the end of April, and the 
plants will continue blooming for many weeks. 

Ideal Method of Sowing 

'TpO THE best of my belief, and by the 
A evidence of my own experiences, there is 
no chance of failure by the following method. 

The ground has been well prepared by deep 
digging (trench two feet deep if possible) and 
thorough manuring, when cow or stable man- 
ure, old garden refuse, etc., may be incorporated 
quite liberally. Sow the seed during the 
second week of October, covering not more 
than two inches. Place boards, six to nine 
inches wide, on edge along both sides of the 
row, nine inches apart, make close at the ends. 
This little Sweet Pea frame must be covered 
later with glass, but the covering is not to be 
put on until severe weather sets in, and is al- 
ways removed during warm mild spells. The 
seedlings will be three inches high before severe 
freezing weather. A slight frost will not harm 
them, and as Sweet Peas are impatient of any 
coddling, they should have all the air possible 
during mild weather, though it is well to 
have them covered during periods of excessive 
rains. The glass may be held in position by 
broad headed nails under which the panes of 
glass can be quickly placed. Or they may be 
secured with string attached to tacks driven 
into the boards. 

When the weather opens up remove the 
glass entirely. This will be some time in 
March. The boards should remain in place to 
protect the plants from strong winds, but as a 
rule they may be removed by the end of 
March or early April, when the ground is 
worked around the plants and supports of 
brush, twine or wire trellis put in position that 
the vines may receive no check in their future 
development. 

The Sweet Pea frame can be later used to 
cover early sowings of lettuce, or other 
vegetables. 

Varieties for Fall Sowing 

~\ \ 7TTHIN the past few years a new race of 
* * Sweet Peas has been developed, namely 
the Early Flowering or Long Season Spencers. 
This is the type best adapted for fall sowing, 
beginning to bloom two or three weeks earlier 
than the summer-flowering Spencers; and, 

47 




Frame, of wood sides and glass top covering the fall sown 
Sweet Peas. Can be used in spring for vegetables 

when started in the fall, continues flowering 
quite as long as the regular type. 

Among the best of the new Early Flowering 
Spencer sorts I have tried out and can 
thoroughly recommend are: 

Early Enchantress, rich rose-pink self; Early Pink Beauty, 
large, soft pink; Early Primrose Beauty, cream, flushed pink; 
Early Rosy-Morn, rose with crimson standard; Early Sankey, 
large white self; Early King, crimson-scarlet self; Early Pink and 
White, reddish-pink standard with blush white wings; Early 
Loveliness, white, heavily bordered rich pink; Yarrawa, glowing 
rose-pink with creamy base. 

If, in addition to the above, a few of the best of the regular 




Early Spencer plants shown on the left as they appeared 
end of June,— been in flower since early May 



48 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1917 



Spencers are desired there are none better in their various 
colors than: Elfrida Pearson, blush pink; Hercules, rich deep 
pink; King Edward Spencer, glowing crimson; King White, 
pure white self; Lilian, salmon pink; The President, orange 
scarlet; Firey Cross, glowing fiery-red; Constance Hinton, 
large black-seeded white; Margaret Atlee, rose-pink on cream; 
Royal Purple, rich true purple self; Wedgwood, light blue self; 
Orchid, the best lavender self; Barbara, rich salmon self; 
Illuminator, salmon-cerise. 

Types for the Southern States, etc. 

TN FLORIDA, and locations having a 
■*■ similar climate, Sweet Peas should be 
sown during the last week in September or 



quite early in October, and by using the Early 
Flowering Spencers, flowers may be had from 
Christmas until May or June. The summer- 
flowering varieties sown at the same time, will 
not flower until April. Therefore for all tropi- 
cal or almost frostless locations the new early 
or long-season varieties only should be used. 
The new earlies are also the most dependable 
type for California, where in some sections, 
sown in September, they have been had in 
flower by Thanksgiving. A few degrees of 



frost may check the plants and stop flowering,, 
but they very quickly break away again, even 
if the leading flowering shoots may be spoiled, 
fresh growth is soon made to take the place of 
the destroyed parts. 

This new type is now being grown almost 
exclusively in Australia, where they bloom 
during the cool winter months. In fact, by 
using these varieties, Sweet Peas may now be 
grown to perfection in many countries where 
the older type was practically valueless. 



How Budding and Grafting are Done 



WM. H. WOLFF 



HERE IS A MEANS OF INCREASING SPECIALLY GOOD VARIETIES OR WORKING OVER POOR BEARERS WITH 

BUDS FROM FRUITFUL TREES 



THE simple art of budding and graft- 
ing, one of the fundamentals of modern 
horticulture, is seemingly a deep mys- 
tery to many people. By it we re- 
produce readily, easily and in any quantity 
many varieties of fruit and ornamental trees 
and plants which cannot be readily secured in 
any other way. It is perfectly practical for 
the home gardener to in this way increase the 
plants that best suit his purpose. There are 



.. (|l l 




Fig. 1. The process of budding, which differs from graft- 
ing only in the fact that a single bud, not a short twig is 
used. (See text for references.) 



two general methods of propagation: i, 
Growing from seed; and 2, Taking pieces from 
the original seedling tree or plant and growing 
these pieces. 

Budding and grafting is the practice of the 
second method. Seed propagation is usually 
easier and therefore cheaper and so is com- 
monly used where only species or type char- 
acters are sought. Hence we propagate from 
seed the wild forest trees and plants, for ex- 
ample, the American Elm, the Silver and Sugar 
Maples, wild or species types of Roses, and 
many of our shrubs. A thousand American 
Elms grown from seed will show many in- 
dividuals differing quite a little from the 
others, yet they will come near enough alike for 
all practical purposes. The same is true of the 
other wild trees and plants in which the type 
characters only are sought and considered. 

In the case of our modern varieties of fruits, 
the case is altogether different. The first 
chief reason for noticing, saving and culti- 
vating these was because they had varied so 
much from the general type and were so dis- 
tinctly different from the general run of their 
seedling fellows; and these (the product of 
great variations from the type) possess thus 
inherent tendencies to vary. There are ten 
main characters of tree and fruit in which we 



naturally would look for and notice variation, 
these are: For the tree: hardiness, vigor, 
productiveness, susceptibility to disease. For 
the fruit, size, form, color, quality (including 
flavor and texture, of the flesh), season of 
ripening, uniformity of crop. So, given a 
tendency to vary, and so many characters 
wherein a slight variation would make a 
large and noticeable difference, and we have 
the explanation of why we cannot resort to 
seed for the propagation of our cultivated 
varieties. 

When seeds will not reproduce with cer- 
tainty the qualities of the individual we de- 
sire to propagate, the only way is to take 
pieces of the original tree or plant and make 
these pieces grow, on their own roots if pos- 
sible, or if these pieces do not have own roots 
or cannot make roots for themselves, we must 
provide other roots for them. Many plants 
can be so divided up that each part has a piece 
of its own root to start with, as for instance a 
Rhubarb plant, Gooseberry, or Spirea bush, 
about which the soil has been banked for a 
season. Some Roses and Grapes may also be 
propagated in this way. Other plants, such as 
Willows, Poplars, Grapes, Currants, many 
shrubs and soft wooded plants generally have 
the ability to make roots readily themselves 
from stem cuttings; and where this is the case 
the use of cuttings is the accepted method of 
propagation. 

Apple, peach, pear, plum, and cherry 
trees cannot readily be grown from stem cut- 
tings, or cuttings from terminal growth. We 
therefore provide other roots on which to 
grow the pieces or cuttings of the desired 
variety. This is grafting, which includes 
budding, or bud grafting. 

Budding is to be Done Now 

DRACTICALLY all the stone fruits, in- 
-*■ eluding peach, plum, and cherry trees are 
propagated by budding; about one half of the 
apple and nearly all the pear trees offered by 
the nurserymen are propagated in this way 
while the balance is obtained through root 
grafting. 

Budding is distinctly a summer process and 
in the North is done during the months of July, 
August, and September. This is the time when 
the buds for insertion are fully enough de- 
veloped and when the trees are making a 
vigorous growth so that the bark separates 
readily from the woody tissue below it. 
Terminal shoots from the current season's 
growth of the varieties desired are taken and 
with a sharp, thin bladed knife, the leaves are 
trimmed off, leaving back of each bud about 
one quarter inch of the leaf stem. This 



serves as a handle for the bud later when it is 
being inserted. These "bud sticks," after 
being collected and prepared in this way, may 
be kept a short time if packed in damp ma- 
terial, such as sphagnum moss. 

With our outfit now ready including bud 
sticks, sharp knife and some pieces of string or 
raffia cut into lengths of 18 or 24 inches, we 
proceed to the place where some little seedling 
trees are growing and which are to supply the 
necessary roots. Taking the first tree to be 
budded a T shaped cut is made, usually on the 
west or northwest side of the stem and about 
two or three inches up from the ground. The 
perpendicular cut is made first and then with 
a slight rocking motion of the knife blade, the 
horizontal cut is made, the flaps of the bark 
being at the same time thrown slightly open, 
Fig. i-A. The bud with its bark and bit of 
leaf stem and without any woody tissue is now 
cut and pulled from the bud stick, Fig. i-B, 
and slipped into the incision under the bark 
flaps on the seedling tree, Fig. i-D. If the 
trees are in the right condition there will never 
be any trouble in getting the buds to slip in 
readily and easily. If the bark has to be 
pried up in order to get the buds in, the seed- 
ling trees are not in the best condition to bud 
and a large percentage of failures may be ex- 
pected. The under-side of the bud rests on 
the cambium, or 
slippery layer, of 
the stock and it is 
from this that new 
cellular tissue is de- 
veloped, which heals 
the wound and 
unites the bud to 
the new tree on 
which it is to grow. 

After the bud has 
been placed in po- 
sition, the flaps of 
the T cut are bound 
down tightly over it 
with a piece of string 
or raffia, so making 
practically an air- 
tight joint, Fig. i-E. 
In about two or 
three weeks the 
union ordinarily will 
be complete and the string or raffia must then 
be cut to allow for the growth expansion of the 
stem. The following spring the seedling stem 
is cut off about an inch above the variety bud 
and as the season advances this alone is al- 
lowed to grow, all other seedling suckers — i. e. 
those that start below the variety bud — being 
kept broken off. 




Fig. 2. Root grafting, a 
method commonly used for 
certain fruits and ornamental 
trees. A, Scion. B, Stock, a 
seedling topped and trimmed. 
C, Scion and stock cut for 
whip and tongue graft. D, 
graft made and tied 



September, 191 



THE G A RDEN MAGAZINE 



49 



Grafting for Winter and Spring 

GRAFTING is usually a winter or spring 
process. Root-grafting of apples is 
commonly done in January or February. The 
variety scions of wood of the previous season's 
growth are gathered in early winter and the 
seedling trees or " stocks," as they are called by 
nurserymen, are dug at this time and both 
are stored in damp sand or boxes of slightly 
damp hardwood sawdust in a cold cellar until 
they are wanted. 

A whip or tongue graft, as shown in Fig. 2, 
is used largely in the propagation of apples. 
These whip grafts are usually made with a 
three inch piece of scion and a whole seedling 
root or sometimes only a piece of seedling 
root, two or three inches long. The value 
of the whole-root grafted trees versus piece- 



root grafted trees has been urged and ex- 
ploited for many years in the nurserymen's 
catalogues. For the first year, the whole-root 
grafted trees may grow a little faster than the 
piece-root grafted ones, since they have a little 
more root to start with, but in my observation, 
in a season or less the latter are as large, as 
vigorous and quite as satisfactory and after a 
short time the two kinds cannot be told apart. 
The grafts after being made as illustrated in 
Fig. 2 are wrapped with string — usually waxed 
— and packed in boxes of sand or hardwood 
sawdust and again put in the cellar to callous 
till planting time in spring when they are set 
out in good, rich soil, being set usually so deep 
that only the top bud of the scion projects 
above the ground. 

For top-grafting the old-fashioned cleft 



graft is the most satisfactory. The best wax 
we have found is made by melting together: 

4 pounds rosin 

2 beeswax 

I tallow or linseed oil 

Fhis, when melted, is poured into cold 
water and after slightly cooling is pulled like 
candy until it acquires a grain when it is 
wrapped in waxed paper and laid away until 
wanted. 

The process of budding and grafting as 
explained above are similarly applicable to all 
kinds of ornamental trees and shrubs, with 
certain special modifications that experience 
may suggest. The same principles apply of 
course when grafting or "working over" the top 
of an old tree, for the basic principle is con- 
stant. 




In the mixed herbaceous border for color 



For semi-formal effects near the house 




Plant Peonies in September 

A FEW PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS FOR THE USE OF THIS 
SPLENDID PERENNIAL 





Lift with plenty of roots 



As a solitary clump in semi-shade 



Division into pieces is easy 



Handling Gallinaceous Fertilizer in a Practical Way 



SHERMAN R. DUFFY 



nii- 



WHEN THE HUMBLE BARNYARD HEN PLAYS A COORDINATE PART WITH THE BELLIGERENT GARDEN CRAFTSMAN 



BY WAY of introduction, the writer 
of this malodorous essay is his own 
gardener and any work done in his 
garden must be done by himself or 
by volunteer assistants — not always as helpful 
as enthusiastic. There are hundreds of thous- 
ands of citizens in the same predicament, more 
thousands this year than ever before. Since 
the Pilgrim Fathers laid the foundation for 
Plymouth Rock hens, there never has been 
such a wholesale horticultural attack upon the 
soil and there doubtless never will be in the 
history of the world so many dismal failures 
in a seemingly simple enterprise. 

The chief cause for the many disappoint- 
ments which I foresee in the vast army of new 
gardeners is the lack of fertilizers to be applied 
to the soil and a lack of knowledge of just how 
and when to apply them. Fertilizers are the 
most expensive item in the foundation of a 
garden and it is upon this uninspirational but 
essential subject, this unaesthetic, unbeautiful 
and unfragrant necessity and the cheapest 
way for the owner of the small garden to secure 
results that success depends. 

The humble hen, no matter how barred her 
pedigree may be by barnyard mesalliances, pro- 
ducing her fruit at war time prices of five cents 
per fruit is a valuable asset for those fortu- 
nate enough to possess room to accommodate 
this gold bearing fowl who is making the fabled 
goose almost a reality. 

But it is not with that high priced delicacy, 
the egg, that the gardener need concern himself 
so far as the cackling denizen of the barnyard 
is concerned. Horticulturally her exclusion 
from the garden is the main care owing to the 
speed and diligence with which - she can 
destroy growing things. Nearly every one 
who has room for even a small flock of chickens 
has room for a small garden and the relation 
between the two is close if properly established. 
The hens can furnish sufficient fertilizer to 
speed the growth of vegetables or flowers dur- 
ing the entire season if properly used. It is be- 
coming more and more difficult to secure barn- 
yard manure, either cow, sheep, or horse 
manure to dig into the soil to supply humus 
and plant food or for mulching. Where a few 
years ago any one who wished could secure as 
much manure as he needed for the hauling or at 
a most nominal sum, now if it can be obtained 
at all, it is at a good round price. 

To buy commercial shredded cow manure or 
pulverized sheep manure at the current rates 
of $1.85 per hundred pounds is an expensive 
proposition. The commercial manures do not 
add the humus and texture to the soil. 

UTGURING on the agricultural reports 
*• and making allowances for the enormous 
and in some cases prohibitive increase in cost 
of many of the elements entering into the bal- 
anced fertilizer, some of which such as the salts 
of potassium — muriate or sulphate — which 
formerly were spread over the Daffodil beds, 
cannot be secured at all, a flock of fifty hens 
provides in the neighborhood of $75 worth of 
fertilizer in a year. This is estimated on the 
basis accepted some four or five years ago that 
1,000 pounds of hen deposited a cash value of 
#58 in fertilizer per year, an average sized fowl 
of the commoner types such as the Plymouth 
Rocks weighing from five to six pounds. 

These figures under present conditions must 
be greatly increased and I am told that $75 



would be a very conservative estimate, as a 
matter of fact a precise estimate being un- 
certain, one authority declaring that the value 
of fertilizer has doubled at least in the last five 
years. However, be the figures what they 
may, the hen is a valuable asset for the 
gardener, a saving in cash in fertilizer alone. 

Poultry manure is strong in plant food, but 
owing to the amount of ammonia generated it 
is difficult and dangerous to use it directly as it 
burns vegetation and cakes and hardens the 
soil and when dug into the soil is likely to 
scorch and destroy the young and tender root- 
lets. It is deficient in humus so there is noth- 
ing to be gained by digging it into the soil. 
How then can it be used to advantage? First 
and foremost, as a liquid manure. There is no 
better "tea" for the garden. Second, in com- 
post with leaves, lawn clippings, dust, saw- 
dust, land plaster, or in any combination 
that renders it dry and subject to thin spread- 
ing or mulching. 

THE proportions which seem to furnish a 
liquid manure of the right strength — or 
more accurately, right weakness — are two 
pecks of poultry manure to one barrel, 31 
gallons, of water. A molasses, kerosene, 
vinegar, or whiskey barrel may be secured 
from the grocer or druggist. Here again the 
H. C. L. rears its hydra heads. The grocery- 
man formerly would present me with a couple 
of barrels without feeling himself at all gener- 
ous. Now he has the gall to ask five dollars 
apiece. You can buy a steel tank for that. 

Usually, I have had kerosene barrels. In 
order to eliminate the oil, drop a handful of 
straw into the barrel, light it and let it burn 
until the interior of the barrel is slightly 
charred. It will not only eliminate the oil but 
prolong the life of the barrel. Have an old 
carpet, rug, or something of the kind to drop 
over the top of the barrel when the conflagra- 
tion is deemed sufficient. 

While there are patent infusers on the mar- 
ket in which women and delicate men may 
assemble the manure to be placed in the bar- 
rel, they, too, add to the expense of gardening 
without contributing anything extra in the 
way of efficiency. A gunny sack does as well 
and can be procured for almost nothing. 

Into this sack drop the two pecks of manure 
and then either drop the sack to the bottom of 
the barrel or better yet suspend it upon a wire 
or wooden hoop which may be fastened 
across the mouth of the barrel. Fill the barrel 
and let it stand a week. It really needs two 
barrels to alternate. Draw off the water 
which will be a light brown in color and apply it 
to the vegetables or flowers needing it. It 
will speed those that need and like rich feeding. 

The most convenient way for arranging the 
barrel is to mount it on blocks, bricks, or boxes 
at a sufficient height to permit a wooden faucet 
to be inserted near the base with sufficient 
clearance for a watering can. This is a great 
labor saver and convenience as it is no joke to 
hang over the sharp edge of a barrel in order to 
dip up the water when the cask is more than 
half empty. 

TN APPLYING the liquid manure it is best 
*■ to moisten in advance the plants to be 
fertilized. This makes the liquid manure 
more quickly available and better distributed 
through the soil, going directly to the roots. 

50 



"Weak and often" is the motto for liquid 
manures. Once a week is often enough at 
most for the solution I have described here. 
It is particularly valuable for Roses when they 
have reached the bud stage and should be 
applied every two weeks early in the season 
and every week as the weather becomes hotter 
and more trying for the plants. 

It is likewise excellent for onions in limited 
quantities. As a war measure, I am growing 
onions and Roses in the same bed. Soil that 
will grow good Roses will likewise grow good 
onions, and as this was the only soil I pos- 
sessed that seemed likely to present me with 
good onions I double cropped it. At this 
writing I have plucked beautiful salmon pink 
Madame Leon Pain Roses and luscious young 
onions side by side. Both contribute to the 
lowering of the cost of living and to the joys of 
life in their peculiar spheres. 

My onion-rose bed is the subject of much 
mirth and bromides concerning fragrance 
have turned to a stench in the nostrils. The 
combination works. The Onions and Roses 
are flourishing mightily. They do not inter- 
fere with each other and the appearance of the 
bed which is fifty by four feet does not suffer. 

I have used liquid poultry manure upon 
cucumbers, squashes, and melons with ex- 
cellent effect. Likewise upon Asters. Do not 
feed tomatoes; they will develop an excess of 
foliage and deficit of fruit. 

THE only use I have found for poultry 
manure in bulk is upon the asparagus bed 
in the fall and winter. The asparagus roots 
are too far down and too strong to be injured 
while they respond gratefully to the extra food 
which seeps down to them. In the spring it 
should be either removed or spaded under as 
the heat is then gone from the manure. 

The main problem is how to reduce poultry 
manure to a fine enough consistency to 
sprinkle it thinly or to combine it with some 
humus-producing medium so that it may be 
dug into the ground. In the first place, to 
secure the manure in condition to handle it 
readily, a substantial covering of dust, saw- 
dust, straw, or dried lawn clippings should be 
spread upon the dropping board under the 
roosts. It should be removed at least every 
two days and placed under cover where it may 
dry. Frequent turning will break it up into 
fine enough condition. 

An ingenious acquaintance had a bone 
grinder which he was not using for its original 
purpose and thought it might be a good idea to 
run some of the dried and crusted poultry 
manure through his mill to get it into con- 
dition to sprinkle. Unfortunately, he over- 
looked the fact that gravel is an important item 
in the dietary of the fowl and what happened 
to the mill when it hit the gravel in the manure 
spoiled the experiment. 

However, the liquid manure is so much more 
efficacious and easy to handle that it is hardly 
worth while to try to use poultry manure as a 
mulch or to dig into the soil if any other source 
of humus and plant food is available. 

After spreading the dry manure and either 
sprinkling it into the soil or allowing a rain to 
fulfil the same mission, the soil should be 
hoed. If left as it lies, it produces a hard, 
caked surface. It must be used very spar- 
ingly and care must be taken not to spread it 
too close to the stem of the plants. 




Currants, grapes, and gooseberries are three timely suggestions for fall planting. Set out all possible food crop plants this fall 



Plant Now — or Wait Till Spring? 



M. G. KAINS 



RELIEVE THE SPRING PRESSURE OF TILLING AND PLANTING ANNUAL FOOD CROPS BY STARTING NOW WITH 

FRUITS, BERRIES, AND MOST ORNAMENTALS 



ONE of the greatest advantages we 
gained by planting last autumn was 
getting the work done when other 
matters were not nearly so pressing 
as they were in the spring. Had we not 
planted in the fall it is very doubtful if we 
would have anything like as good trees as we 
now have. The fall set trees started into 
growth promptly and kept the lead all through 
the season. To be sure a few besides the 
clipped ones died and had to be replaced, but 
it is one thing to replace such trees and quite a 
different one to set out a whole planting. The 
former may be done much more quickly be- 
cause there is no time lost determining the 
positions for the trees. 

Another point strongly in favor of fall set- 
ting is the fact that the trees are dug only a 
few hours or days before being reset in the 
ground. They are therefore more likely to be 
in prime condition than are the majority of 
trees sent out in spring by nurserymen. This 
remark applies not to trees freshly dug in the 
spring but to those trees stored in "cellars" over 
winter. Whether stored in sand, sphagnum 
moss or "stacked up like cordwood," ex- 
perience goes to prove that nothing compares 
with the newly dug tree. We had trees de- 
livered last April, some of them stored in each 
way. Our results favored the spring dug 
trees in every case. The next best results were 
with trees stored over winter in damp sand. 
In the cases of nursery stock "stacked up" in 
the storage house we lost heavily, some of the 
trees being so badly shriveled that in spite of 
soaking root and top in water for more than a 
day — a good practice where the trees are at all 
dry upon receipt — we lost more than 50 per 
cent, and many of the balance will make poor 
trees. The nurseryman volunteered to replace 
this part of our order next spring. But we 
have done our planting for nothing, and lose a 
year because of the faulty method of storage. 
Here, then, is a good rule: Before ordering 
nursery stock for spring delivery find out 
whether it will be spring dug, or if stored, how 
handled. 

What and When to Do, or Not 

T^HE seasons of 1916 and 1917 gave us all 
■*■ of the 57 varieties of experience in tree 
and bush fruit planting. Some of these 
varieties were already well known to us but 
others were brand new and interesting from a 
practical standpoint. I, therefore, believe 
that readers of The Garden Magazine will 



find a rehearsal a good guide as to what to 
plant, what not to plant, when to plant and 
when not to plant in this period of food 
urgency. Parenthetically let me say that 
when I use the word "we" I am referring to the 
experiences in two business orchards or small 
fruit plantations. Planting on my own 
suburban lot is thus kept distinct from the 
other work. 

We ordered stock in October from five 
different nurserymen, all in Western New York, 
not that the New York nurserymen have 
better stock than others but solely because 



Six Reasons for Fall Planting 

^TT Newly dug trees are decidedly superior 
a to stored trees, no matter how good the 
6torage. 

Jlf When orders are placed late, it is a good 
Til plan to furnish a substitute list so the 
nurseryman may choose from this in case he 
has run out of the most desired varieties. 

i]f The most important risks run in fall 
Til planting are danger of winter injury due 
to poorly drained land — and the gnawing of 
the bark by mice and rabbits. 

fVi Heeling-in nursery stock is a thoroughly 
Til satisfactory way to store trees to be set 
in the spring, because you are not dependent 
upon the transportation companies at plant- 
ing time. 

tf]T Early fall ordering is important, for at no 
TJI season of the year is one so sure of get- 
ting exactly what he wants both as to 
variety, size, and age. In spring the nursery- 
man may be sold out of the very things you 
need most. 

(][ Fall planting has thegreatadvantage that 
31 the work is done and out of the way when 
time is not at a premium. Furthermore, 
most fruit trees and deciduous ornamental 
shrubs do better when fall planted because 
they get an earlier start than do spring 
planted ones. 



we knew them personally or because they 
had the varieties we wished to plant. One 
of these men wrote that he thought it unwise 
to plant peaches in the fall, that he would 
advise his holding that part of the order until 
spring but that if we wished he would send the 
trees aftertheleavesdropped which would prob- 
ably be about November first. As a master of 
fact, it was about November 20th before the 
trees reached us. But such trees! Ripened to 
the very tips and branched almost the full length 
of the trunk. Except for one or two that were 
injured in transit every one of those late 
planted trees is doing well to-day. 

Another nurseryman made his shipment al- 

51 



most immediately after the receipt of our 
order. When the trees arrived we found that 
all the peaches of certain varieties had had 
their leaves clipped off and were already be- 
ginning to shrivel. I predicted serious loss 
among these plants, and sure enough when 
spring opened the majority died. In some 
varieties the loss was one hundred per cent. 
It is only fair to state that when the nursery- 
man was told of our ill success he offered to re- 
place the trees either this fall or next spring as 
we may decide. This is all that any could 
expect under the circumstances, but we have 
lost a full year and have started with an 
irregular or ununiform orchard. So here is an 
important deduction for the reader to draw: 
When ordering nursery stock for fall delivery in- 
sist that the trees drop their leaves naturally. 
Be willing to wait until they do; for it is better 
to plant a well ripened tree even very late than 
to risk loss by planting earlier one that is 
immature. This rule is general, that is, it 
applies to all fruit trees and shrubs. 

In all but one case our orders called for one 
year peach trees and not older than two year 
trees of other fruits. That one case was an 
accident: the specification of age was omitted. 
The nurseryman sent trees as old as four years 
in some cases. If these had been systemati- 
cally root pruned each year, as is general in the 
production of specimen ornamental evergreens, 
to produce abundant fibrous roots thev would 
have been splendid though costly. But they 
had not been so treated. They had either 
large roots fearfully mangled in the digging or 
in some cases the roots were so few and small 
that it seemed almost incredible that the large 
tops could have been produced and supported 
by them. The tops too (many of them) had 
badly placed branches which had to be re- 
moved, so the head of the tree could be made 
the proper height from the ground and the 
branches the right distance apart on the trunk. 
The result was a large number of big wounds. 
After this pruning was done the trees in many 
cases were unsightly, partly for this reason and 
partly because the breakage and removal 
of twigs left the main branches bare for con- 
siderable areas. But the worst is yet to come: 
those trees will never make as sightly, pro- 
ductive, healthy, hardy or in any other way 
satisfactory trees as younger trees have always 
made with less, far less attention both before 
but especially after planting. So here's the 
second rule the reader may write in his 
memory : Insist upon having young trees unless 



52 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1917 



the older ones have been root pruned 
and discount 100 per cent, any 
thought that the older trees will bear 
earlier; for ordinarily handled nurs- 
ery stock will not bear satisfactorily 
as soon and the tree will always 
be less plastic — can't be as easily 
trained. A few dealers have speci- 
ally grown large trees however. 

Cut Backs Declined with Thanks 

ONE nurseryman wrote that he 
couldn't supply two-year 
apple trees of certain varieties but 
that he could send "cut-backs." 
We declined with thanks; for 
every nurseryman who will give 
his customer a chance to decline 
deserves to be thanked. Why? 
Because cut-backs are inferior 
trees. The first season in the 
nursery they are small, the second year they 
still do not reach the standard sizes suitable 
for sale, they are inferior in other ways or 
they are some the nurseryman has failed to 
sell. They would grow too large if left to con- 
tinue growth next year so the nurseryman 
cuts them back to the surface of the ground. 
This results in forcing a strong shoot which in 
a single season produces a more or less sturdy 
and attractive looking top. But the roots, the 
important part of the plant, are then three 
years old and therefore must suffer severe in- 
jury when the trees are dug — often as severe 
as a three year tree suffers unless previously 
root pruned. As the nurseryman was willing 
to send one year trees of the varieties desired 
so the order was filled to our satisfaction. 
The third rule is obvious: Never order or 
accept a cut-back tree because it was either a cull 
to start with or it was unsalable the previous 
year, both of which points are sinister. 

What Age of Tree 

PRACTICAL fruit growers have less 
*■ dispute than formerly as to the age of a 
tree for planting. All now agree that fruit 
trees more than two years old are undesirable 
for reasons already outlined. They also agree 
that peach trees should never be older than one 
year from the bud, for a similar reason. The 
only discussion one hears now is as to the 
relative value of one- 
year and two-year 
trees. Among the 
reasons for choosing 
one-year in prefer- 
ence to two-year 
trees the following 
are most important: 
They cost less; being 
smaller the express 
or freight charges 
are less; none but 
well grown sturdy 
trees are of salable 
size at the end of one 
season's growth, so 
there is no danger of 
getting runts or culls 
of the previous sea- 
son; one-year trees 
have few, and small, 
or no branches so 
the head may be 
formed exactly 
where the planter 
wants to have it, 
high, low or me- 

Evergreen trees and shrubs di um , often without 
are safely handled in early rail 1 

->r when the ball is frozen any pruning and 





. i 



~^5gS^i 



Ornamental shade trees and vines for the home and all hardy perennials for the border 
should be set out this fall to leave time free for food crop planting in spring 

possibly consequent injury to the tree. The 
last point is more important than at first may 
appear because once having formed it is diffi- 
cult to change the head. 

Trees once headed high should be allowed 
to so develop because the new branches forced 
to develop by cutting off the first to form are 
almost sure to come irregularly anywhere on 
the trunks and to produce misshaped trees. 

Most important point of all, however, is 
that one-year trees will transplant with great- 
est ease, least work, and most assurance of 
success, especially in the hands of an inex- 
perienced planter. 

Our experience in planting last autumn bears 
out that of other planters in being able to get 
the varieties we wanted. Only one of the 
nurserymen was sold out of one variety, where- 
as when we placed our much smaller spring 
order each of the three nurserymen we then 
patronized had no trees left of two to five var- 
ieties we wished to plant. 

Things Best to Plant 

TPHERE are some plants that should always, 
■*■ if possible, be planted in the fall; others 
must not. Among the former currants and 
gooseberries are conspicuous and ornamental 
shrubs (such as Lilacs) which ripen their wood 
and drop their leaves before mid-autumn and 
start to grow very early in the spring — grape 
vines also. The sooner such things can be planted 
after their leaves fall the better. If planted in 
the spring after the buds begin to swell or the 
leaves form they are sure to suffer more or 
less. Among the plants that probably are 
best not fall planted the most prominent are 
blackberries, dewberries and raspberries (espe- 
cially blackcaps) red raspberries can be fall set 
on well drained land. The autumn before 
I arrived one of my clients set out a plantation 
with the result that with some varieties 
(blackcaps in all cases), not a single plant 
survived the winter. In other cases the 
losses ran from 25 to 75 per cent. The ones 
that suffered least were the Golden Queen 
raspberry plants. This is a yellow-fruited red 
raspberry! The loss in this case was only 5 or 
10 per cent. It has been easy to fill the 
vacancies because the red raspberry makes 
numerous sucker plants from the roots. 

As to grapes my own planting has turned out 
very well, no fall set vines dying from any but 
accidental causes. The plantings for one of 
my clients underwent a series of very severe 
tests, so did the gooseberries and currants 
which formed part of the plantation. They 
were exceptionally well planted last fall, but 
during the winter plans were changed and a 
sudden order given to have them removed. 



They were dug on an April day 
when a gale was blowing. Each 
vine was temporarily heeled in 
where it stood, a couple of shovel- 
fuls of earth being thrown over 
their roots. Before they could be 
collected and bundled for better 
heeling in a snowstorm buried 
them. Then without warning 
motor trucks began driving over 
them delivering hardware and 
glass to build a greenhouse. They 
were collected — such of them as 
were uninjured and could be 
found. After being bundled and 
heeled in several weeks elapsed 
before they could be planted, un- 
favorable weather preventing the 
preparation of the land. And yet 
the losses were only about 15 or 20 
per cent, of the original number. 
This shows how serious abuses certain plants 
will stand; for by knowing of such experiences 
the beginner may take heart and promise 
himself good results if he will only do the 
work properly. 

Now the Disadvantages 

A MONG the disadvantages,, not already 
*~V touched upon, that we weighed before 
planting in the fall are the following: we had 
to run the risks of winter injury due to alter- 
nate freezing and thawing with consequent 
heaving and settling of the soil. With fall 
set trees this is more likely to occur than with 
spring planted ones. But as our soil is well 
drained we felt that the risk was slight, and 
experience so proved for we lost only one or 
two from this cause. Another risk is the pos- 
sible damage by mice and rabbits. But half 
inch mesh hardware cloth protectors were 
used on some of the trees; "sulfocide" on 
others. Not one tree was barked but this 
may be because of the abun- 
dance of food for both rab- 
bits and mice in the fence 
rows and the woods that 
border the orchard. In no 
case was any dead grass or 
straw allowed to remain 
near the trees as this would 
have invited mice to set up 
housekeeping therein. 

One interesting experi- 
ence was in connection with 
trees that could not be 
planted last fall. They had 
been taken to the field an J 
heeled in — that is, earth 
had been thrown over the 
roots and the bases of the 
trunks — pending the time 
when we could reach them. 
Winter arrived, however, 
and prevented their 
planting. Every one 
was in good condition 
when spring came and 
all but one are now liv- 
ing and doing well. Why W 
that one died I don't 
know. The subject of 
"Fall Heeling -in for 
Spring Planting" was 
discussed in October 
1916, page 102. 

Don't be in 
too much of a 
hurry. Wait till '. 
the leaves are 
almost ready to 
fall. 




" F. M. THOMAS 



"Pay Your Money and Take Your Choice 

CONTINUING LAST MONTH'S APPRAISAL OF RECENT OFFERINGS OF HARDY PERENNIALS FROM AN AMERICAN 

GARDENER'S VIEWPOINT— PLANTING CAN BE DONE THIS MONTH 



Pennsylvania 



FEW perennials give a more imposing 
effect in a flower garden, than a well- 
grown clump of Helenium, either rubrum 
or Riverton Beauty. I acknowledge that 
the striking and unique color of rubrum is 
a rather hard one to work into a definitely 
planned garden, but well placed it is a 
joy, and in any case there is always the 
shrubbery border to fall back on. Any one 
who has seen a Wallflower can easily form 
an idea of the color of rubrum; a rich 
terra-cotta red, fading to a sort of burnt 
orange, a much purer and warmer shade 
than the older Riverton Gem. But it must 
positively be grown in full sun; even a little 
shade will metamorphose it to a dull bronzy 
yellow. Riverton Beauty is the richest lemon, 
with a brown-black centre, a far superior 
plant to the original H. autumnale superbum, 
though not growing quite so tall. I have 
sometimes wished that these Heleniums might 
bloom a little later, so as to be in harmony with 
the glory of the autumn colorings they so 
much resemble. 

COME Day Lilies (Hemerocallis) deserve 
^ attention; Queen of May and citrina. The 
latter is a most interesting plant. The long 
slender flower stems rise four or five feet high 
out of a mass of the most gracefully arching, 
narrow, fountain-like foliage imaginable. The 
flowers themselves are the palest lemon, 
tinged green on the outside, trumpet shaped, 
not widely expanded, and with very long, nar- 
row petals. And their fragrance is delicious, 
probably finer than that of any other Hemero- 
callis. Queen of May is a plant of a very differ- 
ent sort, with coarse strap-like leaves, and 
sometimes as many as twenty flowers and buds 
on its stout branching stems. The flowers 
are funnel shaped, widely open; of a uniform 
deep chrome yellow. With me the plant has 
a second blooming season in late September 
or October and then the stems are much taller, 
some of them over five feet, but the flowers 
are sometimes so late as to be injured by the 
early frosts. 





'fi;|/ 



The Lemon-yellow Day-lily (Hemerocallis citrina) is one 
of the newer Chinese real acquisitions. Fragrant flowers 
on five foot stalks 



Among the improved Sneezeworts (Helenium) is Riverton 
Beauty, rich lemon yellow with centre of brown black 

H. Middendorfiana also blooms again in the 
fall, and occasionally, if the season has been a 
rainy one and the ground is rich,luteola,apricot, 
and aurantiaca will do the same; luteola is one 
of the finest pure yellow Day Lillies I have 
grown, only surpassed by aurantiaca major, 
which, however, is not entirely hardy here. 

EXCLUDING Perry's White, the Oriental 
■ L/ Poppies I mention are not very new. Nev- 
ertheless, they have become known surprisingly 
slowly, considering all their very apparent 
good qualities. Surely now that we have so 
many and such exquisite shades, it is about 
time to permanently discard the old P. 
orientale, with its glaring shade of brick-red. 
Of real scarlets we now have several; Beauty 
of Livermere (very dark), and Goliath (lighter), 
are all that could be wished. And of the 
salmon pinks there are a host. Mary' Stud- 
holme, Mrs. Perry, Jennie Mawson, Princess 
Victoria Louise and Princess Ena are some of 
the best. Though there is not a great deal 
of difference on the whole, each one has its 
little point of distinction. Mrs. Perry is 
probably the largest and the most intense 
salmon; Princess Victoria Louise is a shade 
paler, with petals more numerous and more 
ruffled; Mary Studholme has a silvery tone, 
and Princess Ena is small and tulip shaped. 
To my mind Jen-Me Mazvson combines the 
most good qualities, both in color and habit; 
Silberblick is a freak flower, with white spots 
instead of black ones, but the color is not at- 
tractive. The same is true of Semi-plenum, 
which, as its name implies, is partly double. 
Perry's White is a most curious and handsome 
flower. It has been described as "satiny 
white," but to me "paper white" would seem 
nearer right; certainly its texture distinctly 
suggests that of paper, rather coarse tissue 
paper, slightly crinkled. The spots at the 
base of the petals are really deep maroon, 
but they appear black, and there is something 
about the total absence of color that at once 
recalls a Japanese print. No doubt we can 
make very striking garden pictures with this 
variety, as it becomes better known. Silver 
Queen, another white, is of a different tone, 
a gray-white, or rather a lavender-white, if 

53 



such a term could be used. With its dwarf, 
slender growth, Silver Queen very much re- 
sembles an enlarged Shirley. Mahoney is 
unique; a very deep maroon red, like an ox- 
heart cherry. Nothing could be more effec- 
tive with the salmon and white varieties. 

/"\F THE new Phloxes, three seem to me of 
^ first class quality Thor, W. C. Egan and 
Tragedie. Tragedie (described as "carmine"!) 
is a pure deep scarlet, a scarlet with no hint 
of yellow, as in Coquelicot and its derivatives. 
For those who love brilliant and intense color 
effects, it should prove a great acquisition. 
Unfortunately it is not quite so robust a 
grower as some of the newer kinds. IV. C. 
Egan has been described as "mauve," which 
gives no idea whatever of its clear, cool 
pink, ?. pink with less lilac in it than Mme. 
Paul Dutrie, but nevertheless inclining to the 
blue rather than to the yellow end of the 
spectrum. It has a centre of deeper, cherry 
pink, and the flowers and trusses are of un- 
usually large size. Thor is the best deep 
salmon pink to date; a shade of the greatest 
richness, several degrees deeper than Elizabeth 
Campbell, but still distinct from the salmon- 
reds of varieties like Baron von Dedem or 
Gen. Van Heutchz. Thor also has blooms of 
splendid size. Happily the incomparable 
Elizabeth Campbell needs no recommenda- 
tion; it has already become the most popular 
of Phloxes, and with good reason, possessing, 
as it does the most charming warm pink of 
any hardy plant. Asia, Africa, and Australia 
make an imposing appearance in some lists of 
novelties, but I am sorry to say that all three 
of the nations were a decided disappointment 
to me. Asia is of a rather muddy shade, 
Australia verges on the magenta, and Africa 
is a trifle harsh and crude, though by far the 
best of the three. One plant that should be 
welcome in every garden is the Perry's Variety 
of Phlox divaricata. Contrary to catalogue 
opinion, I pronounce it a distinctly paler shade 
of lavender than our native P. canadensis, but 
its flowers are so much larger, its habit so much 




The Pale Blue Sage (Salvia azurea) though not new is 
a practical novelty to many. Useful both for border and 
cutting 



54 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



EPTEMBER, 1917 



better and its lifetime so much longer that it 
easily outranks that. From early May to the 
last of June it is full of blossoms. As a 
setting for pale yellow or old rose Tulips, or 
combined with Irises, such as Flavescens or 
Mrs. Alan Gray, it is perfect. 

Perry's Variety, I understand, was one of 
the parents of the new Phlox Arendsii, a 
distinct race that has attracted a good deal 
of interest, and of which Charlotte, palest 
lavender; Louise, lavender with a darker eye; 
Crete, white; and Helene, much like P. divari- 
cata, are all most promising plants, with semi- 
dwarf, branching habit and a very long season 
of bloom, beginning in May. The rest of the 
Arendsii varieties seem to me too uncertain 
and washy in color to be of much value. 

TN SPITE of its cumbersome name, none of 
the newer plants possesses a more distinct 
and delicatecharmthan the Thalictrum diptero- 
carpum. Its foliage is in the same decorative, 
maiden-hair-fern style of all of its genus, but 
the flowers are totally distinct. The panicles 
of bloom are pyramidal in shape, tapering to a 
tip of undeveloped buds. The tiny flowers 
are suspended from thread-like stems, their 
soft lavender petals reflexed to show the fluff 
of pale Yellow stamens below. The little 
round buds at the tip of the spray look like a 
shower of falling water-drops; buds and stems 
alike are tinted the same soft lavender. The 



whole plant has an effect that is indescribably 
airy and delicate. My plants have not grown 
taller than four feet, but perhaps when well 
established they will attain the six credited 
them by the nurserymen. The one drawback 
is its sensitiveness to our damp and rainy 
winters. Cold seems not to affect it, but 
poorly drained soil is generally fatal. There- 
fore, I advise wintering it over in a frame. 

/^\FTEN I have wondered why Salvia azurea 
^-* is not better known. Its lovely soft blue 
flowers are splendid for cutting, and invaluable 
in the garden at their season. Perhaps now 
that the rather more showy Pitcheri has ap- 
peared it may help to bring more appreciation 
to the older but equally good type. The rela- 
tion between the two is exactly that between 
the Anchusa Opal and Anchusa Dropmore. 
Pitcheri has very fine deep blue flowers, per- 
haps just a trifle smaller than azurea, and its 
season of bloom is two weeks later, extending 
into October. These Salvias should be given 
full sun, and, like Chrysanthemums, be pinched 
back at least twice during the summer. 

The new Salvia Greigi has the same lip-like 
formation of flower as azurea and Pitcheri, but 
its color is a delicious soft cerise, very much 
resembling that splendid Phlox, Sigrid Arnold- 
son, or a newly opened Laurent Carle Rose. 
The plant is really a miniature shrub, about 
two and a half feet tall, with small, rounded, 



strongly sage-scented leaves. If the number 
of its flowers was in proportion to the length 
of its blooming season, it would be invaluable; 
as it is, not enough flowers open at a time to 
make a very showy effect, though there are 
always more or less, from June to October, 
except for a short rest in August. It seems 
to be at its best in September, when, for a few 
days it quite covers itself with glory. Salvia 
virgata nemerosa is also a wonderfully prolific 
bloomer, though to insure this, the old flower 
heads must be religiously cut off. Its rich 
violet blossoms contrast well with the reddish 
purple bracts out of which they appear, but 
the plant is of no particular grace or distinction 
of habit. Perhaps the least attractive of the 
four Salvias is uliginosa; which is a great pity, 
as it is quite the most rampant grower I know 
of in hardy plants. Tiny seedlings, set out 
in July were by October big plants three and a 
half feet tall by two feet broad, and with 
dozens of flower spikes. These are very simi- 
lar to azurea and Pitcheri, but the flowers are 
only about half as large, and not many open 
at once, — which again is a pity, as they are of a 
very pretty clear blue, with white markings. 
However, a mass should make a very good 
appearance in some corner of the rougher part 
of the garden, where their underground stems 
can spread at their own sweet will. In spite of 
its rampant growth, Salvia uliginosa is of 
doubtful hardiness north of Philadelphia. 



Food and Home Economies That Can 

Finance the War 



The Food Administration Says: To Save Food — 

USE THE PERISHABLE FOODS. — Fruits and vegetables we have in abun- 
dance. As a nation we eat too little green stuffs. Double their use and improve 
your health. Store potatoes and other roots properly and they will keep. Begin 
now to can or dry all surplus garden products. 

SAVE THE WHEAT. — One wheatless meal a day. Use corn, oatmeal, rye, or 
barley and non-wheat breakfast foods. Order bread twenty-four hours in advance 
so your baker will not bake beyond his needs. Cut the loaf on the table and only as 
required. Use stale bread for cooking, toast, etc. Eat less cake and pastry. 

Our wheat harvest is far below normal. If each person weekly saves one pound 
of wheat flour that means 150,000,000 more bushels of wheat for the Allies to mix 
in their bread. This will help them to save DEMOCRACY. 

SAVE THE MEAT. — Beef, mutton or pork not more than once daily. Use 
freely vegetables and fish. At the meat meal serve smaller portions, and stews 
instead of steaks. Make made-dishes of all left-overs. Do this and there will 
be meat enough for every one at a reasonable price. We are to-day killing the 
dairy cows and female calves as the result of high price. Therefore, eat less and 
eat no young meat. If we save an ounce of meat each day per person, we will 
have an additional supply equal to 2,200,000 cattle. 

SAVE THE MILK. — The children must have milk. Use every drop. Use 
buttermilk and sour milk for cooking and making cottage cheese. Use less cream. 

SAVE THE FATS. — We are the world's greatest fat wasters. Fat is food. Butter 
is essential for the growth and health of children. Use butter on the table as 
usual but not in cooking. Other fats are as good. Reduce use of fried foods. 
Save daily one third ounce animal fats. Soap contains fats. Do not waste it. 
Make your own washing soap at home out of the saved fats. Use one third ounce 
less per day of animal fat and 375,000 tons will be saved yearly. 

SAVE THE SUGAR. — Sugar is scarcer. We use to-day three times as much 
per person as our Allies. So that there may be enough for all at reasonable prices 
use less candy and sweet drinks. Do not stint sugar in putting up fruit and jams. 
They will save butter. If every one in America saves one ounce of sugar daily, it 
means 1,100,000 tons for the year. 

SAVE THE FUEL. — Coal comes from a distance and our railways are overbur- 
dened hauling war material. Help relieve them by burning fewer fires. Use wood 
when you can get it. 

USE LOCAL SUPPLIES. — Patronize your local producer. Distance means 
money. Buy perishable food from the neighborhood nearest you and thus save 
transportation. 

Buy less, serve smaller portions. 

Preach the "Gospel of the Clean Plate." 

Don't eat a fourth meal. 

Don't limit the plain food of growing children. 

Watch out for the wastes in the Community. 

Full garbage pails in America mean empty dinner pails in Europe. 

If the more fortunate of our people will avoid waste and eat no more than they 
need, the high cost of living problem of the less fortunate will be solved. 



Here's the Thing to do With the Money Saved: 

BUY LIBERTY BONDS BY YOUR GARDEN.— Spending the day in a hot 

canning kitchen or pulling weeds in the garden is a whole lot less dramatic for a 
woman, than dressing up in khaki and drilling and also a whole lot more useful; and 
it can save the money that will send a man to the front who is proud of the chance 
to go and proud of the quiet services at home that save the money that gives him a 
chance to serve his country. 

BUY LIBERTY BONDS FROM WHEAT.— Put aside the money you save 
on limiting your wheat diet and put it into the hands of the Government so that the 
men at the front will have bread and guns and airplanes and whatever else they 
need to win. The food you save will feed our soldiers and our Allies and the 
money you save by saving food, if you buy Liberty Bonds with it, will be used to 
give our soldiers the equipment and training to give them a fair chance in battle. 

BUY LIBERTY BONDS FROM MEAT.— Put aside the money you save by a 
meatless meal and by your care of left-overs and save it to buy Liberty Bonds. 
The Government will have to borrow 12 to 15 billions of dollars every twelve months 
for the conduct of the war. It must get a part' of it from you. 

BUY LIBERTY BONDS FROM MILK AND CREAM.— What you do not use 

will be used by some child who would have had to do without ; and the money you 
saved, therefore, will help save the world for democracy if you give it to the Govern- 
ment in return for a Liberty Bond which makes you a shareholder in the great 
company of democracy. 

BUY LIBERTY BONDS WITH FATS, and save anything else you can. The 
Liberty Bonds must be bought from savings. If you borrow to buy bonds it is 
permanent help to your country until you have paid off the debt and then the lender 
can buy bonds with the money. But if you save and buy bonds you are imme- 
diately serving your country. 

BUY LIBERTY BONDS WITH SUGAR. — Sugar is sweet, but life is sweeter 
and thousands of lives a day are lost as long as the war goes on. Give the Govern- 
ment all the money it wants to give our army and navy everything it needs to hasten 
victory and establish a righteous peace. 

BUY LIBERTY BONDS WITH COAL.— Save the fuel and the fuel bills. 
Every ton of coal that you don't burn will buy a quarter of a ton of shipping that is 
vitally needed — if you save the money and give it to the Government by buying 
bonds. 

HOW TO BUY LIBERTY BONDS. — If you do not know where or how to buy 
Liberty Bonds go to the nearest post office, or bank, and find out ; and then see that 
every one else in your neighborhood knows. 

Get your money ready now to buy when the next loan is issued. 

Keep right on saving so as to be ready for the loan after that. , 

See that every one in your neighborhood knows when and where to buy Liberty 

Bonds. 





THE PATRIOTIC GARDEN 

CJRQP CONSERVATION & DISTRIBUTION 

He also Fights who helps a Fighter Fight (h Hoover) 




J^WHR^^UNDA^FOyT^^^ 




FALL PREPAREDNESS Tor THE SPRING DRIVE 



OF ALL the seasons of the year 
autumn is the one in which pre- 
paredness in the garden is most 
effective. Yet most gardeners are 
inclined now to rest on their laurels till next 
year's urge is upon them. Now, when 
work is slacking up and slowing down, 
there is a chance every day during Sep- 
tember, October, and November to do some- 
thing that will fit the soil or the plants of hardy 
species for next season's greater successes. 

Most obvious of all autumn work is the 
cleaning up of debris of crops which have been 
harvested, and left in their wake vines, tops, 
stakes, trellises, etc. Waste nothing! All such 
material as will easily decay and is otherwise 
useless is best disposed of in a compost pile 
where it will decay and become available for 
future use as humus. As far as possible 
gather it while succulent rather than hard 
and woody because decay is quicker. Better 
results will also follow spreading the refuse in 
thin rather than thick layers because decay is 
more prompt and there is less likelihood of the 
stuff being an offensive, sticky, wormy mass of 
decaying vegetable matter when the time 
comes to Spread it on the garden as a top 
dressing. If stalks and vines become woody 
place them in a damp spot and cover with 
earth. They will thus more surely decay than 
if mixed in the ordinary compost pile. 

A Friendly "Compost Pile" 

A FAVORITE way of making a compost 
heap is to place a layer of inverted sods 
upon the ground or a layer of weeds, stems and 
other vegetable remains from the garden. 
Upon this two to four inches of good manure is 
spread and sprinkled with bone meal, tankage, 
ground phosphate rock or any other available 
but rather slowly soluble fertilizer. If the soil 
is acid a dressing of lime is given — enough to 
make the surface pretty white. 
Other layers of sod and manure 
are added until the pile is finished 
when the form should be that of a 
broad letter A with the apex cut 
off" and somewhat dished to hold 
snow and water. The depth of the 
sod layer should be governed by 
the character of the soil and the 
sod itself. If heavy loam or clay it 
should be shallow and aboutathird 
of its depth should be sand, sifted 
hard coal ashes (or other material) 
that will help to make it " lighter." 
If loamy already and well sup- 
plied with grass roots it may be 
four to six inches thick. Such a 
pile may be made in September or 
October fcr use the following 
fall or made in March or April to 
be used the following spring. In 



either case it should be sliced with a sharp 
spade vertically downward and the slicings 
thrown into a new pile so that the outside 
of the original pile may be in the centre of 
the new one and thus get a good chance to 
decay. Soil so prepared may be sifted for 
indoor potting work or applied as it comes for 
work in coldframes, hotbeds, and garden bor- 
ders. Piles may be six or eight feet wide at 
the base, four or five feet high, three feet 
wide at the top and any desired length to 
supply the needs of the maker. 

Planting Next Spring's Greens 

E^OR the earliest crop of spring spinach 
*■ sow in September or October. Choose 
the richest available part of the garden and 
make it even richer by a liberal dressing of well 
decayed manure. Dig or plow the soil 
deeply and make the surface fine. If the soil 
is somewhat heavy or poorly drained the 
plants may be heaved out by frost. To ob- 
viate this where there is no choice of a better 
location, dig a trench six or eight inches deep 
on each side of the bed and make the ground 
slope from the centre of the bed toward the 
ditches. These ditches should of course lead 
to lower ground where possible, but even 
where not they will be worth while. The soil 
from them should be thrown on the beds which 
will thus be raised slightly. For the over- 
wintering crop, sow the seed in rows eight to 
twelve inches apart using about one ounce to 
each ioo feet of drill. Keep free from weeds 
until winter sets in, then cover with clean straw 
three or four inches deep. In early spring re- 
move this straw, give a light dressing of nitrate 
of soda close to but not on the plants and cut 
the largest ones as soon as they reach edible 
size. Plants so grown may be used three or 
four weeks before spring sown seed will produce 
plants of edible size. 




This season's harvest is nearly gathered in. but the alert gardener begins this month on re- 
building fertility for the food crops of next season. Feed the land to feed the people 



Dig the Garden Now 

WORK and time next spring may be 
saved by plowing or digging the gar- 
den now, provided the soil be left in big clods, 
just as turned up. If it is a heavy loam or a 
clay so much the more reason for fall prep- 
aration because such soils are made finer by the 
alternate action of freezing and thawing during 
winter. Still more may be done to fine them 
by adding much old crumbly manure, sand and 
sifted hard coal ashes. Another important 
addition for breaking up the particles is the 
addition of lime but this should be deferred 
until spring because the action of lime is down- 
ward, so more or less of the plant food might 
be lost if the application were made in the fall. 
Just before the soil is ready for harrowing or 
raking is the right time to scatter thi,s ma- 
terial. 

Laying War Plans Ahead 

TF NEXT year's war garden must be made 
■*- on land which has been for a year or longer 
in sod its success can be enhanced by plowing 
the face say four weeks before the ground is 
likely to freeze hard. Apart from the ad- 
vantages of having the sod decay and the 
texture of the soil improve because of the ac- 
tion of frost upon the clods during the winter 
there is a great gain in the destruction of in- 
sects which feed on the grass roots and which 
divert their attentions and appetites to the 
vegetable roots when these arrive. This is the 
greatest advantage of fall plowing or digging 
sod land. Wire-worms, cut worms, white grubs 
and many other garden pests are now feeding 
within a few inches of the surface as may be 
proved by turning up the sod and searching 
for them. While fall plowing does not destroy 
them all, it kills enough to make it, pay to 
say nothing of the advantages of having the 
soil turned up in rough furrow slrces — as the 
soil should be left until spring. 

Roots That Will Sprout in the Spring 

TT WILL take a special order to 
■*■ your seedsman or nurseryman 
to get asparagus roots in the fall, 
but they can be had and you will 
save a year by planting early this 
fall. Two-year old roots are the 
most practical size for the home 
gardener. Horseradish and rhu- 
barb set out this month will be 
ready for use in early spring. 

Lift a few parsley roots from 
the garden, trim both root and 
top — the latter to within one 
inch of crown — and plant tvro 
roots two inches apart in a six- 
inch pot. A few pots in a sunny 
window will give all needed pars- 
ley when snow falls. 



56 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1917 



if Where fall canker worms have in- 
fested apple trees or where the wingless 
females are noticed this autumn much 
may be done to prevent next spring's 
damage by placing bands of sticky stuff 
such as tar, printers' ink and "tangle- 
foot" around the trunks to prevent the females 
from climbing up to lay their eggs in the 
branches. Fluffy cotton batting is also use- 
ful. Late September or early October is the 
time to do this work. A related species, the 
worms of which work in the same way, may 
be similarly dealt with but by applying the 
bands when the buds swell. Spraying with 
lead arsenate (six to ten pounds to one hun- 
dred gallons of water) will control both 
kinds. 



if Cut worms may be made less numerous 
this fall and thus less destructive next spring 
by keeping the ground well cultivated in late 
and early fall so as to prevent the growth of 
grasses upon which the creatures feed. Where 
it is not necessary to have grass none should be 
allowed to grow. Where it is necessary, 
poisoned bran is effective because when prop- 
erly mixed the worms will ' leave grass and 
other plants for it. A good formula is one 
ounce of pans green, three pounds wheat bran, 
mixed dry then moistened with the juice of an 
orange and enough diluted molasses to make 
the stuff "crumbly moist." Strew in little 
gobs beside the grass. 

if If not already done, cut out all 
fruited and dying canes of raspberry, dew- 
berry, blackberry and all currant and goose- 
berry canes older than three years; the former 
because they will die anyway this winter and 
only menace the health and well being of the 
young canes; the latter because they produce 
fruit inferior in quality and size and less in 
quantity than do canes a year or two younger. 
In both cases the danger of infestation from 
insects and diseases is greater. 

•k Fruit-tree-bark beetles make "pin 
holes" in the trunks and branches of failing 
fruit trees. Prevention consists in keeping the 
trees vigorous and healthy by proper cultiva- 
tion. If the trees are seriously infested cut 
them down, burn at once, and replace by new 
trees from the nurseryman this fall. It is a 
help to keep the fence rows clean of rubbish 
and to apply thick coats of whitewash or of 
concentrated lime-sulphur during late Septem- 
ber, March, and June. 

it To feed vines and fruits economically, 
save all bones from the house and those left 
upon the lawn as canine visiting cards. Bury 
near grape vines, currant, raspberry and other 
bushes. No danger of getting too many. Half 
a peck to a peck will be a good "meal." Be 
sure to bury deep enough — say 15 to 1 8 inches. 
Obnoxious cats, dogs, rats, mice and other 
animals that eke out a precarious existence 
may be humanely exterminated and buried 
near fruit trees and shrubs. Such creatures 
might be obtained from local societies for the 
prevention of cruelty to animals and thus put 
to use in nature's way. 

if If the cherry leaves have been eaten 
out and blistered or browned during early or 
midsummer by the cherry leaf miner the best 
thing to prevent damage next season is to 
plow the orchard or dig beneath the trees in the 
the garden during late October or early 
November so as to destroy the larvae which 
burrow in the ground to hibernate. 



CHECKING THE INVADERS 

Bugs, Worms, Rusts, and Frost 



if Mid-autumn is the time to dig out the 
peach borer which almost always makes its 
burrow within six inches of the surface of the 
ground above, or usually below. Remove the 
earth gently to the depth of six inches and 
wherever a collection of peach gum and saw- 
dust-like "castings" is found, use a penknife 
to search out and destroy the worm. Don't 
fear to cut the bark if necessary to find him. 
You will do less damage than he will. Leave 
the earth scraped away for a couple of weeks 
so upon a second examination you may find 
any that you have missed the first time over. 
There's no harm in leaving it thus for a third 
examination, say a month after the first. 
Before winter fill up the hollows, tramp the 
earth down hard and then make a cone-shaped 
mound of earth say six inches high around each 
tree. Leave this until spring as a protection 
against mice and rabbits. In early June, an- 
other mound may be raised so as to compel the 
peach borer moth to lay her eggs higher up on 
the trunk than the ordinary level of the ground 
surface. This she will do usually about mid- 
summer. The borers are hard to find before 
September. 

if In many parts of the country, particularly 
where the soil is heavy and poorly drained, 
blackberries, dewberries and raspberries' 
suffer from winterkilling. The damage may be 
considerably reduced or even prevented entirely 
by laying down the canes at the approach of 
winter. The simplest way to do this is to 
start at one end of the row, and with a many 
tined "D-handled" fork press the canes down 
until they reach the ground. To hold them 
thus the fork need only be thrust firmly in the 
soil until enough earth has been placed upon 
them to hold them down. Then the next 
clump of canes may be laid over the first one 
and the process of covering repeated. Much 
greater speed may be attained where three per- 
sons work together, one pressing and holding 
down the canes while the other two do the 
covering. It is usually not necessary to cover 
the entire canes because enough leaves and 
other autumn debris is generally caught and 
held to aid materially in protecting them. In 
spring when wild berry bushes begin to show 
signs of life, or preferably not before currant 
and gooseberry bushes show their first leaves, 
the earth may be shaken out with a fork, the 
canes pruned and tied up for the summer. 

if As soon as the asparagus tops begin to 
turn yellowish and the berries begin to redden 
they should be cut and placed on the compost 
pile to decay. Otherwise the seeds will fall 
upon the bed and give rise to new asparagus 
plants which are not needed. If the plants 
have been diseased (rusted) the tops had 
better be burned without delay. After the 
cutting a thick dressing of manure to serve 
both as mulch and fertilizer may be applied. 
While some people advocate fall setting of 
asparagus, it is generally best to wait until 
spring because unless the ground is in ideal 
condition (especially as to drainage), the 
fall set plants may be injured. A warm soil 
and a sunny exposure favor fall setting as well 
as the production of early spears. Distances 
between plants and rows vary with individuals. 
Some people plant 2x2 feet; others 2 x 5 or 6 
feet so as to utilize the space between rows for 



early maturing crops such as radishes, let- 
tuce, beets, carrots and cabbage. 

if White grubs, wire worms and 
other insects whose habits of living are 
similar may be in part controlled and 
damage to succeeding crops prevented to just 
that extent by plowing during mid and late 
fall because such practise destroys the hiber- 
nating quarters or so disturbs the creatures 
that they fall victims to frost. By this prac- 
tise also much of the food — grass roots — upon 
which they feed will have decayed by spring so 
that many will then starve. But since many" 
are likely to live in spite of all this it is well 
to delay planting until late and then avoid all 
crops specially susceptible to these attacks; 
for instance, strawberries. 

if Do your bit to reduce the number of 
wormy apples. How? See to it that no 
"worm" escapes to form a chrysalis. Gather 
up all the apples that fall prematurely because 
they contain worms and feed them to pigs, 
poultry or other domestic animals that will eat 
them. Failing such sources of consumption 
bury the worthless fruit and make the balance 
into sauce or other canned product, being care- 
ful to burn or bury the parings and cores. 
Put wire screens on the storage cellar so the 
moths cannot escape to lay eggs next spring on 
the early formed fruit. During favorable 
days examine crevices in the bark of the 
trees and destroy all hibernating worms and 
cocoons so found. Indeed, it is a good plan 
to place bands of burlap around the tree as 
early in the fall as possible. 

if Two kinds of borers are common in 
apple trees; the round headed and the flat 
headed. The former is most often found near 
the surface of the ground above or below; the 
latter anywhere on the trunk or main branches. 
Clean culture and washes (such as lime-sulphur 
or caustic potash added to soap solution until 
the mixture becomes creamy) are fair preven- 
tives. But to make sure a careful examination 
of the trees should be made in early fall and 
another two or three weeks later. All 
borers (discovered by their castings) should 
be dug out with a knife and killed. 

if The san jose scale is specially de- 
fenceless during late fall and early winter be- 
cause the insects are then immature and their 
scaly coverings are softer and more easily 
penetrated. Spraying first with a twenty-five 
per cent, oil emulsion (scalecide, or some 
such special preparation), during mid to late 
autumn or with winter strength lime-sulphur 
solution will prove effective with even rough 
barked old trees. A second application of 
either spray may be given with profit just be- 
fore the buds break in spring; after the foliage 
appears, the spraying solution must be re- 
duced to "summer strength." 

if The pear psylla, a tiny sucking insect, 
hides in crevices of the bark over winter and 
does much damage both directly by sucking 
the sap and indirectly by its "honey dew" 
secretions which are followed by blackening of 
fruit and foliage. Scrape and burn the bark 
in November, December or March, and then 
spray with "black leaf 40" or other commer- 
cial nicotine preparation, three quarters 
Rint to 100 gallons and five pounds of soap, 
liscible oil or scalecide at the rate of one gal- 
lon to 15 of water is also effective. Spraying 
must be done when the temperature is above 
freezing. 



September, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



57 



Stretching the Calendar 

LENGTHENING the season of fresh 
vegetables by several weeks beyond 
frost dates is quite practical, by giving 
slight protection. A coldframe is simply 
a box-like structure, with or without 
cover, made of any boards, the wider the bet- 
ter, and supported by stout posts. It may be 
constructed anywhere though a fence at its 
northern end, or a clump of trees will help its 
efficiency. 

In a straight line, drive short, strong posts, 
about 3 feet long, 3 feet apart, to a depth of one 
foot. Six feet away and preferably to the 
south drive a second row, equally spaced, 18 in- 
ches deep. Nail boards to these posts on the 
outer sides and your frame is ready. Now dig 
up the contained soil, 
mixing in some well 
rotted manure, or 
some "complete" 
chemical fertilizer and 
sow seeds, as sug- 
gested elsewhere. 
Such a frame will en- 
able you to grow some 
extra early beans and 
beets to maturity as 
well. Seeds may be 
sown in close rows; 
six to eight inches for 
lettuce; radish, four 
inches. It is really 
surprising what a vast 
amount of stuff can 
be grown on a limited 
area, if the space is 
handled systematic- 
ally. 

When nights get so 
cool as to become 
frosty, cover the 
frame with boards to 
which may be nailed 
mats or burlap or any 
kind of material that 
will keep out the cold. 
Uncover in the morn- 
ing; cover at night. 
Later on the frame 
may be converted in- 
to a very serviceable 
hot-bed — but that's to be told of in 
next month's Garden Magazine. 

Fall Strategy for Late Crops 

"THIRTY days (region of New York) 
■*■ separate us from the earliest re- 
corded frost of the season — the average 
date is three weeks later, however. It 
seems absurd to talk of starting a 
vegetable garden at this time. And yet, 
nearly ideal ''growing weather" prevails 
the biggest part of this month. More 



SKIRMISHING ALONG THE 
FROST LINE 



than a dozen extra early semi-hardy vegetables 
may still be sown for foodstuffs outdoors, if you 
press into service, toward the end of the month, 
some simple devices to keep off the frost. 
Vegetables that are semi-hardy and that will 
endure considerable frost if gradually hard- 
ened are lettuce, onions (from sets), peas, 
radishes, spinach, and turnips. 

Onions from sets will not yield until spring; 
but by planting out either Egyptian Winter 
or multiplier or potato onions this month, you 




'Forewarned is forearmed.' 



This map shows the earliest recorded frosts. The average date of expectation is about 
three weeks later. Prepare for the unexpected! 





may gather green onions when your 
neighbor gets ready to plant his sets. 

Peas. Sow first week of this month. 
Such early varieties as Market Surprise or 
Pedigree Extra Early, etc., will mature 
where no "killing" frost disturbs vegeta- 
tion before October 20th. Sow late peas in 
double drills, about 2 inches deep, 4 inches 
between the drills and 18 inches between these 
double rows. Four 15-ft. rows, handled in this 
fashion, will yield 2 good messes of pods be- 
fore frost. Thus planted in a compact area, 
they are easily cared for and protected from 
severe cold. 

Lettuces that will reach edible size before 
frost injures them are Early Curled Simpson, 
and Prizehead among the loose-leaved kinds; 
May King, Naum- 
burger and Big Boston 
among the butter- 
heads; and Cnsp-as- 
Ice as a crisp or cab- 
bage head variety. 
To grow them to full 
size, the protection of 
a coldframe or some 
such device is neces- 
sary — a few boards, 
nailed together in 
box-like fashion will 
suffice even. 

Radishes of the ex- 
tra early round turnip 
and olive - shaped 
types that will reach 
full size by end of 
month from seeds 
sown at the beginning 
are Hailstone, Snow- 
ball, Rapid Red, Red 
and White Olive- 
Shaped, and French 
Breakfast. Sow 
thinly, thin promptly, 
water and cultivate 
freely. 

Spinach endures 
considerable cold, 
and with a slight pro- 
tective mulch of straw 
or dry leaves will go 
through the winter in 
the latitude of New York. Frost Re- 
sistant Munsterland is the hardiest of 
all, but it may be impossible to get seed, 
because of the embargo on Eutch 
spinach seeds. Sow at once Prickly or 
Winter, Victoria or Long Standing 
Prickly to furnish "greens" by October 
and again next spring. 

Turnips. The Milan varieties will 
reach the desirable 2 inch size by end of 
October from seeds sown early in Sep- 
tember. This crop, like radishes, will 
develop very quickly if seeds are sown 




Late and tender crops of vegetables may be saved for two or three weeks by adequate preparedness. Lettuce (left) and beans (right) covered with handy cloths on the threat of frost. 

In the centre: egg plants; the one in front was covered by an old barrel, the others were not. Take the hint? 



58 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1917 



thinly and the seedlings promptly thinned to 
3 inches apart. 

Snatching Victory from Frost's Assaults 

' I HMELY cultivation and systematic water- 
_ ing will keep crops growing and in full 
vigor. Any backward crops of cabbage, 
celery, lettuce, cucumber, bean (anything 
other than root crops) can be urged on by 
weekly watering with nitrate of soda solution 



made by dissolving a teaspobnful of nitrate of 
soda in four gallons of ,water — failing this use 
sulphate of ammonium or plain household am- 
monia equally diluted. 

Tomato vines must now be severely pruned, 
cutting out superfluous branches that have 
borne fruit and "suckers" that develop at 
leaf-joints and at the base of the plant. Trim 
the tops of every branch, and cut off every 
flower, for remember, tomatoes require from 30 



to 50 days from date of pollenization to de- 
velop to fair size and frost is likely to come 
soon. Remove some foliage, to give the sun 
free access to the fruits. 

Blanch celery by means of earthing up or 
using paper or cardboard "blanchers." It stim- 
ulates the growth, improves the quality and 
acts as insurance against unexpected frosts. 
If crops get frozen remember: to preserve them 
is to spray cold water on them before they thaw. 



ONE factor of prime importance 
to every garden owner who looks 
forward to next year's production 
is the growing difficulty of pro- 
curing an adequate supply of fertilizer 
to add to the natural food stores of 
the soil. Chemical fertilizer is becoming 
more and more difficult to procure, and in 
many parts of the country stable manures 
are almost unobtainable. And yet to the 
gardener who looks forward and plans ahead 
the prospect is not as gloomy as might be 
supposed. In the best of circumstances 
chemical fertilizers are a short cut, an easy 
means of attaining an end necessitated be- 
cause the course of management of the land 
has been exhausting, not enriching. We are 
prone to exact the uttermost yield from a 
garden under forced conditions instead of so 
managing as to build up a self-perpetuating 
machine. We have at our hands this potent 
means of maintaining fertilizer value in the 
soil — cultivation and cover crops. The 
former practice pulverizes the mineral par- 
ticles of the soil and exposes others to the 
chemical action of the air. The cover plants 
turn in vegetable matter, humus, and so we in 
our gardens do mechanically and in a short 
space of time what the elements do naturally in 
wearing down rocks and making soils over the 
centuries. 

A Practical View 



("•OVER CROPS, those plants used solely 
for the benefit of the soil and the crop to 
follow, are of such inestimable value in en- 
riching the garden that they should be used to 
the limit of practicability. The great majority 
are fairly quick growing annuals, many of 
them hardy so far as winter is concerned. 
Their general strong points may be summed up 
as follows: 

(1) They prevent washing of the soil during 
autumn and spring rains. Both roots and 
tops aid in this matter. 

(2) They make the surface pleasant under 
foot during winter when work must be done 
upon the land. 

(3) They save soluble plant food that would 
otherwise be washed over the surface or down 
to lower levels out of reach of the succeeding 
roots. 

For these three reasons, then, on land likely 
to be washe'd, the cover crop should have a 
large amount of top that will form a good 
obstruction to water and a good holder of 
snow. It should also have a large and fibrous 
root system so as to hold the soil grains; of the 
two probably the former is the more important. 

Other Services Rendered 

A\/"HEN sown in late summer or early 
autumn quick growing cover crops tend 
to take considerable water and nitrogenous 
plant food from the soil and thus serve to 
check late growth of fruit trees and bushes and 
thus to prevent the winter killing of imperfectly 
ripened wood. The branches mature better 



CAN'T BUY FERTILIZER? 
THEN GROW IT 



where a cover crop is used. A tender crop such 
as buckwheat must be sown either much earlier 
than a hardy one, because it may be killed by 
an early autumn frost; or, it may be sown with 
a slow growing hardy crop (such as rye) 
which will take its place and function during 
the latter part of the autumn and the winter. 
Such a combination is often specially valuable 
where the trees are bearing large loads of fruit 
because the effect of the rye will rarely be pro- 
nounced before spring. 

In both garden and fruit plantations cover 
crops add humus, or vegetable matter, to the 
soil and this material may contain relatively 
large quantities of mineral matter which they 
have secured from comparatively insoluble 
sources. They thus take the place of both 
stable manure and commercial fertilizers to a 
large extent. No matter whether the soil be 
heavy or light the supply of vegetable matter 
must be kept up. Hence the cover crop that 
makes the largest amount of vegetable matter in a 
given time is generally the best to select. To 
aid in getting such a growth manure or ferti- 
lizer or both may be added to the soil before the 
cover crop is sown. 

What May Be Sown Now 

MANY cover crops add nitrogen to the soil 
but some of these must be sown too 
early in the season to be of value in the garden, 
red, alsike, sweet, and white clovers are 
thus out of the question. But crimson 
clover may often be used following early po- 
tatoes and other crops which are harvested be- 
fore midsummer or shortly after. It may also 
be sown among tomatoes, cucumbers, corn, 
cantaloupes and other crops that die with the 
first frost. The time to sow among these is 
after cultivation has stopped and the vines 
occupy the ground. 

Why You Can Sow at Once 

A S THE seed may not germinate for three 
"^^ or four weeks, and as the plants use very 
little moisture while small, they will do no 
damage to the vegetables, and the vegetable 
vines will not interfere with their development 
after the harvest. Hairy vetch sown alone or 
with rye is the other first class garden and 
orchard cover crop. It is more hardy than 
crimson clover and may be sown as late as 
early October on. Long Island. This matter of 
adding nitrogen is of special importance during 
these war times when chemical manures are 
several times more costly than hitherto. In 
orchard and small fruit practice it is possible 
by continued annual use of legumes to make 
the soil too rich, but such cases are rare. The 
corrective is the use of nitrogen consuming 
cover crops such as buckwheat and rye. 

Cover crops, especially the erect and stiff 



stemmed ones catch and hold leaves and 
snow during fall and winter. The former 
add vegetable matter; the latter adds the 
small quantity of available nitrogen that 
water from the sky always contains. 
Those crops that form a mat beneath trees 
may protect fruit from injuries which follow 
falling on the ground. This is especially 
noticeable with soft fruit like peaches, pears, 
plums, and early apples. Cover crops also 
protect the roots of trees and bushes during 
winter since they check the alternate thawing 
and freezing of the soil. An area protected 
will often continue frozen whereas one not 
covered may thaw deeply and settle, then 
freeze and heave seriously enough to in- 
jure the plants, especially if only recently 
planted. 

Now For the Other Side! 

CUCH being the main points in favor, what 
of the points against cover crops? The 
one often raised that they are killed by frost 
is of small importance; for the roots and the 
remains of the tops are still available. As a 
matter of fact practically everything is saved 
even in such cases; the only loss is water! 
some people raise the opposite objection; 
namely, that the plants do live over winter! 
Here is where danger is most likely to lie: 
the crop may be allowed to grow longer than 
it should in spring. The only safe general rule 
to follow is to dig or plow in spring as early 
as the ground can be worked, because every 
day's growth reduces the amount of soil 
water and hardens the plant stems. 

Best for the Garden 

pOR the garden the best cover crops to 
sow are: buckwheat, if sown before 
September first and in a section where the first 
fall frosts come as late as mid-October; cow- 
horn and ordinary turnips and rutabagas are 
hardy any time during September or early 
October where there are at least six weeks be- 
fore winter sets in (some of the turnips may 
grow large enough for home use) ; Dwarf Essex 
rape, is good for the same reasons; rye, very 
hardy, almost sure to grow but is likely to get a 
serious start in spring — it must be plowed 
under early; crimson clover, a nitrogen 
collector, best of the clovers for garden work, 
often winter-kills in cold sections; winter or 
hairy vetch, hardy, excellent for collecting 
nitrogen and adding vegetable matter to the 
soil is best used with rye. Failing all other 
cover crops, don't despise those weeds which 
spring up during the fall. They are mostly 
annuals and may be easily killed by spring 
digging. In the meantime they will have held 
leaves and snow, prevented washing of the sur- 
face soil, checked the losses of plant food by 
seepage, added their vegetable matter to the 
soil, prevented injury to the tree and bush 
roots and in other ways played the full note of 
sown cover crops. If you haven't any weed 
seeds in your own garden be thankful to the 
neighbors for their unwitting donations. 



September, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



59 



PETERSONS mm PEONIES 

'" "---^ ' . Ill I!! I i« i 






216 N. Calvert St., Baltimore, Md., Sept. 29. 1916 
In a letter received from you sometime ago, you stated 
that the roots you would send me would be a revelation — they 
are in every sense of the word. These roots were planted for 
me by an old gardener who has known nothing but flowers for 
half a century, and he tells me they are the finest and most 
promising lot of roots that have ever come to his notice, and 
he knows his business. — W. G. Blandford. 



Beaver, Pa., June 28, 1917 
I desire to thank you for the magnificent peonies which I 
'uought of you last year, everyone of which grew, and has 
bloomed profusely. I have been buying and growing peonies 
for fifteen years and I never in all my experience saw such 
magnificent peonies the first year planted. — John B. McClure. 



80 Montclair Ave., Montclair, N. J., Sept. 26, 1916 
My order of peonies reached me yesterday in splendid 
condition. I had a man from our local florist's set them to-day 
and he told me of the [hundreds he had set he had set few 
orders which were as fine as yours, in fact, he said one of your 
roots would make two or three ordinary plants. 

—(Mrs.) Edith T. Bridge 



Hamburg, N. Y., August 10, 1916 
The peony 'roots purchased of you were the finest roots 
I ever saw. This year they all bloomed and the beauty of 
them surpassed my expectation by far. People came to see 
them from near and far and went into raptures over them. 
It is by far the finest collection in Hamburg. 

—Mrs. Geo. J. Brendel 



This Picture, an untouched photo- 
graphic reproduction of a corner of 
one of my Peony [fields, shows to 
what wonderful perfection and pro- 
fusion of bloom Peterson Peonies 
have been brought. 

Twenty-four years of enthusiastic 
devotion have taught me how to 
grow this noble flower so that the 
roots I sell are possessed of unusual 
vigor and vitality— roots that show 
surprising results the first season 
after planting and prove an ever- 
increasing delight as the years come 
on. 

Peterson Peonies 
more than "make good" 

They are Peonies of performance — 
not merely those of clever advertis- 
ing. Many thousands of people 
have learned this to their joy. 

Why not you 

My 1917 Peony Catalogue, beauti- 
fully illustrated with my own pho- 
tographs, will gladly be sent you on 
request. (Note ; Peonies should be 
planted in the Fall). 



GEORGE H. PETERSON, Inc. Rose and Peony specialist Box 50, Fair Lawn, N. J. 



Mohican Supremacy 



WHY WE LEAD 

BECAUSE of the study of, and devotion 
to, the Peony alone, — an undivided 
allegiance. It's significant. 

BECAUSE our system of cultivation is 
unmatched in this country. Every 
root given individual and intensive 
culture, — as in a private garden. 
Ask those who have been here. 



BECAUSE we do not send out a root un- 
til — regardless of its age — it has 
bloomed satisfactorily here the spring 
prior to its going to you. Some of 
the plants we deliver are three and four 
years old — with no advance in price. 

BECAUSE there are not 2000,— nor 
1000, — nor 500 distinct varieties; but 
scarcely more than 100; and we have 
"spiked the guns" of the duplicates 
at high prices. 



There are lots of POOR Peonies; why not hare the benefit of really 
expert advice? Our fame is nation-wide; everywhere the supremacy 
of our Peonies is established. It is because we are specialists in 
a sense which possesses a REAL value and significance; that is, 



WE GROW PEONIES 
-NOTHING ELSE 

•OUR REPUTATION HAS BEEN BUILT ON THE QUALITY OF OUR STOCK" 
and they cost no more from us 



DISTINCTIVE CATALOGUE NOW READY 



Mohican Peony Gardens,^ Sinking Spring, Penn'a 



Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in writing — and we will, too. 



60 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1917 



&1it^£l(uafof(gs Timely Topics 

The keynote of September garden activity, is "Preparation!" If you would 
enjoy inexpensive flowers all winter, now is the time to prepare. To be able to 
gather flowers outdoors soon after snow disappears, prepare now. You may 
enjoy green, velvety lawns next spring while your neighbor is just planning his, 
by timely action this month. And, last but not least, you can have a better garden 
that will yield bigger crops of choicer vegetables in 1918, if you lay the foundation 
for greater soil fertility this fall. The following offers will help you materialize 
all of above possibilities. 

More Flowers For a Bulbs — All Kinds 

Brighter Christmas 



DARWIN 

A small sum invested in bulbs 
this month will help make 
Christmas a doubly cheerful 
occasion. Plant the following 
in pots or pans (which we also 
offer) : 

Roman Hyacinths, the earl- 
iest of all to bloom and easiest 
to grow. White. $1.25 per 
doz., $8. per 100. 

Narcissus, Giant Paper- 
White, fine for growing in wa- 
ter, with pebbles to support 
bulbs. Large Bulbs, 5c each; 
50c per doz.; $2.75 per 100. 

Jumbo Bulbs, 10c each; 
75c per dozen; $3.50 per 100. 

Enjoy These 
Extra Early 
Spring Flowers 

The brilliant little Crocuses help much to 
make the lawns a great source of satisfaction 
very early in the spring. Who does not love 
the modest little Snowdrops and the more 
showy Daffodils? Here are the kinds that 
will help brighten the early spring days: — 

Select, Named Crocuses in blue, 
white, golden, purple, yellow and 
striped. 20c per doz.; $1.25 per 100, 
postpaid. 

Snowdrops, select bulbs, single, 30c 
per doz.; $1.50 per 100; double, 35c 
per doz.; $2 per 100. 

Daffodils, six select sorts, extra fine 
bulbs. Six bulbs each, six varieties, 
36 bulbs in all, $1.50 postpaid. 




The Tulips of Milady's Garden 




in any quantity, of the most cri- 
tically selected quality only, are 
available at prices within the 
reach of all. Tulips are our 
specialty ! We handle, perhaps, 
a greater assortment of choice 
kinds than any one in the trade. 
Besides Tulips, we handle im- 
mense quantities of Hyacinths, 
Daffodils and scores of other 
bulbous roots. Our bulb depart- 
ment constitutes a very impor- 
tant part of our establishment, 
the high standard of which we 
maintain at all costs. 

Beautiful Spanish 
Irises 

Select mother bulbs for plant- 
ing out this fall that will bear 
those glorious flowers commonly 
called the "poor man's orchids." 
We offer a splendid selection of 
sorts in the following collection: 
— 10 bulbs each of 10 varieties, 
100 bulbs in all, for $1.25. 

Inexpensive Fertilizer 

As soon as part of the garden has borne the 
crop, dig up the ground and sow either Winter 
Vetch, Rye or Rape. Turned under in the spring 
the plants will enrich the soil. Our stock of 
these useful forage and "green" manure plants 
is excellent. Since market prices change fre- 
quently, write for latest quotations. 

9 9 



" Staigreen 

Lawn Grass 






A Garden Full 

of Tulips for One 

Dollar Postpaid 

Giant Darwin Tulips that bloom in May 
are one of our leading specialties. So well 
is the quality of the bulbs we sell recognized 
by the most critical that our sales of them 
ran into hundreds of thousands of bulbs. 
Fine Darwin Tulips, in a mixture including 
choicest varieties, such as Clara Butt, Europe, 
Pride of Haarlem, etc., giving 75 bulbs in all, 
prepaid $1.00. (West of the Mississippi $1.25.) 





is a scientifically compounded 
mixture of the choicest grasses 
especially adapted to eastern 
soils and sections. Sown this 
fall, it will make a strong, quick 
1 growth this fall, and become 
firmly established to provide a 
beautiful lawn next spring. Staigreen Lawn 
Grass Seed, delivered anywhere in the U. S. at 
the following prices: — Pound, 40c; 5 lbs., 
$1.75; 25 lbs., $8; 100 lbs., $30. 

Write for Free Fall Catalogue 

It will help you formulate fall plans for both your in- 
door and outdoor gardens. Really a complete guide to 
fall planting of bulbs, plants, seeds of such kinds as our 
lifelong experience in the business enables us to recom- 
mend to you as thoroughly dependable. Offers all you 
need for your gardening activity at reasonable prices. 
Please ask for it TO-DAY. 



30-32 Barclay Street 
New York 



Forcing Bulbs in a Greenhouse 

YOU CAN have flowers in the greenhouse 
during the winter without seriously af- 
fecting the use of the greenhouse for gen- 
eral purposes, as the bulbs when they 
are first brought indoors, are placed under the 
benches to develop a stem growth and they 
occupy bench space for only a few days as they 
are simply brought up to the light to give 
color to the foliage and finish to the flowers. 
The bulbs are usually planted in boxes, pans 
or pots according to the purpose for which 
they are to be used (see pages 43 to 46). 
Lilies, Callas, Ranunculus, Oxalis, Anemone, 
and Cyclamen are usually planted in pots and 
placed in the frame, covering them with one or 
two inches of ashes to insure even soil con- 
ditions. When the growth shows through 
above the covering, they can be removed to 
the greenhouse or retarded until wanted 
by maintaining a low temperature in the 
frames. 

Freesia, Oxalis, Chionodoxa, Spanish Iris, 
and Gladiolus are also handled in this manner 
but they are usually grown in boxes as they 
are used more extensively for cutting. 

The hardy bulbs such as Tulips, Hyacinths 
and the various Daffodils and Narcissus, 
Allium, Ornithogalum, and Crocus are to be 
planted in boxes or pans and buried in trendies 
out of doors or the boxes can be laid flat and 
several inches of clear sharp sand over them 
will prevent them from freezing. The freezing 
will do no damage but makes it very trouble- 
some to get the bulbs without breakage. I 
prefer the burying method. They are, of 
course, more trouble when handled in this 
manner, but the even temperature of the 
ground at a depth of two feet is very condu- 
cive to root growth; and that we rnust have 
for high grade flowers. The bulbs are dug up 
as required, of course using the early bulbs 
first, such as Paper White Narcissus then the 
French grown single Narcissus, Crocus, and 
the single early Tulips in the order named. 

Forcing can be started in November and 
continue throughout the entire winter. 

Forced Bulbs After Flowering 

AFTER they have been forced all the 
hardy bulbs may be used for outdoor 
planting. You won't get any returns for the 
first year, and they should not be used in con- 
spicuous places as there is always some 
uncertainty about them; but those bulbs that 
increase such as the Narcissus, will in the 
course of a few years make some very re- 
spectable clumps. 

Bulbs, generally speaking, are cool growing 
plants. There are but few that delight in 
high or even moderate temperatures. If 
grown in too warm a place, you get inferior 
flowers and weak stems. They are also much 
more likely to be attacked by insects and 
diseases when growing in uncongenial con- 
ditions. The flowers when cut, do not keep 
for so long a time when forced rapidly and it 
also tends to develop any weakness in the bulb 
and you will get a large percentage of blind 
buds; that is to say, buds that "blast" and do 
not mature. The maximum growing tem- 
perature should not exceed 55 degrees at 
night and 50 degrees would be better on an 
average. Exceptions are: the Lilies of all 
kinds, which may be grown at 60 degrees or 
even 65 degrees; Lily-of-the-valley can be 
grown at 70 degrees without harm; Amaryllis 
will stand from 60 to 65 degrees. Freesias 
and Cyclamen should be grown at 55 to 60 
degrees. 



// a problem grows in your garden write io the Readers' Service for assistance 



September, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



61 



Vfootblt 



IF YOU could see the Gladioli in full bloom at 
Cedar Acres (75 acres of glory) you would just 
have to have Gladioli in your garden. 

You can see the blossoms, if not the fields, and you 
can choose your varieties from the actual blossoms. 

I will deliver to you in perfect condition a large 
box of Gladioli spurs in full bloom, adequate for se- 
lecting bulbs to plant next Spring for One Dollar. 
A greater variety for Two Dollars and a Half. 
Each variety labeled and priced for immediate order, 
and early Spring delivery. My fascinating booklet 
on Gladioli accompanies each box. 

Buy now after you have seen the actual blossoms. 
Present prices are low. Stocks of Gladioli will be 
limited next Spring and prices high. 




B. Hammond Tracy (Box 21) 



WENHAM, MASS. 




/I Bulb 

Catalog 

. of Value 



Do YbuyVattf-to 
Know all /I bo 




May Flowering Tulips — Darwin 
Breeders, and others — their or 
and history? 

Are you particularly interested in the various 
Types of Iris? 

Have you ever had difficulty in distinguishing the 
Daffodils from the Narcissus? 

Can you tell the difference between a "Bomb- 
shaped" and "Rose" Peony? 

V1 « PntolAfT ' s tne most valuable book of 
UT V/dldlOg i tsk i n dp U bli s hed. It con- 
tains all the above and much other information of value 
to you. It is a book you will want to keep for reference. 
Write for it to-day. Ask for Bulb Catalog 



WOOD, STUBBS & CO., Louisville, Ky. 



INCORPORATED 



miaul, ij,, 




Brand Peonies 

are the Choicest Productions of 

America* s Forem ost Peony Specialists 

The lover of good peonies is constantly on the 
look-out for something new and choice. 

The seventeen years which we have spent in 
originating new peonies, place us now in a position 
to supply just this demand. 

By the most careful and painstaking methods, 
we are constantly working to bring forth year after 
year new sorts of peonies. 

We find that ten years from the planting of the 
seed is the least possible time in which the worth of 
a peony can be determined. 

A variety to be retained by us must be healthy 
in root, stem and foliage. It must be not only 
beautiful but profuse in bloom and this bloom must 
come true year after year. 

The careful and methodical testing of varieties 
along these lines permits us now to offer the public 
a line of peonies which are entirely to be depended 
upon. They are beautiful in bloom and entirely new. 

A Few of Brand's Superb Originations 

Three of the "Greatest in the World" 

Martha Bulloch — Pink. This famous beauty, as pictured 
above, was the subject of considerable attention at the exhibition 
of the Peony Society in Philadelphia, June 13- 14th reported in 
Garden Magazine for July. Along with other first-class sorts, it 
was found worthy of praise because of its "superlative" qualities. 
Elizabeth B. Browning — White. Frances Willard — White. 



Our Finest Reds 

Richard Carvel, Longfellow, Lora 
Dexheimer, Mary Brand. 

MIDNIGHT— The Black Peony, a 
single four year root of which sold 
this season for one hundred dollars. 
($100.) 



Others 

Archie Brand, Louisa Brand. Ches- 
tine Gowdy, Florence Nightingale, 
Harriet Farnsley, William Penn — The 
monstrous, sweet scented deep pink. 

And many other new ones, just 
coming out. 



Descriptive Literature on request. Write to'day 
while stocks are complete 

BRAND PEONY COMPANY 

540 Lumber Exchange, Desk B, Minneapolis, Minn. 



Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in writing — and we will, too 



62 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1917 




Dreer's Reliable 

Spring-Blooming 

Bulbs 



DO not miss the joy of having a bed or border 
of bulbs next Spring. Plant them this Fall 
as early as you can and success is certain. 

We import the very highest grades of the finest 
varieties and offer in our Autumn Catalogue splen- 
did collections of Hyacinths, Tulips, Narcissus, 
Crocus, Snowdrops, etc., etc. 

The Fall is also the time to set out Hardy 
Perennial Plants, Vines, Shrubs, etc. Our Autumn 
Catalogue also gives a complete list of seasonable 
seeds, plants and bulbs for out-doors, window 
garden and conservatory. 

Mailed free to any one mentioning this Magazine 



Henry A. Dreer, 



714-16 Chestnut St. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



Horsford's 

Cold Weather 

Plants 

are the best to use where winters are 
severe. Don't forget that plants which 
have stood Vermont winters can stand 
any cold climate where white folks are 
willing to live. I grow and sell Trees, 
Shrubs, Hardy Flowers of best sorts, 
Wild Flowers, Orchids for outside 
culture, Hardy Ferns, Lilies (mostly 
fresh from the beds), Crocuses, Tulips, 
Narcissus, Trilliums, etc. 

Before placing your orders drop me a 
card and get my spring and fall cata- 
logue. Don't fail to see it before order- 
ing. Ask for Catalogue N. 

F. H. HORSFORD, Charlotte, Vt. 



ORCHIDS 

Largest importers and growers of 
Orchids in the United States 

Send twenty-five cents for catalogue. This amount will be refunded 
on your first order. 

LAGER & HURRELL 
Orchid Growers and Importers SUMMIT, N. J. 



Many of the 

Most Famous Lawns 

have been produced by the Lenox 
Formula — a high quality recleaned seed 
mixture of fine -leaved, dwarf- growing 
grasses. We recommend sowing from 
August 15th to September 15th. five 
bushels to the acre, or for renovating old 
lawns, one to two bushels. Per bushel of 
20 lbs, $5.50; per single lb., 35c. We shall 
be glad to make up special mixtures if de- 
sired and invite consultation regarding any 
difficulties you may experience in getting 
the right turf for any purpose or place. 



Arthur T. Boddington Co., Inc. j 




PEONIES 

Get catalogue of our Gold Medal collection 
E. A. REEVES South Euclid, Ohio 




Brooder for 50 to 100 chicks 



No. 3 Poultry House for 60 hens — 2 units 



Selling Coop 



HODGSON PORTABLE HOUSES 

The various models of these houses are arranged after the most scientific methods of raising poultry. Years of experience have proved 
this. The brooder can be operated outdoors in zero weather. The poultry house is made in sections that can he quickly bolted together 
by any one. The setting coop keeps a hen by herself while setting. All neatly painted. Send for illustrated booklet. 

Ei-< 1 1 r\T\i~i C* rvKl /iauji r* i ivrv Room 311. 116 Washington Street, Boston, Massachusetts 
. F. HODGSON COMPANY 6 East 39th Street, New York City 



Old-Time Southern Recipes 

J. M. PATTERSON 

CONTINUING the recommendation made 
^ in last month's Garden Magazine (p. 26) 
here are some convenient ways of handling 
corn, beans, etc: 

Butter beans, black eyed peas, navy beans 
and English garden peas can be left on the 
vine to dry. After gathering, spread out on 
paper in the attic to dry out thoroughly, 
then shell and put in thick paper bags. As a 
precaution against weevil pour a little bisul- 
phide of carbon on the seed and close up the 
bag. One ounce to one hundred pounds of 
seed is the correct proportion. Bisulphide of 
carbon does not impair the beans for food 
or seed, but running them in the oven as is 
sometimes recommended impairs the beans 
for seed. Caution — Bisulphide of carbon 
is inflammable and should not be used near a 
light or fire. 

Snap Beans can be put in a strong brine 
and are quite as good as those that are 
canned — 

Snap Beans in Brine. Gather when tender and not too 
large, string and break in half — scald in boiling water, and then 
plunge in cold water immediately. Make a brine strong enough 
to bear an egg — put snap beans in an earthen jar and fill up 
with brine — let the beans be well under the brine — turn over 
them a heavy plate to weight them down — cover over with 
grape leaves and tie over top of jar a heavy piece of cotton cloth. 
A few beans could be added daily if there are not enough beans 
at one time to fill jar. but it is well to add a handful of salt each 
time so the brine will be quite strong. To use, take out as 
many beans as needed and soak over night, cook and serve. 

Corn packed in salt. Gather the corn when in good condition 
to eat and prepare the same day — boil on the cob until the milk 
ceases to flow, which is about ten minutes — cut the corn off the 
cob being careful not to scrape the cob and get any of the husk — 
and pack in stone jars in the following order: 

A layer of salt at the bottom half inch deep, then one of corn 
two inches deep, another half inch salt, and so on until the jar 
is nearly filled. Let the top layer of salt be double the depth 
of the others and pour over all melted lard (not hot) or parafine. 
Press upon this when nearly hard a thick white paper, cut to fit 
the mouth of the jar. Keep in a cool place. To use, take out 
of jar as many cupfuls as are needed, pressing the covering of 
salt and lard carefully back into place. Soak corn over night 
before using. 

Corn Put up in Brine. As late as possible in the fall prepare 
tender roasting ears for winter use. Strip off the outer shuck, 
leaving the inner, silky ones next to the grain. Have ready a 
nice clean wooden firkin or tub, properly scalded and sunned. 
Sprinkle salt over the bottom. Pack closely with, corn. Wash 
a large flat rock and lay on the top when nearly full. Pour 
strong brine over the corn, covering it well. The day before 
using, strip off the shuck and silk, place in a bucket of cold water 
(renewing the water once or twice) and let it stand until ready 
to use. 

Two ears soaked thus and shaved into a pot of soup with 
other vegetables will impart a delicious flavor. Boil on the ear 
ten minutes and serve whole for dinner. 

Dried Corn. Boil corn on cob about twenty minutes. In 
cutting it off be careful not to cut too close to cob. Spread on a 
cotton cloth and put in sun each day until perfectly dry, taking 
it in at night. When dry put in a cotton bag and hang in a dry 
place. To use, take a tea cup full and soak in water all night 
before using, and before serving boil it for five minutes. It is 
not good for corn pudding. 

QUINCE HONEY 

This Quince Honey can easily be put in wide mouthed bottles 
as can the cold Cucumber Catsup. 

Choose for this honey nice ripe quinces, pare, core and grate. 
To a pint of the grated fruit allow three pounds of sugar and 
a pint of water. Boil the sugar and water until it spins a 
thread, add the grated quince and boil as thick as honey. Pour 
into jars and seal hot. This is nice to serve with hot breads and 
cakes in the winter. 

OLD-FASHIONED HOMINY 

Making hominy by the old method is so 
much better than the new way but it requires 
much patience. 

Two heaping tablepoonfuls of cooking soda 
can be used in place of the home made lye 
to bring this old time receipt down to modern 
times. 

To Make Hominy. I qt. of dty white field corn. \ teacup of 
home made lye. 

Wash the grains of corn thoroughly. Mix with the lye. 
Put in a large kettle on the stove and cover well with water to 
be under water two inches. Let boil until corn cracks. Take 
off of stove and set aside to cool. Rub corn between the palms 
of the hands to free the grains of the husks. Rinse in fresh 
water. Cover thoroughly with water and put back on stove 
and let come to a boil. This rids it of the lye and leaves hominy 
white. Pour this water off and put on again with twice as much 
water and cook slowly until done. 



The Readers' Service will gladly furnish information about Gardening 



September, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



Glorious Puget- 
Sound Peonies 

The finest named varieties now ready 
for your selection and Fall planting. 
Send for descriptive price list. 

Roses, Bulbs, Perennial Plants 

for Fall Planting 

Home grown, Handgathered 1917 De- 
pendable Perennial Flower Seeds that 
won't disappoint you. 

THE PUDOR FARMS 

Puyallup Washington 

Plant, Bulb and Seed Specialists 



Lutton Greenhouses 



Give 100% 
Satisfaction 



Attractive 
Efficient 
Durable 




WM. H. LUTTON CO. 

263-269 Kearney Ave. 
Jersey City, N. J. 

Horticultural Architects and Builders 



Greenhouses 
Conservatories 
Cold Frames 



School of Horticulture for Women 

AMBLER, PA. 

Two years' practical and theoretical course 

in Horticulture. Next entering class for 

diploma students January 15, 1918. Fall 

course of ten weeks for amateurs begins 

September 11th. Write for particulars. 

Early registration advised. 

Elizabeth Lelghtnn I,ee, Director, Box 105 




PEONIES 

Fifteen fine named Peonies for $2.50, or 25 for $5.00, all 
different and truly labeled, a chance to obtain a fine collec- 
tion at half price, comprising such varieties as Festiva Max- 
ima, Delachei, Achillea, Lady L. Bramwell, Couronne d'Or, 
Prolifica Tricolor, Louis Van Houtte, and various other fine 
sorts. With any order of above for $5.00 I will include one 
plant of Baroness Shroeder, free. I have the largest stock in 
America of Lady Alexandra Duff (absolutely true) and many 
other fine varieties. Send for catalogue. 

W. L. GUMM, Peony Specialist 

Remington, Indiana 




For Safe 
Tree Surgery 

The Davey Tree Expert Co. 

1204 Elm St., Kent, O. 



Davey 

Tree Surgeons 




OF FIRST importance — planting 
conditions are in both your and 
their favor. 

When Fall planted, they become 
firmly established and next Spring put 
forth a vigorous growth; which means 
quick, sure returns for your expen- 
diture. 

Then tnere is the help problem, 
which is now in your favor. As short 
as it has been, it will be shorter yet 
in the Spring; shorter and cost more. 

With the usual Fall slacking off of 
estate work, you will find more men 
available. The thought of frost and 
Winter, also makes them less inde- 
pendent. 

As for the quality of our trees, we 
will leave that to you or any expert 
you may choose to pass on them. 

We known them to be a choice lot, 
with full vigorous tops and abundant 
compact roots. 

In variety, few nurseries have as 
large an assortment, even to the rarer 
kinds. Send for our catalogue. 



Every worth while nursery 
burlaps their evergreen root 
balls nowadays. Burlapping 
is recognized as essential to 
best results. But don't lose 
sight of the fact that it's 
roots you want. Plenty of 
compact fibrous roots with 
ample clinging undisturbed 
soil about them. 



These are what we burlap. 



A Real Peony Garden $0 r a 
A Real Peony Bargain £«2i? 

12 plants, 6 good kinds, $2.50 
25 plants, 12 good kinds, 4.50 
25 plants, 12 choice kinds, 7.50 

Free blooming named varieties, our selection, 
mailing size, good value, and sent prepaid. 
Many should bloom the first year. 
Descriptive list quoting prices for express ship- 
ment sent on request. 

The Sarcoxie Nurseries Peony Fields 

Wild Bros, Nursery Co. 
Box 514 Sarcoxie, Missouri 




The Fear of Color 

Send $r.oo for our Booklet "Fear of Color. Fear of plants. 
Fear of Plants as Weeds." This Booklet will mark the 
beginning of a revolution in cultivation of soil, especially 
gardening in town and country. Onions and Carrots 1500 
to 2000 bushels per acre. No hand weeding. No hand 
thinning. The greatest single annual economic leak is the 
ignorant, careless and slovenly cultivation of soil and spacing 
of crops. Nature conserves, upbuilds and enriches soil by 
growing plants upon it. Upbuildyour soil in field and garden 
by efficiently growing and spacing crops. Let us tell you how. 
Upbuild, conserve and guard your health by growing and 
eating northern grown vegetables, highly colored northern 
grown fruits, which properly feed stomach, intestines and 
colin. Efficient field and garden hand tools, illustrated and 
uses explained, alone are worth the price of the Booklet. 
Money returned as cheerfully as taken if not satisfied. We 
do not want your money unless we fairly earn it. 

A. H. & N. M. LAKE, Box 107, Marshfield, Wis. 



Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in writing — and we will, loo 



64 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



Septembe: 



1917 



Top-Notchers j 

| Perennial ( 
| Larkspurs | 

If you like blue flowers, you 
simply must have some of 
our wonderful seedling Lark- 
spurs with their regal spikes 
six feet or more in height in 
marvelous shades of dark- m 
blue, light-blue and white. 

Special Offer 

For Immediate Planting 

To introduce our new Seed- 
ling Larkspurs, we will send 
prepaid to any address: 

1 ^ Assorted, One-Year Old d?qj 
J- « Field-Grown Clumps, *pO 

Guaranteed to bloom con- 
tinuously year after year. 

SEND FOR OUR CATALOGUE 

''PERENNIALS FOR 

FALL PLANTING" 

Charles H. Totty 

Madison New Jersey 




/O"^- COMING EVENTS -+ Q 

V9LUB ^'SOCIETY NEWe> 



W 8-9. 



20. 
20-22 
21. 
21-22 

22. 
24. 

25-27 

26-28 



28. 



Meetings and Lectures in Sep- 
tember 

{Following dates are meetings unless otherwise specified) 

1-2. Massachusetts Horticultural Society, Boston, 

Mass. Exhibition of the Products of Chil- 
dren's Gardens. 
Lenox, Mass., Garden Club. 
New Bedford, Mass., Horticultural Society. 
Lake Geneva, Wis., Gardeners' and Foremen's 

Association. 
Garden Club of Pleasantville, N. Y. 
Marshfield, Mass., Garden Club. 
Garden Club of Lawrence, L. I. Lecture: Garden 

Design and Color. 
Northern Nut Growers' Association, Annual 

Convention, Stamford, Conn. 
Pasadena, Cal., Horticultural Society. 
Dobbs Ferry, N. Y., Horticultural Society. 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society, Boston, 

Mass. Dahlia and Fruit Exhibition. 
Park Garden Club, Flushing, L. I. 
Rochester, N. Y., Florist Association. 
New Rochelle, N. Y., Garden Club. 
New York Florists' Club, New York City, N. Y. 
Short Hills, N. J., Garden Club. 
Lenox, Mass., Horticultural Society. 
Nassau Co. Horticultural Society, Glen Cove, L. I. 
Connecticut Horticultural Society, Wethersfield. 
Westchester, N. Y., & Fairfield, Conn., Horticultural 

Society. 
Minnesota, Minn., Garden Flower Society. 
Lenox, Mass., Garden Club. 

Rhode Island Horticultural Society, Providence. 
Tarrytown, N. Y., Horticultural Society 
Marshfield, Mass., Garden Club. 
American Peat Society, Minneapolis, Minn. 
Pasadena, Cal., Horticultural Society. 
California Dahlia Society, San Francisco, Cal. 

Annual Exhibition. 
Dobbs Ferry, N. Y., Horticultural Society. 
Park Garden Club, Flushing, L. I. 
American Dahlia Society in conjunction with the 

American Institute of the City of New York. 
Short Hills, N. J., Garden Club. 
School Garden Association of New York, New 

York City. School Gardens Exhibit of the 

Schools of New York. 
Connecticut Horticultural Society, Wethersfield. 
Garden Club of Lawrence, L. I. Flower and 

Vegetable Show. 

The Late M. Vilmorin 

Philippe de Vilmorin, head of the world- 
famous wholesale seed house of Vilmorin- 
Andrieux & Co., of France, died June 30th. 
He was forty-five years of age and had suc- 
ceeded his father in the able direction of the 
firm which has long been an institution of the 
greatest value to horticulture and agriculture, 
dating from 1774. It is in the production of 
the sugar beet (by Louis Vilmorin 1816-1860) 
that the most spectacular result rests, but each 
generation has labored consistently for con- 
tinued improvements in vegetables and flow- 
ers, until the very name of Vilmorin raises 
ideals of progress and standards of accomplish- 
ment that are quite unusual. Philippe de 
Vilmorin had many friends in America, and 
the writer of this note records the loss of an 
esteemed friend who was at all times ready to 
assist from the stores of his knowledge and 
experience. — L. B. 

The Dahlia Festivals 

tjXDLLOWING a season that has generally 
*■ proven quite favorable for the produc- 
tion of flowers the managers of the Ameri- 
can Dahlia Society are assured of an unusually 
representative display of blooms on the oc- 
casion of the annual exhibition to be held in 
conjunction with the American Institute at 
25 West 39th St., New York City, September 
25th to 27th. Admission is free, and the 
leading growers will have their novelties on 
view. On October 3rd the Short Hills, N. J., 
Garden Club holds its ninth annual Dahlia 
show, this time for the benefit of the American 
Red Cross. It is hoped that interested ama- 
teurs having blooms to send will communicate 
with the Secretary, Mrs. Chas. H. Stout. 




Lil. Candidum 

{Madonna Lily) 

No Lily so glorious, so 
chaste, so fragrant, and 
HARDY planted in Sep- 
tember — flowers June-July. 

Each 12 100 

Extra large bulbs $.20 $2.25 $12.50 

Monster bulbs. 30 3.00 15.00 

Delivery paid 

Send for our Fall Bulb Book. UNIQUE- 
INSTRUCTIVE. 

H.H.BERGER & CO., 70 Warren St.,N.Y. 



PROFIT and 
LEASURE 

in growing your own 
Fruit next year 



Atkinson's 

PREPARED 

Humus 

contains everything necessary for any plant and any soil 
Each Pound (with proper cultivation) will grow more than 
five lbs. of luscious vegetables 
INSURE THE LUXURIOUS GROWTH OF YOUR TREES 
AND SMALL FRUITS by fertilizing them this Fall with Atkinson's 
Prepared Humus. Cream of the Earth top dressing, will produce a fine 
putting green or lawn quicker and cheaper than by any other method. 
The original, clean, odorless Prepared Humus. Beware of imitations and 
substitutes. Apply now on lawns. Humus is universally recognized as 
being an indispensable element necessary to plant growth, b*t it is not 
a complete fertilizer by itself. The elements lacking are supplied in 
Atkinson's Prepared Humus. "Humus is the basic matter for plant 
foods. Bread without salt would be a failure; plant food without 
Humus is a JOKE." Scientific Crop Feeding, Vol. 5, No. 5. Please 
send your dealer's name with your order. Prices F. O. B. cars at ware- 
house—Bogota, N. J. 100 lbs. $3.00; 300 lbs. trial order $7.50 the ton 
rate. Price per ton $50.00, with instructions if desired.. 



M. B. ATKINSON 



Bogota, New Jersey 



SUN DIALS 

Pedestals, Gazing Globes 

Dials to order for any latitude. Guar- 
anteed to record sun time to the minute. 

Illustrated detailed information sent upon request 
Ask for Folder C-2 

E. B. Meyrowitz, Inc., 'JS/E^ST 

Branches: Brooklyn, Detroit, St. Paul. Minne- 
apolis, London, Paris. 



• J +■ J • + * J * J • 




THE BARTLETT WAY 
OF TREE SURGERY 

Means safe, sure and lasting results. 
It is backed by years of "knowing now." 
Enthusiastically endorsed by Forestry 
Schools. Representatives available 
everywhere. Send for "Tree Talk." 

THE F. A. BARTLETT COMPANY 
588 Main Street Stamford, Conn. 



DUTCH BULBS 



are coming: 



The Quality of "Diamond Brand" Bulbs of 1017 crop 
promises to be superfine! We are not so sure about the 
Quantity, but hope enough will reach us to go around. 

•jpeciai i/Hcr. j ng dabwin tulips we win 

mail 12 blooming bulbs each of CLARA BUTT, clear salmon 
pink, PRIDE OF II \ Mil i 11. deep rose shaded 
scarlet and GRETCIIEN, very light salmon. *1 
«6 fine bulbs in all, postpaid for V* 

FREE: — Treasures of Bulbland 

describes the choicest Hyacinths, Tulips, Daffodils, 
etc. Delivery in September. Write for your 
copy TO-DAY. 

NETHERLAND BULB CO., 32 Broadway, N. Y. 



Write to the Readers' Service for suggestions about garden furniture 



September, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



65 




Enlist the Berry Plants to Boost 
Next Season's Food Crops 



A few square yards of ground, a few spare hours of work in 
gather, next spring, all the berries you want, from plants 
in plants will give you an assortment of vegetables, fruits 
November. Besides fresh stuff to eat, there'll be a sur- 
plus to can. • As a "high cost of living" reducer, few 
plant collections equal our 

Home Garden Collection 
of Food Plants 

Carefully selected by our garden expert to provide A Family of Four 
with an abundance of good things to eat. Appetizing Asparagus, deli- 
cious Rhubarb and then quantities of berries, bearing in perfect suc- 
cession fruit of a quality rarely obtainable on market. Here is the 
collection we recommend: 



planting and cultivating and you may 
set out this fall! A small investment 
and berries in bearing from April to 

Every Can of Fruit Saved 

Helps the 

World 
to Victory 



100 Strawberries, Superb 

Everbearing 
24 Raspberries, Red 

Everbearing Ranere 
12 Raspberries, Yellow 

Golden Queen 
12 Raspberries, Black Cumberland 
12 Blackberries, Blowers 



24 Currants, Perfection 
12 Gooseberries, Downing 
100 Asparagus Roots, Palmetto 
6 Rhubarb Roots, Champagne 
12 Grape vines, as follows: 
2 Niagara 2 Lucille 
2 Diamond 2 Green Mountain 
2 Wyoming 2 Moore's Early 

Above collection of 320 Strong, Healthy Plants, together 
with directions how to plant and cultivate for $12* 

Will bear from April to November in 1918 

A life time's experience of varieties; over half a century's experience in the nursery busi- 
ness stand back of every plant in the collection. Definite results are assured in return 
for a reasonable amount of care, while the cost of the plants is negligible when compared 
with value of crops gathered. Join the great army of food producers NOW! 

Complete catalogue of berry plants, fruits and a most com- 
plete stock of ornamentals free. Write or order TO-DAY. , 




GLEN BROS., Inc. 



Glenwood Nursery 
Established 1866 



1819 Main St., Rochester, N. Y. 



More About Brand Peonies 



Within a few years we ex- 
pect these magnificent Amer- 
ican seedlings to outclass, in 
popular favor, most novelties 
of the old world. Their 
rugged constitution and great 
adaptability to many soils 
and climates make them the 
Peonies "par excellence" for 
American gardens. We grow 
acres of them and every 
root is 

Guaranteed 

True-to-Name 

Our careful system of hand- 
ling the plants in the fields 
assures you that you will 
receive just the kinds you 
order. By systematic testing 
we eliminate all weak or un- 
reliable kinds. This we have 
done for years with the result 
that now, our assortment con- 
tains only the top-notchers 
in every class. Francis Wil- 
lard, shown herewith, is one 
of our choicest and best. Be- 
come acquainted with all the 
rest of our collection. Write 
us TO-DAY for 

Catalogue Describing 
400 Varieties, Yours 
Free for the Asking 




Francis V/illard — a Winner 



Besides Brando glorious new seedlings we have a most complete stock of the 
newer French and English varieties. None but the choicest are given space in our 
nursery. Become acquainted by writing us to-day. Conscientious service, fair 
prices, and a square deal are assured you. 

Babcock Peony Gardens, R- F. D. No. 80, Jamestown, N. Y. 



For Autumn Planting 




rids 

Choicest 
orse'iy&Gre 

3 ro ducts 




Bobbink & Atkins= 



400 ACRES OF NURSERY 500,000 FEET UNDER GLASS 

In quality, variety and extent our 
collections are unrivalled in America 

Evergreens and Rhododendrons 

Peonies and Iris 

Hardy Old-Fashion Flowers 

Spring Flowering Bulbs 

Special Catalogue for Fall Planting on Request 
Visit nurseries only 8 miles from New York 

Rutherford, New Jersey 



Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in writing— and we will, too 



66 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1917 




iiii.il IIKiKl.iil; iilJivJi'JN.'iiifl! , !:il , ,i.i„i..il,il'i 



HHIIIIIIilBli if JIB 



Wolcott's 

for 

Hardy Plants 



sjiii:ii'iiii!j!iiiii,iiiiiiiimiiii 



Hllllllliliil)ll[fflia«I«illlI«!llilllll!lilli!li!l!ll!IIIIII!llillllllll]!IIIIIIIIIIIIIim 

Transform your shady spots into harmonious 
color pictures by colony planting of hardy primulas! 
Our stock Qf rare and beautiful kinds is unique in 
this country, both in number of varieties and quan- 
tity as well as quality of plants. Plant them this 
fall for spring bloom in your garden. 

A modest booklet describing all our plant treas- 
ures is yours free to command. Write for it. 

WOLCOTT NURSERIES Jackson, Mich. 



■■■■■Pit 1 ' I 'ilJIlillllllB 



Fairfax Roses 

Do you want an abundance of roses all 
summer? Then plant Fairfax Roses. They 
are grown slowly under natural conditions 
(not forced) will bloom the first season for 
you under ordinary care, and will be a con- 
stant delight for many years. 

Book on request giving instructions as to 
the proper method of growing roses. 



Box 



GRAY 

Oakton, Virginia 



Putting Color in the Landscape 

Evergreens provide the solid colors that lend permanency to the otherwise constantly changing 
aspect of the landscape. Add unusually beautiful tints to the permanent pictures created with 

Evergreens and the near - ideal in landscape building 
may be attained. Of all the Evergreens with effective 
colors, we best like 



i£S*fi 






**&&*-' 



Blue Spruces for 

Beauty and Symmetry 

Colorado Blue Spruce (Picea pungens glauca) varies 
in shade from light green to intense steel blue. Of uni- 
form shape and habit, reaching a height of 25 feet, when 
fully developed. Carefully selected blue seedlings, 2 ft. 
high, each $1.50; 3 ft. high, each $2.50. Koster's 
Blue Spruce is a particularly fine strain of intense 
blue, permanently retained by grafting. It is uni- 
formly more reliable in holding the color, and the needles are 
. longer. Height 20 feet when full grown. 2 ft. high, each £2.50. 

%^ A 3 ft. high, each #4.50. 

Ready for transplanting now. Plants will be carefully 
t, packed and safe arrival is guaranteed. 

Free: Treatise and Catalogue 

The treatise contains practical suggestions how to choose and 
plant Evergreens. Our complete catalogue is ready to acquaint 
you with the vast resources of our extensive nurseries, backed by 
overacentury'sexperienceinthe business. Write us TO-DAY. 

AMERICAN NURSERY COMPANY, Inc. 

800 Acres— at Flushing, L. I. and Springfield, N. J. 

Sales Office — Singer Building, N. Y. 



■ ~%.M 



IllllllllilllJlllllllI 



Willadean" 1 ™ 

Fall Planting Service 

consists of definite recommendations what 
you may plant this fall in your location, 
climate and soil. It includes the furnish- 
ing of plants, shrubs and trees, critically 
grown and handled with particular care to 
make them adaptable to fall transplanting. 
For transplanting during September we 
recommend 

Peonies, Irises and Evergreens 

These form a large part of the very complete assort- 
ment of stock growing in our nursery. Nearly 
twenty years of continued growth and better service 
have seen this nursery grow from a smaller begin- 
ning to a large enterprise supported by the loyalty 
of thousands of satisfied customers. Any plants 
that grow and thrive under the greatly varying 
conditions in our nursery, will grow well anywhere. 

Our Free Catalogue will help 

to familiarize you with our plants, their sizes and 
prices. You will .find it full of frank statements 
concerning the type of plants we offer and the kind 
of service that goes with every sale. Let us get 
acquainted! Write for your free copy of our cata- 
logue NOW! 

WILLADEAN NURSERIES 

Sparta, Kentucky 



iiiiiiiiiB 




Deming 

Water Supply 

for 

Country Homes 



32-page Bulletin of water-supply facts and installation 
suggestions gladly mailed free: describes Deming air 
pressure systems — convenient, dependable, simple — 
operated by motor, hand pump, gasoline engine or 
windmill. Write to-day to 

THE DEMING COMPANY 
119 Depot St. Salem, Ohio 



WAr-///jM>AMW^^ 



A Garden Library for a 
Dollar and a Quarter 

Bound volumes of THE GARDEN MAGA- 
ZINE represent the last word on gardening. 
It is really a loose leaf cyclopedia of horti- 
culture. You are kept up to date. Save 
your copies of THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 
and let us bind them for you. There 
is a new volume every six months, and Vol. 
24 is ready now. Send your magazines 
by Parcel Post and we will supply index, 
and bind them for you for $1.25. If you 
have not kept all of the numbers, we will 
supply the missing copies at 25c each, or 
we will supply the bound volume complete 
for $2.00. THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 
can be of more service this year than ever 
before, and you can get most out of the 
magazine when you bind it, and keep it in 
permanent form. Address: 

Circulation Department 
GARDEN MAGAZINE, Garden City, N.Y. 



The Readers' Service will gladly furnish information about Nursery Stock, etc. 



September, 191 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



67 



PlantEvergreens 





YOU will value Hicks Evergreens now because 
they make your place quiet and secluded and 
lessen the noise and dust of the street. A wall 
of green will help you to live in the country all 
winter and save the expense of a city residence. 
Evergreens 15 feet high shipped safely 1000 miles. 
Order 7107V Hicks big 20-year-old shade trees for October 
planting. Satisfactory growth g-itara7iteed. Plant ?toiv flower- 
ing shrubs and berry-bearing shrubs to attract winter birds. 
Hardy flowers in pots for immediate planting. Send to-day 
plete catalogue. 




Hicks Nurseries, SSfiBuB^ 





T egetable Lore 

What to Plant— How to Plant 

A MAGAZINE for the benefit of the 
amateur gardener. Its aim is to 
teach planting, growing and cooking of 
vegetables. An all-year companion of 
the home gardener. No advertisements 
—no high-sounding terms. Just truthful, , 
understandable advice for the happy men 
and women to whom the garden is a play- 
ground and a patriotic necessity. Full 
value to subscribers in excess of claims 
or money refunded. Issued monthly — 
sample free— §1.00 per year. 
MAURICE FULD. 1457 Broadw.y, New York 



>i'%,.:. :-':■■' 



Grow "Golden Seal" 



Dried Roots of it sell at $5 per pound and 
wholesale druggists are eager to buy them. 
"Hydrastis Canadensis" or Turmeric Root, 
also called Indian Dye, thrives from Ontario 
to Georgia and West to Missouri and 
Minnesota. 

I will ship either roots or seeds direct from my own 
gardens in the high mountains of Western North 
Carolina. "Golden Seal" will grow for anybody and 
the product is more reliable than Ginseng. For best 
results it should be planted in the fall. Write for 
price list TO-DAY. 

E. C. ROBBINS Pineola, N. C. 





Here's a photo we snapped just as the owner of the house had attained the evergreen arrangement 
above ground that he decided to make a permanent one. 




Here is the house foundation before the evergreen transformation, 
the stilted, "formidable" aspect of its barren lines 



Note 



An Evergreen Planting Suggestion 
Well Worth Following 



m 



ONE of the happy facts about evergreen 
planting is that you can know in advance 
just what effect it will give to your grounds. 
You can do as the owner of the house shown 
above did. When his Bay State evergreens 
arrived (with each root ball securely bur- 
lapped) he placed them about his foundation 
above ground. He then kept changing the loca- 
tion of this one and that one until he got an 
effect that exactly suited him. Tlten he planted. 



Had things just right at the start. 

He has the added assurance that the 
pleasing transformation he has attained will 
be a lasting one. For he knows that his Bay 
State Stock has the rugged root power, and 
the sturdy backbone to withstand rigorous 
Winters and give him continued pleasure and 
satisfaction. 

You can have that same assurance. Send 
to-day for our Hand Book of Information. 



TFvkl ^^^i^scfe-Murseries 



672 Adams Street 
North Abington, Mass. 





'THE latest word 

-*- in efficiency and 

-riiifr 1 '. 1 ^^ economy in Garden- 

and Cold-frames . . ■' — ,-, 

mg with Glass. 

Sash of all sizes carried in stock. 

Small, inexpensive, ready-made Greenhouses 
for summer delivery. 

Suntrapz — the wonder working plant boxes 
that come by mail. 

Get our Catalogue of Garden outfits. Free 

SUNLIGHT DOUBLE GLASS SASH CO. 



927 East Broadway- 



Louisville, Ky. 



Hardy Guaranteed 
Trees and Plants 

We guarantee our trees to make the growth 
the planter has the right to expect. This 
means: You plant our trees properly, give 
them due care and attention, and then if any 
of them fail to grow as you have reason to 
expect, we will replace them without charge. 
You are the judge of what you should expect. 

"Inside Facts of Profitable Fruit 
Growing" and "How to Beautify Your 
Home Grounds*' sent prepaid for 10 
cents each. 

WILLIAM P. STARK NURSERIES 

Box 498, StaAJcCiti/Jfto. 




Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in writing — and we will, too 



68 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1917 



Plant MOON'S EVERGREENS Now 



Planted early in Autumn, these artistic and 
vigorous shrubs add a distinctive atmosphere 
of beauty and refinement to your home. 
Moon's Evergreens are used extensively 
for individual or group plantings on lawns, 
near house foundations or other buildings 
on your grounds. 



They screen anything objectionable that 
otherwise would mar the attractiveness of 
the view. 

If you have an idea of the plantings you 
desire, write us for an estimate. We have a 
catalogue listing our entire selection. It is 
free. Write for it. 



Philadelphia Office 
21 South Twelfth Street 



THE ¥M. H. MOON COMPANY • Nurserymen 

Morrisville, Pennsylvania 



The Moon Nursery Corp. 
White Plains, N.Y. 



"How to 



A delightful handbook for 

rose lovers. Tells how to 

plant, prune, spray, etc. 

GrOW R0S6S Editor Barron of the Garden 

Magazine, says: "The book 

f is a very thorough round-up of what the 

^ amateur wants to know about roses." Library 

edition, 121 pages — 16 in natural colors. 

Sent postpaid for $1. Contains coupon 

worth $1 with $5 order for plants. Order now. 

CONARD Box ROSES 
& Jones Co. 24 West Grove, Pa. 

Rob't Pyle, Pres. A. Wintzer, Vice-Pres. 

Rose Specialists 
Bached by 50 years' experience 






•ris 

i. iBStW 



Beautify your home by planting a few 
evergreens. Don't wait. Every year's 
growth will add more and more to the 
attractiveness and value of your 
property. Our catalog shows you many 
beautiful varieties and gives valuable 
suggestions. Do you want a fine 
hedgerow, some flowering shrubs, 
climbing vines, roses? You will find 

these in the catalog, along with the 
best things to plant in small and large 
fruits. Be sure to write for this book 
to help you in your planning. Ad- 
dress 

The Morris Nursery Company 
Box 804 West Chester, Pa- 




TBADtMARR REG US RAZOR 



JUST WHAT YOU WANT FOR AN UP-TO- 
DATE MOVABLE POULTRY YARD 



"BUFFALO" Portable 
PORTABLE Jf Poultry Runways are 
neat and easy to handle 
and erect; simply push 
legs into ground. Made 
from 1 1 inch diamond mesh, heavy galva- 
nized wire fabric and galvanized round iron 
frames with i inch galvanized Hexagon Net- 
ting along bottom, 1 2 inches high, strong and 
durable, last a life time. Can be moved to 
other locations at will. Greatest thing on the 
market for young chicks or duckling runways or 
can be used for grown chickens, ducks, geese, 
etc., and make any size yard you wish. Can also be used 
to advantage for enclosing small vegetable garden plots, etc. 
Standard size sections as follows: 



7' long x 5' high . 
2'6" " x 5' " gate 
8' " x 2' " . 
6' " x 2' " 



Price, each section 

$3-75 

1.60 

2.00 

1.60 

F.O.B. Buffalo and are for orders con- 



~, 



.;rrtv. 



T77 T^j 

H 



Above prices effective April ist, 1917 
sisting of six sections or more. 

Sizes mentioned above can be shipped from stock immediately. Special sizes made 
to order on short notice. 

Send money order, check, New York draft or currency by registered mail and we will 
send you one of the greatest articles in existence for poultry or dog kennel purposes. 

Booklet No. 67-A will be sent upon request. 

Place a trial order to-day, we know you will be well pleased. 



ENLARGED VIEW 



BUFFALO WIRE WORKS CO. 



/ formerly 
VScheeler's Sons 



) 467 Terrace, Buffalo, N. Y. 





Looking for Something 

NEW? 

HERE IT IS! 

The UNIVERSAL PORTABLE 
SHELF hangs on a common nail, 
anywhere. Supports 20 pounds. Used 
for books, electric fans, vases, flower 
pots, lamps, clocks, and 1000 other 
things. 

Enameled white, green, mahog- 
any, tan, pink, blue, gray, gilt, etc. 

50c. Each, $5 Dozen 

Booklet Free. AgentsWanted 

THE GEORGE W. 
CLARK COMPANY 

259-L Fifth Ave., New York 



TULIP BULBS, Postpaid 

Price per ioo. Twenty-five of a kind at ioo rate, 
provided order totals ioo bulbs or more. 

Gesneriana, red . . $i.6o Kate Greenaway, faint 

Bouton d'Or, yellow . 1.20 pink $2.00 

Caledonia, orange scarlet 1.60 Mrs. Potter Palmer, dark 

Mixed Parrots, feathered purple .... 3.00 

edges .... 1.20 Bar. de la Tonnaye, pink 2.00 

Mixed May Flowering, Wedding Veil, light gray 2.00 

all colors .... 1.20 White Queen, blush 

Farncombe Sanders, red 3.00 white 2.00 

Clara Butt, salmon pink 2.00 Mixed Darwin s, all 

Mad.Bosboom, cherry red 2.00 colors .... 1.60 

As many more varieties in list. Send for it. 

0R0N0G0 FLOWER GARDENS Carthage, Mo. 



A Charming Birdbath 

of Artificial Stone 
fifteen inches square, three 
inches thick , hollowed out round 
two and one half inches deep in 
centre sloping to three-eighths 
at edge. Inexpensive, Practical, 
Artistic. 

Three for $5.50, f. o. b. Verona. Verona Bird 
Houses. Send for List. 

H. BAYLES Verona, New Jersey 




Price $2.00 



W. 



Narcissus Bulbs Ready 

Mixture, composed mainly of varieties Poericus Ornatus, P. 

Poetarum, P. Pheasant's Eye, single and double yellow Incom- 
arabilis, Stella, Barrii conspicuus, Mrs. Langtry, Dolly Cup, 
linnie Hume, with occasional bulbs of other varieties. $1.00 

per ioo, $8.00 per icoo, postage or express paid. Prices on 

larger quantities furnished on request. 



£ 



Oronogo Flower Gardens 



Oronogo, Mo. 



Reiber Bird Homes 

are always filled with birds — 
summer and winter — in summer 
for nesting — in winter for shelter. 
Reiber Bird Baths and Feeding 
Stations should occupy a place 
in every garden, school grounds, 
Park and Estate. The 

Reiber Bird Book 

describes and illustrates them — 
sent free on request. 

Reiber Bird Homes, Wes t webi*™, n. y. 




THE BEAUTY 

of Hardy Phlox can not be imagined. 
They must be seen both in color and Show. 
I have over 300 varieties. Send for list. 
W. F. SCHMEISKE 

Hospital Station, Box 11 Binghamton, N. Y. 




INGEE ftOSFS 

1 Sturdy as Oaks JWJtJl^kJ 



Dingee roses are always grown on their own roots 
—and are absolutely the best for the amateur planter. 
Send to-day for our 

"New Guide to Rose Culture" lor 1917 

—it's free. It isn't a catalog— it's a practical work on rose 

growing-. Profusely illustrated. Describes over iooo varieties 

■ of roses and other flowers, and tells how to grow them. Safe 

w delivery guaianteed. Established 1850. 70 greenhouses. 

THE D1NGEE & CONARD CO., Box 937, West Grove, Pa. 



September, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



69 




Beautify and Protect 
Your Grounds 

THIS picture shows the 
simplicity, sturdiness and 
good appearance of the Excel- 
sior Rust Proof Fence. Gives 
protection to the lawn, shrub- 
bery, flowers, etc., yet permits 
complete view from any point. 



CELSIOR 



RUST PROOF 



FENCE 

is made of heavy wires, dip- 
galvanized AFTER making. 
Wires are held firmly at every 
intersection by our patented 
steel clamps. The heavy coat- 
ing of pure zinc makes the 
whole fence rust proof and 
exceedingly long wearing. 

Ask your hardware dealer 
about Excelsior Rust Proof 
Flower Bed Guards, Trellis 
Arches, Tree Guards, etc. 

Catalogue B sent on request 

WRIGHT WIRE COMPANY 
Worcester, Mass. 




OF ALPINES AND ROCK 
PLANTS from the rugged slopes 
of the Rocky Mountains will con- 
dense more joy into a small space 
than any other style of Fall Gar- 
dening. The list includes rare and 
choice varieties of Anemone, Co- 
lumbine, Clematis, Delphinium, 
Gentian, Evening Primrose, 
Pentstemon, Yucca, Hardy Cacti, 
and many others not commonly 
cultivated, all hardy and easily 
grown. 

Besides native plants, we grow 
and catalogue all the best orna- 
mentals for the Northwest, in- 
cluding trees, shrubs, evergreens 
and hardy flowers. Either cata- 
logue free. 



Rockmont Nursery, Boulder, Colo. 



The Magic of a Summer Garden 

Is Wrought with Hardy Plants 

HARDY perennials, which live happily and improve from year to year, give 
a distinct value to the garden from spring to fall. These old plants are 
most admired when the Peonies and Delphiniums and Irises bring forth their 
splendid colors and tints. Even on a small place there is room for these 
"care-free flowers." 

If you are to have an established garden next year, plant large clumps, worth- 
while stock, this fall — next spring will be too late. 

Two Choice Subjects for the Garden 

Peonies should be planted in September; Delphiniums in October 



Six Splendid Peonies 

EACH 

Asa Gray. Pale lilac $1.00 

Achille. Mauve-rose .50 

Edulis Superba. Mauve-pink .75 

Felix Crousse. Bright red 1.00 

Mme. de Verneville. Blush white .75 

Festiva maxima. White .75 

Entire set of Six varieties $4 prepaid. Ready 
for September planting. 



Delphiniums 

The famous "Cromwell Gardens Strain" of 
select hybrids — the type that produces long, 
well set spikes. Light to dark blue. 

Mammoth 3-yr. Clumps, 50c each, $5.00 per 
dozen, $40 per 100 

Ready for October planting 



Cromwell Gardens Handbook of Perennials, Roses, Trees 

A booklet that will be of interest^to all who have a garden or greenhouse. 
Select varieties only are described and illustrated. A copy will be mailed 
to you on request. 

A. N. PIERSON, INC. 

CROMWELL GARDENS 




TOWNSEND'S 
TRIPLEX 

Floats over the uneven ground 
as a ship rides the waves 



The Greatest Grass- 
cutter on earth, cuts a 
swath 86 inches wide. 

S. P. Townsend & Co. 

23 Central Ave., Orange, N. J. 




The public is ivanted not to purchase 
'mowers infri?iging the Toiunsend Patent 
No. 1^00,510, Dec. iqth, Itjlb 



end for catalogue illustrating all 
types of Townsend mowers. 



Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in uniting — and vie will, too. 



70 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1917 




KELSEy 
HEALTH 
H E AT 



QNE of the Kelsey Health Heat 
^^ points that is a great conven- 
ience, is this one. In the early Fall, 
before you have regularly started 
the heat; or in late Spring after you 
have regularly let it go out; there 
are nippy days when just a little 
heat is a great comfort giver, and 
health helper. 

With a Kelsey you can, with a 
newspaper and a few sticks of wood, 
easily start a fire that will at once 
start tempering your rooms. 

No water to heat or boil before 
you get any heat. The minute you 
start a Kelsey, that minute the 
heat starts heating. 

It's a warm air heat. It's a fresh 
air heat. It's a moist heat. It's 
an economical heat that's noiseless, 
dustless, leakless. 

Send for Booklet. 

THE ftfcLSEV 
WARM AIR GENERATOR! 



232 James St. Syracuse, N. 

NEW YORK— 103-P Park Avenue 

CHICAGO— 217-P West Lake Street 

DETROIT— 95-P Builders Exchange 

BOSTON— 405-P P. O. Square Building 



Y. 







", 









You've Long Wanted A 
GREENHOUSE 

Here it is ready to set up, with all problems of erection so 
simple any carpenter can put it up at lower cost than you 
thought! 

Callahan 

CUT-TO-FIT 

Greenhouses 

Made and guaranteed by one of the largest houses in the 
business, so they must be right. Best materials — everlasting 
cypress. Practical for largest grower or small backyard, 
capable of expansion to any size — and at real economy figures. 

Greenhouses for Everyone — addition a £ 

our line of Callahan Sectional Greenhouses, which may be 
installed by any handy man. As artistic and complete as 
anyone could wish. 

The greenhouse can supply your family with food and flowers 
all year round, and show a handsome profit. Market gar- 
deners who have been afraid of poor construction will ap- 
preciate the Callahan quality. Write for particulars, , t 
mentioning your wants. A 




WSk 



(ffT50"PWT AHfs ■■■ <: >:■.. ?4 _ i ?-i a 5/tSTgTRC] 




IS THE ENEMY ON 
YOUR FARM? 

This is a war of endurance. 
Men and money are important 
but — food counts most. Soldiers 
who fight must eat. So must their 
dependents at home. The world 
must be fed. 

Every idle acre of reclaimable 
land on your farm aids the enemy. 
Every acre of unfilled soil de- 
prives many needymouths of food. 
The sinking of each food ship 
is a disaster, but the idle acres of 
America could grow more food 
per year than all of the enemy's 
submarines can destroy. 

Fight the enemy now, with 



RED CROSS FARM POWDER 

It is the most efficient reclaimer 
of cut over, boulder strewn or 
swamp land. It helps to solve the 
labor problem, enables one man 
to do the work of many and does 
it better and quicker. 

Get our big book free 
Learn the facts on farming 
with Farm Powder — thesafe, quick 
and efficient method. Send to-day 
for your copy of 

The Giant Laborer No- 523 F 

E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. 

Wilmington, Delaware 







■ft S||F|M| IHIOIJgfnj KgHl^AAAAIg:^ I y ft] 



"/ am reading 'The Balance* 
all over again from the begin- 
ning just to renew my youth." 

Alex. Harvey in "The Bang" 

Every bookstore has this novel 
Net $1.35. Doubleday, Page & Co. 



ft 


Winter f * 

mmmMioomine lrisesii'iiiiiiiiiii 


jl:E 


J tl 


are one of California's delightful possibil- 
ities. Planted NOW they will bloom in 
Southern California throughout winter 
and early spring. 

Iris imgiiicalaris (stylosa). A charming 

lilac-blue winter flowering Iris.jvith the most de- 
lightful fragrance. Suited to tne Southern States 
and milder portionsof the Pacific Coast. Will with- 
stand some frost and snow. Extra largeclump that 
should flower this coming winter, $1 postpaid. 

Price list of new and standard varieties of Iris 
sent upon request. 

THE DEAN IRIS GARDENS, Moneta, Cal. 




< 


igiiigiiiiiiiiigiiiiiiiDiiiiiiiiiiEiigDiJiiiii 


v * 



AMERICAN-GRo»WN 
EVERGREENS 



For September 
Planting 



Andorra 

Nurseries 

Wm. Warner Harper, Prop. 
Box 100 
Chestnut Hill 
Phila., Penna. 



OUR ability to supply 
plants of the highest 
quality is not curtailed 
by the stoppage of for- 
eign shipments. Buy 
nursery stock grown at 
Andorra. 



Our catalogue, 
"Suggestions for 
Effective Planting" 
on request. 



WHICH KIND OF PLANTS DO WU GROW? 

THE difference between the above plants is the difference between 
SUCCESS and FAILURE. Start two plants at the same time in 
the same size pots and with the same kind of soil. On one use i tea- 
spoonful of "RED-SNAPPER" Plant Food in a quart of water every 
two weeks and on the other use plain water. The result will be as 
above. Pictures tell more than words. 

"RED-SNAPPER" is not merely a stimulant but an actual plant food 
— rich and nourishing — creating a wonderful growth of foliage and 
a luxuriant profusion of flowers almost beyond all expectation. 

Order Direct if Dealer Cannot Supply Yon 
Grocers, druggists, hardware dealers and florists sell Red-Snapper 
products. If your dealer cannot supply you send us 50 cents. We 
will send a large 2-lb. can of Red-Snapper Plant Food prepaid, in- 
cluding an 8-oz. package of plant tonic to sweeten the soil and give 
plants a quick start. If you will tell us your dealer's name we will 
send you free our valuable flower booklet, "House Plants and Flower 
Gardens; Their Care and Culture." Red-Snapper Plant Food is 
sold also in 12J4 lb. sack for florists and gardeners at J1.50. 
For hungry plants use Red-Snapper Plant Food 
For sickly plants use Red-Snapper Plant Tonic 
For plant insects use Red-Snapper Plant Soap 
DEALERS — Write for Our Introductory Sales Proposition 
Dept. 15 NATIONAL, PLANT FOOD CO. (S) 

Stock on hand at following places — use nearest address: 
Generui Office, Eau Claire, Wis. Factory, Pensacola, Fla. 




NOW is the time to PLANT 

eOOTvloS 

Set out the roots now and they'll bloom next year. Peonies 
grow almost anywhere. Immense of blossom, gorgeous, yet 
delicate and refined, they add the touch of beauty no other 
flower gives. 

You may select from more than 100 varieties, including the 
magnificent new and brilliant sorts — as Therese, LaFrance, 
Marcelle Dessert, M. Cahuzac, Karl Rosenfield and dozens of 
others very rare and scarce. AH from the famous 25-acre 
Rosenfield Peony Gardens. 

FREE — booklet of varieties and valuable information on 
growth and care of Peonies — the experience of J. F. Rosenfield, 
originator and specialist for 33 years in these flowers. 

J. F. ROSENFIELD PEONY GARDENS. Box 4, Omaha, Neb. 




Peonies 

Avalanche $1.00 

Baroness Schroeder 1.00 

Couronne d'Or 50 

Due de Wellington 50 

Grandiflora Nivea Plena .75 

Karl Rosenfield 4.00 

La France 10.00 

Mme. Boulanger 1.00 

Mme Bucquet 75 

Umbellata Rosea 50 

Venus 1.00 

12 Choice Iris $1.00 

For $3.00 select $3.75 worth 
5.00 " 6.50 
" 10.00 " 13.00 
Send for list of Iris and Peonies 

GEO. N. SMITH 

Wellesley Hills Mass. 



The Readers' Service will gladly furnish information about Nursery Stock, etc. 



September, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



71 




All That Can Be Desired in 
Mechanical Skill and Artistic Effect 

In selecting a fence it is important that it harmonize 
with the architectural taste and spirit of the home and 
its surroundings. You secure both beauty and service in 

Si IRON FENCE S% 

*\J "The Standard of the Wortd"\J 

Stewart Iron Fence and Gates possess stately individ- 
uality. They add to the appearance of lawns and gar- 
dens. A Stewart Fence is economical. It will endure for 
many generations and stands for permanence and 
security. 

Get your 1917 Fence Guide Book — FREE. This 
complete catalogue will help you make suitable selection 
for residences, country estates, town houses, or public 
institutions. 

THE STEWART IRON WORKS CO., Inc. 

655 Stewart Block Cincinnati, Ohio 

"The World's Greatest Iron Fence Builders" 




The 'World's Choicest 

PEONIES 

Including all the New and Rare Varieties 

Le Cygne, Solange, Therebe, La France, Martha Bulloch, Tourange- 
lee, La Lorraine, Primevere. Rosa Bonheur, M. M. Cahuzac, Loveli- 
nes, Enchantess, Jubilee, etc. Send for new catalogue. Now ready. 

D. W. C. RUFF Globe Bldg., St. Paul, Minn. 



Relief From Rupture 

The Brooks Rupture Appliance 

has given relief in thousands of cases where 
other means have failed. Permits parti- 
cipation in activities otherwise prohibited. 
Automatic air cushion provides firm, yet 
gentle pressure. It retains the protrusion 
at all times. Always covers the ruptured 
spot. Clings closely, never slips. 

A New Invention 

Brooks Rupture Appliance is not 

a truss. No dangerous springs — no hard 
rubber pads. Made to measure. Sent 
on trial. Durable, cheap. Write for 
measurement blanks. 

BROOKS APPLIANCE CO. 

275A State Street, Marshall, Mich. 



MR. ROBERT PYLE — the well-known Garden Lecturer and 
Rosarian invites correspondence from garden lovers and societies. 
Subject — "The American Rose Garden" illustrated with finely 
colored lantern slides. Address: West Grove, Pa. 

WATERWEEDS of all kinds are easily removed from lakes, ponds, 
streams, etc., by the Submarine Weed Cutting Saw. Send for 
particulars. Aschert Bros., West Bend, Wis. 






/ 



NOW is the Time to Plan Plantings — 

whether you plant this fall or next spring! 

Trees and Plants that are adapted to Wisconsin, Illinois, Iowa and Minnesota are our 

Specialties. Varieties that are hardy here will succeed anywhere. Many things can be safely 

planted in the fall in this latitude. Some cannot. Let us advise with you regarding this. 

Our illustrated descriptive book, Hardy Fruits and Ornamentals, will be of value to you. 

Write to-day stating what line of nursery stock interests you 

The Coe, Converse & Edwards Company 



Nursery Landscape Men 



Box D, Ft. Atkinson, Wisconsin 




IAEOWAY 

POTTERY 

GIVES ENDURING CHARM 



Send for our illustrated ■— f 
'catalogue of Flower Pofs. 
Boxes,\ctses,Benches. Sundials, 
Gazing Globes, Bird Fonts and 
other Artistic Pieces for Garden 
and Interior Decoration. 

GaeowayTerraGdTfa (b. 

3214 "WALNUT ST. PHILADELPHIA, 



HROKAGE 

Farm, Garden and Orchard Tools 

Answer the farmers' big questions: How can I 
grow crops with less help? How dig potatoes ■ 
with fewer horses and men? How save every 
tuber before, the frost and in time for the best 
market? 

Iron Age Pot *? gi S? gger 




will dig your potatoes in two-thirds the usual 
time. Saves two horses for other work. Oper- 
ated by 4% H. P. air-cooled "New Way" 
Engine you can stop the Digger and the 
engine will clear the machine. Automatic 
throw-out clutch prevents breakage. Engine 
is quickly interchangeable for Iron Age En- 
gine Sprayer. We also make three other 
' styles, one of which will surely meet your 
condition. We make a full line of potato 
machinery. Send for booklet to-day. 
BATEMAN M'F'G CO. 
Box 851V (Jrenloeh, N. J. 





BE particular 
about the hard- 
ware for your 
garage. Select it as 
carefully as you 
choose "the design of 
the building. 
. For durability, 
strength, artistic ap- 
pearanceandlongper- 
fect service specify 

STANLEY 

^HARDWARE Ify 

This includes Stanley- 
Garage Door Holder No. 
1774 which locks the doors 
open, preventing injury 
to car and occupants 
while entering and leav- 
ing the garage; and Stan- 
ley Garage Bolts, Ball 
Bearing Hinges, Latches, 
etc. 

Samples o f Stanley 
Garage Hardware may be 
seen at any first class 
hardware store. 

Write to-day f r illustrated 

catalogue on Stanley 

Garage Hardware 

The Stanley Works 

New Britain, Conn., U.S A. 



New York 



Chicago 




Serviceable Attractions for Beautifying Home Grounds 

" PERGOLAS" 

Garages with Pergola Features. Lattice Fences, 

Garden Houses 

When writing enclose 10c in stamps and ask for "Cat. H-30" 

HARTMANN-SANDERS CO. 

Factory and Main Office: New York. City Office: 

21 55-87 Elston Ave., Chicago 6 East 39th Street 



HOLLAND BULBS 

Beautiful and desirable varieties 
in Darwin, and other fine 
Tulips, Hyacinths, Narcissi, Etc. 

PEONIES AND IRIS 

In Fine Clumps 

PLANT THESE NOW 

Prices not Inflated. Quality the Best 

Prompt Service 

Let Us Send Our Catalogue 

FRANKEN BROTHERS, Deerfield, 111. 



Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in ■writing — and vie will, too 



72 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



September, 1917 



. 



I PEONIES and IRIS 

Our Specialty 




A Block of Peterson's Peonies 



Our Guarantee 

We will replace with three every plant bloom- 
ing untrue to description. 

Send for descriptive price list just issued 

PETERSON NURSERY 



1033 Stock Exchange Bldg 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 




Grow Fruits Freely 

For Garden Efficiency 

America must be the food factory for the world's millions. Every acre 
ought to be a "two-cropper." Fruits are as important as potatoes and 
wheat, or corn and cabbage. Vegetables mean "one-crop gardening," 
fruits mean "two-crop efficiency," for vegetables can be grown between the 
fruit rows — and the fruits bear year after year. 

"Hoopes* Specialties" in Fruits 

For Garden and Orchard 

presents select varieties of Apples, Peaches, Cherries, Raspberries, Grapes, and other valuable 
fruits for home garden or orchard. The quality of these fruits is backed by a firm who has 
spent 63 years in growing everything needed for home and orchard planting. Send to-day for 
this useful booklet. 

HOOPES, BRO. & THOMAS CO. 

The West Chester Nurseries 

45 Maple Avenue, West Chester, Penna. 

Our salesman, who may be in your vicinity, will 
help you in your plans. Ask him, or write to us 



Use This Chest FREE 




Sent 



free 1 rial Piedmont Red Cedar 

Chest. Your choice of 90 styles and designs 
sent on 15 days' free trial. We pay thefreight. 
Piedmont protects furs, woolens, and phones 
from moths, mice, dust and damp. Distinctly 
beautiful. Needed in every home. Lasts for generations. 
Finest Christmas, wedding, birthday or graduation gift at 
great saving. IVrite to-day for our great neiu catalogue 
and reduced prices— all postpaid free. 
Piedmont Red Cedar Chest Co., Dept. 84, Statesville, N. C. 




SALAD SECRETS. 100 recipes. Brief but complete. 15c by 
mail. 100 Meatless recipes, 15c. 50 Sandwich recipes, 15c. All 
three, 30c. B. H. Briggs, 456 Fourth Ave., Newark, N. J. 

"HOW TO GROW ROSES"— Library Edition; 121 pages— 16 in 
natural colors. Not a catalogue. Price $1, refunded on $5 order 
for plants. The Conard & Jones Co., Box 24, West Grove, Pa. 



Irises, Hardy Plants, Lilies and 
Japanese Garden Specialties 



Send for our new 1917-18 Catalogue 
Over 500 fine varieties of Irises 

Rainbow Gardens 



1980 Montreal Avenue 
St. Paul, Minn. 



Have you gardening questions? If a 
plant fails, tell us about it and ask 
help from the Readers' Service. 

Beautify Furniture 

Protect Floor and Floor Coverings 
from injury by using 

Glass Onward Sliding 
Furniture Shoe 

in place of casters. 

If your dealer will not supply you 

write us. 

ONWARD MFG. CO. 
MENASHA, WIS. DEPT. T 




hdiiS^jZMgi Sfsi Underground Garbage Receiver 

i™" *-»w;.*=» MASi installed at your home — means less danger from infantile pa- 
ralysis germs. Act NOW — for your protection. Eliminate the dirty garbage pail. Be- 
fore buying send for our catalogue. It will pay you. 

12 years on the market Look for our Trade Marks Sold direct factory 

C. H. STEPHENSON, Manufacturer, 40 Farrar Street, Lynn, Massachusetts 




Garages At Wholesal 



Ready-cut or not Ready-cut. Plans free. 

Build your own. Prices $52 up. Highest grade ma- 
terials supplied complete. Prompt shipment anywhere. 
100,000 customers. Send for FREE Garage Book NOW! 2326 

Gordon - VanTineCo. 6301 c a8e street 

Satisfaction Guaranteed or Money Baefc Davenport, Iowa 



PEONIES 



Aurore 

Baroness Schroeder 
Germaine Bigot - 
Gloire de Charles Gombault 
Karl Rosenfield - 
King of England (Jap.) 
La Fayette - - - - 



Madame D'Treyeran ' 

Madame Augusta Dessert 

Madame Savreau 

M. Martin Cahuzac 

Mr. Manning 

Petite Renee 

Therese ... 



H. F. CHASE 



Catalogue on request 

Fernlea Andover, Mass. 



Tulip Bulbs Ready Now 

May-Flowering mixture contains nearly all the common varieties 
of the Cottage-Garden type, besides some higher priced novelties. 
Breeders, Bizarres, Violettes, Parrots, and a few Darwins. 80 
bulbs postpaid for $1.00, or 40 tulips and 50 narcissi. Tulips per 
1000, prepaid, $10.00. 

Oronogo Flower Gardens Carthage, Mo. 



IE DAG E' 

l_ i glue B r T ° y E! 

A HOUSEHOLD NECESSITY IOt 



OSES 2f NEW CASTLE 



— the most authoritative book on rose planting, cultiva- 
tion and pruning ever published. Beautifully printed in 
colors, this valuable guide gives special prices and tells 
all about our famous Roses, Plants and Bulbs. It's the 
lifetime experience of America's largest rose growers. 
You will be astonished at our low prices. Tells how 
we prepay express charges anywhere in the U. S. and 
guarantee safe delivery. Write to the Rose Specialists 
for your copy to-day. 

HELLER BROS. CO., Box 921, New Castle, Ind. 




SUNDIALS 

Real Bronze Colonial Designs 
From $3.50 Up 

Also Bird Baths, Garden Benches, Fountain 
Sprays and other garden requisites. 
Manufactured by 

The M. D. JONES CO. 
72 Portland St. Boston, Mass. 

Send for illustrated Price-List 


mm 

^0 











The Readers' Servicerwill give you suggestions for the care and purchase of cats and dogs and other pets 



s= 



'jgi'i'i'i'i'i'i 'i 'i'i'i'i'i-ii'i'i'i'i'i'i' i 'i'i'i'i'y'i'M'i'i'lg 

All Roses can be Planted 
Safely in the Fall 

And it's an ideal time to make a Rose garden, for the 
plants will be ready to start into growth on spring's 
first warm days. 

Hybrid Perpetuals 

Hybrid Tea Roses 

Climbing Roses 

We have the reliable and popular varieties in 2-year-old 
field plants at 30 cts. each, #3 per dozen. A few 
special sorts at a little higher price. 

Our General Catalogue 

presents Roses, Shrubs, Shade Trees and Evergreens, 
Perennials, Lilies and House Plants. Your needs 
may be supplied from this comprehensive booklet; 
write for a copy. 

Autumn Bulb Catalogue 

Late information from Holland indicated that Dutch bulbs — 
Hyacinths, Tulips, Daffodils — will come to America, and we expect 
to have our usual large quantity. Send for our list at once, and 
place your order early. We shall fill and ship just as soon as our 
bulbs arrive. 




15 East Ninth St., Dept. A, Erie, Penna. 
.Ti3lilt|il»IililiTi1«IiI»liI'liI'I'l'l'Ii|'l-li|»liM iM»l»TmTiT- 




TT'S high time that you decided how to 
*■ build that bungalow, garage or other 
much-wanted building. Will it be the 
usual plans and estimates; dirt, racket 
and extra expenses or will you let 
Hodgson help you — show you how to 
side-step building troubles? 



HODGSON""*"* 



HOUSES 




From the Hodgson Catalog you select the house you want. 
It's easy. Every style is described, pictured and priced. 
The photos show the houses completely erected and occu- 
pied. The prices are itemized— and the plans thoroughly 
marked with dimensions. 

Hodgson Houses withstand the worst winter weather 
They are made oi the best lumber— in finished, fitted and 
painted sections. Best of all. it is not much more than a 
Saturday afternoon job to erect any Hodgson House. 

If you pay 25# of the price of your house we prepare and 
hold it for you. Then you save money— and you are as- 
sured a prompt delivery. It only takes a postal to send for 
a catalog— which will save you dollars and a lot of energy 



F. HODGSON CO. 



A Touch of Summer 
In the Dead of Winter- 



Room 228, 116 Washington Street, Boston, Mass. 



6 East 39th Street. New York City 



Winter days need not be altogether cheerless; 
for the Spruces and Pines and Cedars, with deep 
green color, will bring back in memory the sun- 
shine and joy of summer. Every lawn has a 
place for one or two — or may be a dozen — large 
size evergreens. 

Koster's Blue Spruce. Dignified conical form, beautiful 

foliage of intense silvery blue; a desirable evergreen 
for the home grounds. When grouped with trees of 
dark green, or golden foliage the effect is wonderful. 
2 to 3 feet, $3 each; 3 to 4 feet, $5 each; 5 to 6 feet, 
$7.50 each. 

lyOrWCiy OpTUCe. Foliage deep green; branches drooping; 
compact, and useful for windbreaks and screens. 
Perfect specimen trees, 2 to 3 feet, $1 each; 3 to 4 feet, 
$1.50 each; 5 to 6 feet, $3 each. 

American Arbor Vltae. Pyramidal in form; foliage bright 
green, turning to bronze. A good evergreen for 
masses, hedges, or specimens. 8 feet, sheared speci- 
mens, $7.50 each; $70 for 10. 9 to 10 feet, $9.50 each. 
$90 for 10. 

Special prices on large quantities 

Come to my nurseries and select your trees. I will welcome you any day 
except Stmday. Ask for a copy of my booklet of evergreens, shrubs, and 
hardy plants. 



ADOLF MULLER 



DeKalb Nurseries 



Norristown, Penna. 



WING'S PEONIES 

Our collections include the best distinct varieties, all standard 
sorts and many new novelties. Now is the time to plant. 



k^^HLr- ^ *\j 




^w 




Yy' \ 




• /' ^ ■ 


ft 




■'^ 


w 4 


pWjfca..,. 1 • * 


^Hii i» 


HIT ■ 


liftf ^ - 


'■■■ &P* :■ % < 


BL -^* 



Following are just a few representative varieties: 



COLLECTION A 

Dr. Bretonneau (Verd.), rose $ .35 

Faust, Hydrangea pink .35 

Fragrance. Solfcrino red .25 

Duohesse D'Orleans, salmon .25 

Louis Van Houtte, deep rose .35 

Officinalis Rubra Plena, crimson .25 

Duchesse de Nemours, pure white .50 

Mme. Moutout, bright rose .50 

Mareehal Vaillant, mauve pink .50 

Alexander Dumas, violet rose .50 

$3.80 
Entire Collection A for $3.25 

Our Catalogue describes over 150 varieties. Send for copy 

THE WING SEED CO., Box 2626, Mechanicsburg, Ohio 



COLLECTION B 

Augustin d'Hour, dark solferino 
Boule de Niege, crimson 
Mary Holley, rosy magenta 
TJmbellata Rosea, amber white 
Mme. Bucquet, dark crimson 
Edulis Superba, mauve rose 
Duchesse de Nemours, white 
Floral Treasure, lilac rose 
Mme. Calot, hydrangea pink 
Princess Beatrice, violet rose 



i .75 
.75 
.75 
.75 
.75 
.50 
.50 
.50 
.50 
■50 

6.25 



Entire Collection B for $5.00 




On the high roaa 

between Athlone 

and Mtdlingar, 

Ireland 



John M c Coraiacks first audience 

The Irish lad who ran away to be a minstrel 
and grew up to be a world -famed artist 

A boy nine years old stood at a street corner on a "fair day'' in Athlone and 
listened to an old fiddler and ballad singer. The first thrill of romance surged 
in the boy's veins. When the wandering minstrel struck out for the next town, 
the lad trudged blissfully by his side, with boyish indifference to the home folks 
beside the river Shannon. Two days later the boy's frantic parents overtook 
him at Mullingar. He got no "licking" — only a mother's blessing and the tears 
of those who heard him sing "Molly Brannigan," the first ballad he ever learned. 

Thus did John McCormack take his first journey on the high road to Fame. 
Today the minstrel-boy has grown into a world-famed artist, a singer renowned 
in every land. His first wayside audience of country folks has swelled to vast 
audiences filling the great auditoriums in the capitals of the world and to that 
still mightier host who know and love him through his Victor Records. 

John McCormack makes records for the Victor exclusively. With the artist's 
sure instinct, he knows and appreciates Victor Supremacy. 

Hear the McCormack records at the nearest Victor store. 
Victor Talking Machine Co., Camden, N. J., U.S.A. 

Berliner Gramophone Co., Montreal, Canadian Distributors 

Victor Supremacy 






. ■ ■ 



THE COUNTRY LIFE PRESS, GARDEN CITY, NEW YORK 



STORING FOR WINTER 

The GARDEN 

MAGAZINE 



October 1917 



Price 25c 



In This Issue: 



WHAT WAR GARDENS HAVE DONE FOR THE COUNTRY 
MESSAGE FROM THE FOOD ADMINISTRATION 
USING FRUITS AND VEGETABLES WISELY 
k FOOD FROM THE GREENHOUSE 




y* 



23SI2 




Trillium erectum (Beth Root;, roc. each, 
$1.00 per dozen, $5.00 per hundred. 



'%. ' : V^ 



t 




Mertensia Virgin ica ( Virginia Cow- - 
lip), 15c. each. Si .50 per dozen, " 
per hundred. 



Z3 



B 



rt~ 



Cow- ' f 

°3 



is 



\ 



% 



Direntra canadensis (squirrel corn), " 

loc, each, $1.00 per dozen. $5.00 per '■ 

hundred. 



Plant Ferns and Flowers Now 

BEAUTIFY the shady corners around 
the house, the bank by the brook, or 
that strip of woods. 

Hardy Ferns and Flowers planted now 
will grow robustly and flowers will reward 
you by blooming earlier next year. 

Wild Flowers, Hardy Ferns, Bog and 
Aquatic Plants are included in our special 
Fall Offers for fall planting. Nearly all of 
the plants growing in my nursery can be 
transplanted in the fall with full assurance 
that they will grow. 

Send for the 
Gillett Catalog 

Its 80 pages are profusely illustrated and de- 
scriptive of many unusual plants. Its advice about 
each fern, flower or shrub and its soil information 
make it invaluable to the nature lover. Sent free 
— it contains many special fall offers. 

Each year for 35 years, I have satis- 
fied an increasing number of patrons. 
Send for catalog today. 

EDWARD GILLETT 

Hardy Fern and Flower Specialist 
3 Main Street South wick, Mass. 




i 




^ _J^;: 

^ tAnxitilM triphyllmn ( la, k in th 



pit), IOC. each, 

S6.00 per hundred. 



j \\ — 4f r 




Erythronium Americanum fAdders Z 
tongue), 10c. each, Ji.oo per dozen, ; 
~' 00 per hundred. 




October, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



73 



Why Wait Till Spring 




Now is the best time 
to plant most of 

the Hardy 
Perennial Plants 

We devote many acres 
to the cultivation of 
this charming class of 
plants, our collection 
being one of the most 
complete in America. 



Some of our specialties: — 
IRISES 

LARKSPURS 

PAEONIES 

PHLOXES 
We also have a very complete list of Conifers and 
other Hardy Shrubs. 

Write for a complimentary copy of our Autumn Catalogue. 

R. & J. Farquhar & Co. 

9 South Market Street Boston, Mass. 



immmnninmniiTmiip nitniHB 



Fruit the Year Around 

from your own garden 

and that garden need not be any larger than 75 feet square! Think of 
gathering delicious cherries, luscious pears and plums, fragrant quinces 
and the finest apples right in their ' prime, fresh from your own trees. 
Fresh fruit from early in June until February, canned fruits until the new 
crops come — to help you materialize all this, we offer 

OO Standard and Dwarf Trees d*1 O 
*j£* Each a Specimen of its Kind <plfci 



There are 2 
"Everbearing" 
Apple Collections, 
twelve trees all 
told; 1 "All-Sea- 
son" collection of 
6 Dwarf Pear 
Trees of fruiting 
size; 2 Crab 
Apples; 2 sour and 
4 sweet Cherries, 
in black, red and 
white kinds; be- 
sides 4 Plums, 1 
Prune a'n d 1 

Quince Tree. In its entirety this 
assortment stands for all the fresh 
fruits, jellies, jams and preserves 
the average family can eat. Circu- 
lars on varieties free on request. 




Every tree in 
this assortment is 
as fine a specimen 
as we know how 
to grow. It has 
taken us several 
years to get 
ready to make 
this offer. Our 
fruit expert took 
care of it that 
the kinds in- 
cluded are the 
choicest for the 
home garden, 
assuring high - quality fruit in 
large quantities at the earliest 
possible moment after planting. 
This is the month to set them 
out. 



Plan "How to Plant Them" Free 

A complete blue print of above assortment of fruit trees, most advantageously placed in a 
square plot and most logically arranged in smallest possible space, will be supplied with 
each shipment. 

Our large catalogue offering a complete assortment of all worth-while fruits and ornamentals 
free for the asking. Over fifty years' experience and a strong reputation for fair dealing 
stand back of every plant, shrub or tree you get from us. Write or order NOW. 

GLEN BROTHERS, Inc., Established 1866, Glenwood Nurseries, 
1820 Main Street Rochester, N. Y. 




PEONIES AND PEONY LOVERS 

Here are two collections that will be appreciated by folks who are not in the "fan- 
cier" class and yet like to have some peonies of which they can be proud. Both are 
great bargains at prices given which are much lower than the average market value. 



BAKGA1X COLLECT I OX 


POPULAR COLLE 


CTION 


Achille 


$0.40 


Alexander Dumas 


$0.50 


Airida 


.40 


Berlioz . . 


.50 




.40 


Boule de Neiee 


.50 


Charlemasne 


.40 


Festiva Maxima 


.50 


Duchcsi de Kemours 


.40 


Jennv Lind 






.40 


La Tiilipe 


.50 






Madame Calot . 


.50 


Ilnmei 


.40 


Mile. Juliette Dessert 


.50 


L'Indispensnble 


.40 


Monsieur Krelaire 


.50 


Madame do Terneville 


.40 


Princess Beatrice 




Mile. Desbuissons . 


.40 


Pnrpuren Snperba . 








Triomphe du Nord . 


.30 


Total 


$4.80 


Total 


$0.00 


Aut si* for $2.00; the 1 


2 Bareain 


Anr six for S2.50: the 1 


2 Popular 


Collection tor $3.50. 




Collection for $4.o0. 





"Peonies for Pleasure' 



This book of "Peonies for Pleasure" gives you in- 
formation on "Peony History," "Nomenclature," 
"Six Points of Excellence," "A Month of Peonies," "The Lure of the Peony," "An Appreciation." 
about Peony culture, soil, drainage, fertilizers and how to apply; planting time and how to plant: va- 
rieties for cut flowers; how to grow exhibition flowers. This book describes over two hundred of the 
choicest kinds. If you want information on the plant that stands next to the Rose in beauty that is 
practically known to the amateur as simply a red, white and pink Peony, then send to-day for 
"Peonies for Pleasure." 

The largest Kose Growers 
In the IVorld 



THE GOOD & REESE CO 

Box 44, Springfield, Ohio 



i:!i , ;::.i.iJ!ti!Lii.'!L!! , ;i:i | -::!!::i , : , ;!i:i"::.;! 



:,;:," 



Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in writing — and we will, too 



74 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1917 




its Darwin 



PLANT q$& 
THE BULBS p^ 
THIS FALL 



Cottage Tulips 




for 

planting 
Vaughan's 



THESE majestic tulips are without a rival in Spring flowers. Their adaptability 
to our American climate due to their hardiness and vigor, their stately bearing 
and exquisite shades make them now the most extensively planted of all spring- 
flowering bulbs. Planted in beds, in clumps among perennials, or bordering shrubs, 
their effect in May is beautiful beyond belief. 

During our forty years of dealings in every bulb growing 
district of the universe we have worked up a successful 
and reliable business connection, strengthened by periodical 
visits of a representative, and latterly a yearly visit to the 
war-burdened bulb districts of Europe. This should satisfy 
our readers that our efforts to please have been worked 
to the limit, and proven by our thousands of constant cus- 
tomers. Last year when many firms disappointed on deliv- 
eries, Vaughan's Seed Store were there on time, and with full 
quantities. These are big reasons for placing your order here. 



Twelve Splendid Late Tulips 



DARWIN VARIETIES 



( 



BARTIGON. (24 in.) Glowing crimson scarlet, vigor- 
ous, lasts well in sun, very highly recommended. 
Doz., 50c; per 100, $3.50; per 1000, $30.00. 
MASSACHUSETTS. (25 ins.) Deep rosy pink petals, 
with lighter edge. Long cup-shaped blooms on 
stout stems. A splendid pink, recommended. 
Doz., 50c; per 100, S3. 00; per 1000, $25.00 
CLARA BUTT. (20 ins.) Clear salmon pink, with 
lighter edges. We know no better tulip of its color. 
Doz., 30c; per 100, $2.00; per 1000, $17.00. 
WHITE QUEEN. (22ins.) Pale blush, changing with 
age to almost pure white. An exquisite and indis- 
pensable flower. 

Doz., 45c; per 100, $2.60; per 1000, $23.00. 
REV. H. EWBANK. (20 ins.) Deep lilac, toning to pale 
lavender. Lasts splendidly; a collection is incom- 
plete without it. 

Doz. 50c,; per 100, $3.00; per 1000, $27.00. 
ZULU. (23 ins.) Violet black, reflecting a glistening violet 
sheen. Effective when contrasted with lighter shades. 
Doz., 90c; per 100, S6.00; per 1000, $55.00. 

(Above prices do not include pre-payment) 
No. 1. — Special Prepaid Offer for the above Six 



COTTAGE VARIETIES 

MRS. MOON. (30 ins.) Golden yellow pitcher- 
shaped bloom; tall, upright, sweetly perfumed. 
Doz., 65c; per 100, $4.50; per 1000, $40.00. 

THE FAWN. (20 ins.) Pale yellowish fawn color, 
combined with rosy lavender and pale blush mar- 
gin. Doz., 50c; per 100, $3.25; per 1000, $28.00. 

EMERALD GEM. (18 ins.) Bright orange-scarlet, 
with sea-green base, margined yellow. Sweet 
scented and very late. 
Doz., 50c; per 100, $3.50; per 1000, $30.00. 

FAIRY QUEEN. (22 ins.) Rosy-heliotrope, blending 
to rosy-lavender, with yellow margin. Inside 
purplish mauve and yellow. 
Doz., 50c; per 100, $3.25; per 1000, $27.00. 

GLARE OF THE GARDEN. (18 ins. ) Glowing crim- 
son scarlet, dazzling in sunlight; best late tulip of 
its color. Doz., 65c; per 100, $4.50; per 1000, $40.00. 

COLUMBUS (Gala Beauty). (18 ins.) Golden yellow, 
feathered and splashed with crimson stripes. A 
striking combination of colors. Sweet scented. 
Doz., $1.70; per 100, $13.00; per 1000. $110.00. 

(Above prices do not include pre-payment) 

No. 2. — Prepaid Offer for the above Six 

12 of each (72 bulbs) all named for $4.75. 



12 of each (72 bulbs) all named for $3.25. 

No. 3 — The Two Collections Prepaid for $7. SO Free Catalog with each order. 

The above offers are suojece to saje arrival of bulbs from abroad 

Write for Complete Autumn Catalog, (56 pages) ; mailed free everywhere. 

There are many beautiful bulbs and plants, which can only be planted successfully in the fall, that are often 
overlooked by those who do not realize the importance of Autumn-planting. Our Catalog is a complete and help* 
ful guide for this important season. Write today. (Mention Garden Magazine.) 

a SSS"-?&"' VAUGHAN'S SEED STORE 31 " 33 ?hE?I2°o 1p1 ' St - 




his Nurseries 



Now is the time for fall plant- 
ing. Send your order promptly, 
and plant so roots will get set 
and trees be ready for an early 
start in the spring. Our latest 
catalog shows evergreens in 
large variety, hedge plants, 
shrubs, climbers, roses, shade 
trees and the best of everything 
in large and small fruits. 

A fine book, full of helpful sug- 
gestions. Write for it to-day and 
don't delay sending order. 
THE MORRIS NURSERY CO. 
Box 804 
West Chester, Pa 




Hardy Guaranteed 
Trees and Plants 

We guarantee our trees to make the growth 
the planter has the right to expect. This 
means: You plant our trees properly, give 
them due care and attention, and then if any 
of them fail to grow as you have reason to 
expect, we will replace them without charge. 
You are the judge of what you should expect. 

"Inside Facts of Profitable Fruit 
Growing" and "How to Beautify Your 
Home Grounds" sent prepaid for 10 
cents each. 

WILLIAM P. STARK NURSERIES 
Box 498, StWlJcCity/fto. 






Moon's Nurseries 

THERE must be a place 
on your lawn for Lilacs. 
MOON'S Lilacs are not com- 
mon Lilacs — they are varied in 
form and color. They include 
recent productions of famous 
hybridizers and old familiar 
sorts that are most dependable. 

No modern lawn is complete 
without Lilacs. You need them 
as individual specimens; in the 
shrubbery border; in the foliage 
screen that hides ugly views — 
they are valuable in nearly every 
kind of permanent planting. In 
addition to these indispensable 
attributes they add a crowning 
virtue of fragrant blossoms in 
May — blossoms that are quite as 
useful for cutting for bouquets as 
for beautifying the lawn. 

Autumn is the best time to plant 
Lilacs. Write us about these and 
the other hardy trees and plants 
we offer for every place and pur- 
pose. Send for Catalogue A-3. 

The fm. H. Moon Co. 

NURSERYMEN 
Morrisville, Pennsylvania 



I 



Philadelphia Office 
21 S. Twelfth Street 



The Moon Nursery 
White Plains, N 





Iris and Phlox 



With a selection from the choice varieties 
listed in my Hardy Plant booklet, you can 
have flowers from spring until frost. This 
fall is the time to set Iris and Phlox, for, if 
you do so, they will bloom next year. 
If you cannot come in person to select 
your plants, send your name and ad- 
dress for a copy of the booklet. 

Adolf Miiller n^Is^rMs 

Norristowrv.Pervna. 



The Readers' Service will gladly furnish information about Nursery Stock, etc. 



October, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



75 




We class the following 
among the most meritorious 
of our recent acquisitions: 

New and rare plants of unusual charac- 
ter have always found a hearty welcome 
in this nursery. Because of the exact- 
ing requirements of our vigorous climate, 
only the sturdiest survive. Those that 
prove adaptable here, thrive most any- 
where. 

Lonicera Maacki podocarpa. This noble 
upright growing form of Honeysuckle was first 
brought to The Garden Magazine Reader's at- 
tention through the Wilson articles. It attains 
a height of from ten to fifteen feet, with a spread 
of equal dimensions . The tips of the highly or- 
namental foliage are of a curious shade of light 
bronze. Adorned by groups of scarlet berries 
late in the season. Well-grown plants $1.00 
each. 

Berberis Wilsonae. A most charming form 
of the newer Barberries, introduced by Mr. Wil- 
son from the Chino-Thibetan border. Has 
gracefully pendulant, twiggy branches, the gray 
green leaves of which assume beautiful tints in 
the fall. Yellow flowers are succeeded by loads 
of round brilliant salmon colored berries. Well- 
grown plants $1.00 each. 

Malus Sargentii. One of the handsomest 
of all the Flowering Crabs, of dwarf habit. 
Flowers pure white in immense numbers succeed- 
ed by a brilliant display of fruits. One of the 
most beautiful shrubs in cultivation. Strong 
plants $1.00 each. 

We also offer a most excellent lot of Rigida, Scotch and 
Austrian Pines in different sizes at fair prices. An inquiry 
will bring full particulars concerning any or all of above 
plants. 

Digging and packing done with 
greatest care 

Prompt shipments guarantee early and 
safe arrival 

Unusual Catalogue of Unusual Plants 
For the Asking 

A copy of our Catalogue is ready for every reader of 
Garden Magazine. May we mail you yours? 

MOUNT DESERT NURSERIES 



Bar Harbor 



Maine 



"HOW TO GROW ROSES"— Library Edition; 121 pages— 16 in 
natural colors. Not a catalogue. Price Si, refunded on $5 order 
for plants. The Conard & Jones Co., Box 24, West Grove, Pa. 

MR. ROBERT PYLE— the well-known Garden Lecturer_ and 
Rosarian invites correspondence from garden lovers and societies. 
Subject — "The American Rose Garden" illustrated with finely 
colored lantern slides. Address: West Grove, Pa. 



Plant Evergreens Now 





T~)ON'T wait till next 
Spring. This is the 
ideal time. 

Good full rooted, plump top- 
ped trees cost so little more 
than poor ones, why not have 
them. 

Send for evergreen 
Help Hint Booklet. 



Julius* "r^gekrS 4 Cor 
At Th» Si f n of Tho Treg 



(lierford N.J. 







m 




9s limely lopics 

October-made Gardens 

and practical suggestions, what kinds to make 

Is fall planting of gardens practical? Decidedly! And, what is more important, some kinds of 
garden must be made this month or not at all until next fall. Most bulbs, kept out of the ground until 
spring, will lose their vitality and blooming power. For this reason, bulb gardens must be made now. 

The suggestion to plant flower and vegetable gardens this fall is a rather radical departure. 
Yet, the idea is thoroughly practical. Best of all, by making gardens this fall, valuable time 
is gained in the spring when all work is rushing. 

Bulb Gardens for 
Outside and Indoors 



The question of getting Hyacinths, Tulips, etc., 
from Holland this fall is getting more compli- 
cated every day. At this writing the outlook 
is very uncertain. As a matter of protecting 
yourself, let us urge you to write us at once, 
stating your needs. If the bulbs come, those 
who ordered first will be served first. Complete 
Catalog of our own importations sent on request. 




NATURALIZED DAFFODILS 



Daffodils or Narcissi are among the most 
charming flowers for outdoor gardens. Plant 
them in irregular clumps among your shrubbery 
or in pairs, in the house. 

Daffodils, Six Select Sorts, extra fine bulbs. 
Six bulbs each, six varieties, 36 bulbs in all, 
$1.50 postpaid. 

Roman Hyacinths are ready for shipping 
right now ! They came from France and are 
the earliest to bloom. The loosely disposed 
flower trusses are exceedingly fragrant. They 
are grown mostly in soil, 5 to 6 bulbs to a six 
inch pot or pan. Planted at once they will bloom 
around Christmas. White, $1.25 per doz., 
#8.00 per 100. 

Narcissus, Giant Paper White, are another French con- 
tribution to our indoor .winter gardens. Generally grown 
from 6 to 8 in a shallow glass dish, with bulbs placed among 
pebbles. They bloom for anybody. 

Large Bulbs, 5c. each; 50c. per dozen; $2.75 for 100. 

per 100. 



Large Bulbs, 5c. each; 50c. per dozen; $2.75 fc 
Jumbo Bulbs, 10c. each; 75c. per dozen; $3.50 

Sweet Peas to Sow NOW 
For Extra Early Flowers 

The article on page 47, September Garden 
Magazine should prove to home gardeners that 
the advent of special strains of Sweet Peas is 
revolutionizing the culture of that flower. Pre- 
pare right now to surprise your neighbors. 
By planting any of the following sorts this 
month, you can gather flowers 4 weeks before 
spring planted Sweet Peas bloom. 





Sow these early, large -flowering Spencer 
Hybrid Sweet Peas this Fall: — 

Early Snowflake, best early white 
Early Songbird, lovely pink, tinted salmon 
Early Melody, a rose pink, very free flowering 
Early Spring Maid, light pink on creamy ground 
Early Heather Bell, beautiful mauve lavender 

Any of the above 20c. per packet of 25 seeds. 

In addition, 7 distinct and beautiful Australian varie- 
ties are described in our special fall catalogue. Please 
ask for it. 

Roots to Plant 
Now, for Food 

A small investment in roots, a 
few boxes with soil or sand, a 
few hours' work and you may 
gather delicious winter salads 
right from your own cellar. 

Witloof Chicory or French 
Endive has made remarkable 
progress in popular favor in re- 
cent years. The roots are 
"forced" to yield delicate 
sprouts as shown alongside. A 
delicious salad. Extra-selected 
roots, 10c. each; $1.00 per doz.; 
$7.00 per hundred. Directions 
how to force them in our free 
catalogue. 

Sea Kale is another unusual 
winter vegetable of exceptional 
quality. The sprouts, grown 
like chicory, are cooked and 
served with drawn butter. Ex- 
tra-selected Forcing Roots at 
same prices as Witloof Chicory. 

Asparagus Roots for forcing, 
best white or green sort, $1.50 
per dozen; $10.00 per 100. 

Rhubarb Roots, extra fine 
clumps of Giant Crimson Winter, 
25c. each; $2.50 per dozen. 

Vegetable Seeds 

Suitable for Fall Sowing 

Whether you plan to plant a 
vegetable garden outdoors or 
under glass, you will find us in 
a position to supply you just 
the sorts needed for different 
purposes. Here are a few of 
our special strains. 

Carrot, Early French Forc- 
ing, pkt. 15c.; oz. 30c. 

Lettuce, May Fung, best early head, pkt. 5c. ; oz. 20c. 

Peas, Prolific Early Market, ' 2 pt. 20c; pt. 30c 

Radish, French Breakfast, pkt. 5c. ; oz. 10c 

Spinach, New York Market, pkt. 10c; oz. 20c 

See catalogue for complete lists. 

Stumpp & Walter Service in Seeds, 
Bulbs and Plants is Complete 

Our establishment stands for much more than selling 
plants, bulbs and seeds at popular prices. What the 
things we sell will do for you, interests us quite as 
much as your original order. In order that our business 
may live and grow, our seeds and bulbs must do well for 
you! Back of everything we send out stands the cum- 
ulative experience of men who have been seedsrnen all 
their lives ! You are assured of intelligent and conscien- 
tious service every time you send an order to 

30-32 Barclay Street 
New York 



Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in writing — and we will, too 



9mm 



76 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1917 



1 




With every Bay State Shrub 
comes a compact fibrous mass of 
vigor-giving rootlets. This 
strong root-growth means strong 
well-formed top-growth. 



Here is an interesting "link-up" effected with Bay State Shrubs. 
Note how the house seems to "blind" into the grounds 

State Shrubs 
Will "Link Up' 
Your House With Your Grounds 
Plant Them This Fall 

DOES your house look as if it really belonged to your grounds? 
Or has it a certain "detached" aspect to it? 

If the latter is the case, the chances are that what is lacking is 
a "link-up" — something to "tie it to" your grounds, as it were. 

Bay State Shrubs will do that very thing. Planted about your 
foundations, their own gracefulness will soften its lines and do 
away with all evidences of an obvious boundary where "grounds 
leave off and house begins." The effect will be one of pleasing 
consistency and perfect "one-ness." 

Be it shrubs, shade trees, evergreens or what-not, you can depend 
on. the Bay State stock you plant. Because every plant must stand 
the rigorous test imposed by our long, hard, New England Winters, 
before we sell it, Bay State stock has well merited its reputation 
for thriving where other stocks fail. 

Give your stock a valuable head start by planting it this Fall. 
Send now for our Handbook of Information. 



i 



Trvs. B^SjacJ<4|^rs<m<?s 



672 Adams Street 
North Abington, Mass. 




m 



M 




Why are You 

Going Away? 

Because you wich to find peace and rest from the troubles and 
anxieties of the present moment? Where can you find more 
peace of mind and comfort of soul than in your own garden? Now 
is the time to plant things which next year will transform the 
home grounds into a wonderland of new delights from which you 
will be loath to go away. Few factors hold greater surprises than 
the unusual among the hardy plants. We grow many by the 
thousands of some we have but a few. 

A Helpful Catalogue 

awaits your call. In its own modest way, it will acquaint you 
with our hardy plant specialties, many of which are not obtainable 
elsewhere in this country. Please write now! 

WOLCOTT NURSERIES Jackson, Mich. 



TOWNSEND'S TRIPLEX 

The Greatest Grass Cutter on Earth 
— Cuts a Swath 86 Inches Wide 

Drawn by one horse and operated by one man, the 
TRIPLEX MOWER will mow more lawn in a day than 
the best motor mower ever made, cut it better and at 
a fraction of the cost. 

Drawn by one horse and operated by one man, it will 
mow more lawn than any three ordinary horse-drawn 
mowers with three horses and three men. i 

Send for catalogue illustrating all types of 
TOWNS END MOWERS 

S. P. TOWNSEND & CO. 

23 Central Ave. Orange, N. J. 



Before Pruning 
Get This Book 

It is a practical guide to right pruning. 
"The Little Pruning Book" will tell you 
how, when and where to prune your trees 
and shrubs for vigorous and healthy 
growth. It contains eleven chapters of 
sound pruning and pruning shear advice. 
Clipping is work at best but nothing 
comes nearer making a pleasure of it than 
Pexto Pruning Shears. You'll find them 
at your dealers. Look for the Pexto Tool 
Displays when you want tools of any kind. 

Send to-day for our free circular, or better still 
send 50 cents for a copy of the book. Your money 
will be refunded if it is not satisfactory. 

The Peck, Stow & Wilcox Co. 

MFRS. Mechanics' Hand Tools, Tinsmiths* 
and Sheet Metal Workers' Tools and Ma- 
chines, Builders' and General Hardware. 
Southington, Conn. Cleveland Ohio 

Address correspondence to 2lS6lV.3rdSt., Clevela7id, O 




PRUNINC SHEARS 

The Readers' Service gives Infor- 
mation about Gardening 



Now for 1918! 



JROMAGE 



Now that the crops are gathered, 
it's time to take stock and prepare 
for an even better garden next year. 

Garden 
Tools 

will make your work a lot easier and 
enable you to accomplish more in 
less time. 38 combinations. 
Write to-day for free booklet. 

BATEMAN M'PG CO. 
Box 35C Grenloch, N. J. 



The Readers' Service is prepared to help you solve your gardening problems 



October, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



77 




LB.* 



UUP 



C7 



■ ■LkI 




Cover Design — The Harvest is Gathered 

/. P. Verrees 

PAGE 

Among Our Garden Neighbors ----- 79 

Regarding "Peonies That Fit" — Habenarias This 
Season — A Battlefield of a Year Ago — European 
Grapes for America — Two Fruiting Shrubs for the 
Home Garden — A New Method of Wintering Celery 
— Beans on Strings — Fall Sown Sweet Peas — Leaders 
of the Societies. 

The Month's Reminder -------- 81 

Keeping It When You've Got It* F. F. Rockwel 83 

Photographs by W. C. McCollom 

Making Next Year's Garden Soil Better 

H. F. Button 86 
Using Fruits and Vegetables Wisely* - - 87 

Illustrations by the United States Department of 
Agriculture 

"Bog" Gardening with Native Plants 

Norman Taylor 89 
Photographs by the author and the Brooklyn Bo- 
tanic Garden 

One Successful "War Garden" Effort - - 91 

Photographs by W. C. McCollom 

The Patriotic Garden -------- 93 

Message from The Food Administration — Gardens 
Add $100,000,000 to Nation's Wealth — Present 
Sowing for Extra Early Crops — Orders of the Day 

Photographs by Nathan R. Graves and W. C. 

McCollom 

Food From the Greenhouse This Winter 

W. N. Craig 97 
Photographs by W. C. McCollom 

High Pressure Vegetable Gardening 

R. E. Allen 100 
Society Notes and News ------- 102 

Some Bulbs Assured --------- 104 

Vegetables Planted m Autumn 

Samuel H. Garekol 106 
For the South ----- J.M.Patterson no 

"These articles have received the approval of the Food Adminis- 
tration of the United States. 



Why Not Bind Your Magazines? 
Bound volumes of The Garden Magazine give you an 
up-to-date Cyclopedia of Horticulture. Six numbers to 
the volume. Index supplied Free. The cost is only $1.25, 
when you send back your loose copies. 

LEONARD BARRON, Editor 








Published Monthly, 25c. a copy. Subscription, Two Dollars a Year. 
For Canada, $2.35; Foreign Countries, $2.65. 

COPYRIGHT, IOI7,BY 

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY 

GARDEN CITY, N. Y. 
F. N. DOUBLEDAY, President c A EVERITT, Treasurer 
ARTHUR W. PAGE, ,,,«r n nm RTTnAV 

HERBERT S. HOUSTON, RUSSELL DOUBLEDA*, 

Vice-Presidents Secretary 

Entered as second-class matter at Garden City. New York 
under the Act of Congress, March 3, 1879 



;>£«£ 

ill! 



1 B I 






The workroom and adjoining single house were erected for Oliver Iselin, at 
Glen Head, L. I. Later the large house with its connecting passage was added 

GREENHOUSES 

Planning with an Eye to the Future 

SO DELIGHTFUL, so altogether satisfactory are the 
pleasures of greenhouse possessing, that invariably 
the man who starts with a one compartment house, 
33 feet long, soon wants one with two. 

The two compartment owner finds himself looking with 
pleasure towards one of four or more. 

So strongly established is this phase of greenhouse owning, 
that we long ago adopted the method of always planning for 
possible future additions, when laying out and locating one of 
our houses. 

In doing this, much needless expense has been saved for our 
customers. 

Such was the case with the one above. 

Workroom number one and greenhouse compartments two 
and three, as shown on the plan below, were first erected. 
Then the connecting passage, four, and greenhouse five were 
added later. 

We have photos of the first portion which we would be glad 
to send you, to compare it with the present completed layout. 

When you are ready to consider building, let us offer you 
the advantage of our layout and construction experts. 

Their services carry no fees or obligations on your part. 
One of them will gladly arrange to call at such time and place 
as you may suggest. 

To our catalogue, you are of course welcome. 




Complete plan of the Oliver 
Iselin houses shown above 



Hitching* •** Company 



NEW YORK 
1170 Broadway 



General Offices and Factory — Elizabeth, N. J. 

BOSTON 

49 Federal Street 



PHILADELPHIA 
40 So. 15th Street 



Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in writing — and we will, too 



78 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1917 




J 



•H 



Farr's Superb Lilacs 

For Fall Planting 

IILAC-TIME is springtime at its best. One can scarcely conceive 
of a spring garden without Lilacs; every bush a mass of glorious 
-' colors, and filling the air with delicate fragrance. 

Seemingly perfect, as were the old purple and white sorts, the master 
hybridizer, Victor Lemoine, touched them with his magic hand, and lo, 
from them a multitude of glorified forms and new colors appeared, with 
individual flowers and trusses more than doubled in size; with varieties 
early and varieties late, thus considerably lengthening the blooming season. 

Ellen Willmott, with pointed trusses a foot in length and snow-white 
flowers nearly an inch in diameter; Madam Buchner, white, flushed with soft 
rose; Belle de Nancy, soft lilac pink; the splendid early flowered giant, Leon 
Gambetta, with semi-double flowers almost as large and as perfectly formed 
as tuberoses; Waldeck-Rosseau, great trusses of dark violet. These are 
but a few examples of the more than 100 new varieties that I grow on their 
own roots at Wyomissing. All these new Lilacs are unusually free bloomers — ■ 
far surpassing the old sorts. If you wish these rich blooms in your garden next 
spring, the plants must be set this fall. 

Let me suggest that you plant some of 
Lemoine's new Deutzias and Philadelphus in 
addition to the Lilacs. If you had room for 
only one of each of these by all means try 
P. virginal and D. erenata magnifica — they 
will be a revelation to you. 

Farr's Hardy Plant Specialties 

(Sixth Edition, 1917-1918) describes Lem- 
oine's Lilacs, Deutzias, Philadelphus, Japan- 
ese and German Iris, more than 500 varieties 
of Peonies, Evergreens, and Rock-Plants. 112 
pages of text, 30 full page illustrations (13 in color). A book of distinct value to 
garden lovers. If you do not have a copy of this Sixth Edition, send for one to-day. 

BERTRAND H. FARR— Wyomissing Nurseries Co. 
104 Garfield Avenue Wyomissing, Penna. 



The prices for my Lilacs range from 
$1 to $1.50, with the novelties selling 
at $2 each. Readers of Garden Mag- 
azine may obtain a collection of choice 
sorts of my own personal selection of 
different varieties of Lemoine's Lilacs, 
12 plants for $10; 6 plants>for $5* 

With an order for 12 plants you may 
have without charge a plant oi either 
Philadelphus or Deutzia — please indi- 
cate your choice on the order. 






Twenty Thousand 








Ideal Bulb Planter 



Saves 

Backaches 



ST. 



■land Transplanting Too[»i»»»i»iiiiiiii 

makes planting of all bulbs easy. Opens holes from m 

smallest to four inches in diameter, in all soils. Ash ■ 

handle, steel point, iron foot bracket — made to serve ■ 
a lifetime. $1.75 each, postpaid. ., 

Forcers to "Beat" Jack Frost Jj 

"Gro-Quik" Forcers will do both, hasten maturity Bj 

and keep off frost. Easily put up, quickly shifted; H 

many styles and sizes, all prices. Sample Single m 

Wire Forcer, 15c. jj 

^nrinlrlprc of An Kinds 
OpririKierS f or Every Need 

We are sole agents for eastern 'districts for Skinner j| 

Irrigation Co. Many types of sprinklers at various j|j 

prices [for different 'sizes. Descriptive folder of all 

our specialties free on request. 

The Cloche Co., 131 Hudson St., N. Y. ■ 



- 



The Readers' Service gives Information 
about Greenhouses and Sash 



l^TXT/^'Q 01d Fashioned 
JYll>Vj O Hardy Flowers 

Plant this fall for wealth of bloom next summer, and enjoy 
the beauties of Columbine, Foxgloves, Larkspurs, Phlox, 
and hundreds of others. 

Hardy Larkspur j$fi™ 

The freest and most continuous blooming of all, never 
without flowers from June until heavy frost cuts it down. 
Color clear turquoise-blue, it is not equalled for delicacy 
by any other flower. Strong plants $2.50 per doz.; $18.00 
per 100. Large stock of this wonderful hardy plant. 
ORDER NOW. 

Beautifully Illustrated Booklet 
describing 200 of the best of these hardy old-fashioned 
flowers, is free if you mention this magazine. 
W. E. KING, Hardy Plant SpecialistXong Branch, N. J. 



Phloxes 







in over thirty distinct and meritorious kinds are grow- 
ing in our nursery. All are as hardy as oaks, as 
sturdy and rugged as weed and they simply cannot 
help blooming in your garden next Spring and Sum- 
mer if transplanted this Fall. 

Try these 7 Leaders for $1 .00 postpaid: 
Athis, salmon with violet eye 
Elizabeth Campbell, best pink 
Jules Cambon, rose, white eye 
Sieboldie, an improved Cocquelicot 
Frau Anton Buchner, finest white 
Eiffel Tower, flesh pink, red eye 
Rosenberg, purplish red 



O A Guaranteed to Bloom 
Lt\3 Hardy Perennials 



$1 



Because my stock of both popular perennials, as well ' 
as rarer kinds, is one of the largest in the country, 
and to win them more friends I will supply 20 dis- 
tinct kinds of merit, my selection, for One Dollar, 
postpaid. Order them NOW. 

Unusual Peonies 

For Immediate Planting 

While it is not safe to make promises with plants, 
yet, under favorable conditions, the strong 3 to 5 
eye roots which I supply are very apt to produce 
blooming plants next Spring, if set out this Fall. 
I renew my offer of last month to send Six Leaders, 
One Strong Root of Each for $3.00, by Express. 

American Plants for 

American Gardens 

The present great difficulty experienced in getting 
bulbs and plants from abroad is responsible for the 
constantly increasing sentiment in favor of our own 
hardy plants. My catalogue describes them all and 
offers them at attractive prices for choicest quality. 
Write for the free book to-day. 

Ralph E. Huntington, Painesville, Ohio 



lllllll!lll!lll.!:il;II.IIJI.I|:|lllllllllllllllll[||ill!ll 




GORGEOUS in coloring, of 
excellent dimensions and 
growth, adding wonderfully to 
the beauty of the 
spring landscape 
will be the blooms 
that result from 
the planting of 
T h o r b urn's 
Bulbs. 

Send for our bulb 
catalogue at once 
so as to plant your 
bulbs at the 
proper time. 

Or, send a $1 bill 
with your request 
for our catalogue 
and we shall send 
you a splendid 

assortment of our choicest bulbs. 

Write to-day. 

J. M. THORBURN & CO. 

53B Barclay St. Through to 54 Park Place 

NEW YORK CITY 




:::;:.! 



The Readers' Service will gladly furnish information about Nursery Slock, etc. 



The Garden Magazine 







Regarding " Peonies That Fit," in the Sep- 
tember issue of The Garden Magazine, I 
agree with A. P. S. as to the first, Solfatare. But 
for a red, strongly urge Eugene Bigot in pre- 
ference to any mentioned. 1 do not think 
Adolph Rosseau as fine a color as Eugene 
Bigot and neither has it the fullness of bloom. 
For the third I suggest Madame Calot; or 
better yet, add a dollar to the price and try 
Marie Crousse and you will always thank the 
writer for a dollar well spent. — W. McClelland, 
Saginaw, Mich. 

Habenarias This Season.— There has 
been a wonderful display of Habenaria here 
this season. I have found psycodes, fim- 
brata, rotundifolia, blephariglottis, ciliaris, 
and all the greenish ones, but Hookeri. My 
most remarkable discovery was a cluster of 
some fifty plants of ciliaris and blephari- 
glottis, growing together in a high mountain 
bog (sphagnum) and among them several 
undoubted hybrids. I am enclosing individ- 
ual blossoms from two of these hybrids, in the 
hope that they will keep their dainty coloring 
until you see them. All the Habenarias do 
well under cultivation, provided they are sup- 
plied with sphagnum, or leaf mold and suffi- 
cient moisture. There are few garden 
flowers that surpass thei : in beauty. — Herbert 
Durand, Ulster Co., New York. 

A Battlefield of a Year Ago.— The fol- 
lowing is a letter from a British gardener- 
soldier at the front to the English Garden: 
"I have just traveled up the line again for the 
second time. I am not so very far away from 
the spot where I was last time, but the change 
that has happened since I left the line toward 
the end of last year has impressed me very 
much. I have crossed the old battlefield of a 
year ago — the ground that we were fighting for 
so hard — and it is unrecognizable from what it 
was as I saw it last. Nature has exerted her 
very utmost to cover up all the terrible havoc 
that has been done, and it is now a most 
beautiful garden. It is absolutely covered 
with flowers as far as the eye can reach, and 
the effect is most pleasing. The banks of the 
old trenches are covered with white Dog 
Daisies, and the vivid red of great patches of 
Poppies has a splendid effect. There are 
thousands of beautiful mauve Sweet Scabious 
and pink and mauve double Poppies. The 
loveliest flower to be seen, however, is the 



Cornflower. It is such a rkh, intense blue; 
there are whole fields of it, and the sight is 
most glorious. There are some tall yellow 
flowers, very much like Mustard, and the 
reddish brown seed of the Dock plant adds to 
the effect. Here and there are large pools of 
water, caused by the shell holes. The trees, 
too, that were blown to bits have thrown out 
shoots to cover up the ugly stumps. The un- 
level nature of the ground adds a great deal to 
the beauty of the scene; truly a most lovely 
wild garden. Last year it was a horrible 
infer"?; this year a veritable paradise. It 




1-feuy it with thought 
2 -cook if with care 
3 • Serve just enough 
4- Save what will keep 
£ « eat what would spoil 
6-home-^rown is best 

don't waste it 



The "Neighbors" stand in positions of national responsi- 
bility at this time. They are both producers and con- 
sumers. (Reproduction of poster by the U. S. Food Ad- 
ministration.) 

proves what the Great Gardener can do. — 

23004, Private A. Speck, British Expeditionary 
Force." 

European Grapes for America. — That many 
splendid varieties of the European grape 
may be grown in the open air in the grape 
regions of New York is the experience of 
the State Experiment Station. Protection 

79 



against winter injury is easily secured. The 
superb quality, length of keeping after picking 
and usefulness for many purposes commend 
many of these. American grape varieties, 
though less susceptible to winter injury than 
the European species, occasionally suffer 
severely. In Bulletin 433 of the Station, 
observations made at Fredonia and other 
places in the Chautauqua Grape Belt during 
three years of crop shortage from winter in- 
jury are discussed. 

Lack of maturity of the wood of the vines is 
given as the most common cause of severe in- 
jur}'; and attention to drainage, discontinuance 
of summer cultivation as weather conditions 
indicate, the judicious use of cover crops and 
avoidance of slow-acting forms of nitrogen, are 
some of the methods advocated for lessening 
winter injury. 

I Have Read Mr. Rockwell's article in the 
Garden Magazine for August with a great 
deal of pleasure and profit. This sort of article 
is of great service in furthering the food con- 
servation campaign. You will be interested to 
know that this Commission, having inspired 
the planting of some two million more food gar- 
dens this year than ever before, has for some 
time been energetically campaigning for the 
canning and drying of the surplus production 
of the summer for winter use and we now esti- 
mate that this year individuals and canning 
clubs will put up some 460,000,000 cans of 
vegetables and fruits, an amount very greatly 
in excess of what has ever been previously 
canned in any one year. — P. S. Ridsdale, 
Secretary National Emergency Food Garden 
Commission. 

Two Fruiting Shrubs for the Home Garden. 
■ — There is a great need for fruit-bearing 
shrubs for the small home garden, shrubs long 
lived and free-fruiting as currants, occupying 
as little room. Here are two worth trying in 
northern gardens. 

The Chinese Bush Cherry (Prunus tomen- 
tosa) is not a new plant as seed were planted in 
the Arnold Arboretum more than 30 years ago. 
It is now offered by several nurserymen and 
the Bureau of Plant Introductions of the De- 
partment of Agriculture. According to Bai- 
ley's Cyclopedia, it is a small tree planted 
solely for ornament, and it truly is ornamental, 
a bush about 6 feet high and as wide, smoth- 
ered in late April with a cloud of small pink 



80 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1917 




New Chinese Bush Cherry (Prunus tomentosa) having pink 
flowers in April. Grows six feet high 



and white cherry blossoms, as pink as a For- 
sy thia is yellow, and in bloom at the same time. 
No pink flowering shrub at this season of the 
year is as showy, except the Spring Cherry 
(Prunus subhirtella) whose fruit is not of 
value. In early July the cherries are ripe, 
red, tart, and twice the size of peas, thickly 
on every twig. The skin is finely hairy, an 
unusual character for a cherry. The flavor is 
very like the Sour Cherry, yet as a market 
crop these little fruits will find little favor, but 
for home use they are excellent, fresh or cooked. 
They ripen early, and the bushy habit 
fits the plants to small gardens where the 
usual fruiting trees are too large. As to hardi- 
ness — the plant is native to Manchuria, and 
already is planted for its fruits in the Dakotas. 
Mulberries are considered a choice fruit by 
children, and in the old days were frequently 
cooked. As a child my objection to them was 
that they made trees too big to climb safely, 
that the birds got about all the fruit, and only 
what fell from the tree to the dirt were mine to 
eat. A new Mulberry from Western China, 
Morus acidosa, is decidedly a bush, a strag- 
gling shrub some six feet high, with lobed 
leaves, large and small, as all mulberries have. 
The berries are not large, black, very numer- 
ous, and very tasty on a hot day in early July. 
If the children like mulberries beg the nursery- 
man to put this plant on the market. It was 
collected for the Arnold Arboretum in North 
China by Mr. E. H. Wilson in 1908.— S. F. H. 

A New Method of Wintering Celery. — 
There is a method which greatly simplifies the 
storage of celery. It has been tested through 
many years' experience and has proven itself 
entirely effective. The most extraordinary 
feature about it is that it is practically un- 
known. 

Select several water-tight kegs. Those 
which are used to hold salt fish answer very 
well. Of course, they should be thoroughly 
cleansed before being put to their second use. 
These kegs should have close-fitting tops. The 
best that the writer has used were tops of 
cheese boxes. Before the ground freezes the 
celery is lifted from the rows and packed very 
carefully in a standing position in the kegs. 
All this part of the work may be done in the 
garden. The soil is shaken from the roots of 



the plant and the plants themselves packed 
very close together in the kegs with their roots 
resting on the bottom. After the plants have 
been thus taken from the ground and packed, 
the kegs should be removed to a cool part of 
the cellar where they are to remain through 
the winter. Before covering the kegs, it is 
necessary to put about two or three inches of 
water in the bottom of each. This must be 
done with great care, for the celery must not 
be wetted. Use a tube to introduce the water. 
It will be found necessary to renew the water 
about every three weeks. 

Celery thus stored will be perfectly whit- 
ened by the process. It will retain all its fine 
nutty flavor and is indeed as desirable a winter 
vegetable as can be wished. It is possible to 
store about a hundred plants in an ordinary 
keg. — Archibald Rutledge, Penna. 

Beans on Strings — Having found it hard 
to get poles for my lima beans, I tried the bush- 
limas, but, although much improved, their 
yield to the square foot of ground is con- 
siderably lesst han that of the pole limas. I 
therefore worked out a plan to grow them on 
strings, which I have done now for three years 
with good results, perfecting the details a little 
each year. The photograph shows my 
"beanery" just as the beans were reaching the 
end of their string, in the first part of July. It 
indicates plainly how the framework is put to- 
gether. After the ground is dug and before the 
beans are planted, two strong posts, eight feet 
above the ground (and about two feet below), 
are put in thirty feet apart. A wire is run 
from top to top, and down to pegs at both ends, 
so as to make it very taut. Next, short stakes 
are driven in, ten feet apart, in two lines, two 
feet each side of the line of the tall poles, and 
wires are run along them about six inches above 
the ground. The intermediate stakes are 
necessary to keep the wires taut. 

Now, so as to get the fullest return from each 
yard of land, I set out two rows of lettuce 
plants on the bed between the wires, and wait 
for warm weather to come. Usually in the 
third week of May I put in my beans in a row 
under each of the lower wires. After the 
plants are up they are, -if necessary, thinned 
to stand about five inches apart; and while 
my lettuce is developing nicely, I get my step- 
ladder out and tie cotton strings from one 
lower wire across the upper wire and down 
to the other lower one about 15 inches apart, 
which gives me three plants to each string. 
The beans rapidly run up the strings, and the 
shade they give is beneficial to the lettuce, 
which is now nearing maturity. In the pic- 
ture, the lettuce has already been cropped off" 
in one row — a head of Romaine is visible just 
to the right of the little gardener. 

Lettuce is the right crop to use here, because 
being a leaf producing plant, it takes an excess 
of nitrogen from the soil, while beans (a 
leguminous) require less nitrogen than other 
plants. 

After the beans reach the top, I have to 
tighten the strings, as they will stretch, no 
matter how tight they were at first. In view 
of this, I just throw them across the upper wire 
without tying when first putting them on and 
then put a loop in them and around the wire 
when tightening them afterward. If this is 
not done, the string will sag, and finally al- 
most touch, and although the swinging on a 
breezy day does not seem to do the beans any 
harm, it makes it hard for a person to get in- 
side the "beanery" to cultivate the ground. 

I have grown lots of lima and other beans 



this way, and the only expense is a ten cent 
ball of heavy cotton string each year, whereas 
the two posts and the wire can be used again 
from one year to another almost indefinitely, 
especially if they are taken up and stored away 
in the fall. The string is best burnt up with 
the beanstraw. — H. E. VanGelder, Westfield, 
N.J. 

Fall Sown Sweet Peas. — I am pretty busy 
but I must take time to tell it. The receipt of 
the September issue of the magazine calls it to 
mind. Last November, within two or three 
days of Thanksgiving, I planted two rows of 
Sweet Peas. I followed in the most careful 
manner the instructions given in your paper by 
the President of the Sweet Pea Society, using 
seed obtained from one of the most reliable 
houses in the country. The first pea is yet to 
put in an appearance. I am no novice, having 
been brought up on a farm and have 
grown vegetables and flowers the greater part 
of my life. Have grown Sweet Peas, but not 
from fall planting. Therefore, the cause of 
failure cannot be lack of knowledge of the 
principles of planting. Should I try again? — 
/. W . Ginder, Washington. 

— With a few exceptions, there is always a 
degree of uncertainty accompanying fall 
sowing of any seed in the open, success or 
failure depending almost entirely on the 
weather. During the past ten years we have 
been in the habit of making extensive fall 
sowings of Sweet Peas, sowing about the 
middle of November. Such sowings have as a 
rule been most successful until last year, when 
the early winter was so mild that the seed 
rotted in the soil, and we had to resow in the 
early spring. What I aim at is to sow so late 
in the fall that the seed may either just germi- 
nate previous to freezing weather, or lie dor- 
mant in the soil until early spring. When we 
are favored with a good old-fashioned winter, 
the ground frozen hard from Christmas until 
March, our fall sown Sweet Peas are safe, and 
give results immeasurably superior to those 
from spring sowing. However, the ideal meth- 
od whereby all risk of failure is avoided, 
is to sow during October, using the special 




Here's a practical bean support made from string 



October, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



81 



Sweet Pea frame, full particulars of which are 
contained in my article appearing in the 
September number of the Garden Magazine. 
— George IV. Kerr, Doyle stoivn, Pa. 

Leaders of the Societies. — The accom- 
panying portraits represent four leaders in 
four of the prominent national societies that 
are fostering and promoting our horticultural 
interests. At the summer convention of the 
Society of American Florists, held at New 
York in August, the presidency for 191 8 was 
conferred on Mr. C. H. Totty, of Madison, 
N. J., whose service as the introducer of nov- 
elties (new Roses and Chrysanthemums es- 
pecially) makes his name quite familiar to 
our readers. Mr. Totty has also rendered 
yeoman service as chairman of the Board of 
Jurors of the National and the New York 
International Flower Shows. At the meeting 
of the American Gladiolus Society, also held 
at New York in August, Mr. Kunderd of 
Goshen, Ind., was chosen as the next year's 
leader and the big exhibition will be in Cleve- 
land. Mr. Kunderd is an experienced grower 
and breeder, having originated the ruffled type 
of flower among others. Dahlia lovers who 
have visited the National Society's shows in 
September in the last few years will recognize 



in Mr. Richard Vincent, Jr., of White Marsh, 
Md., the genial president and founder of that 
live organization. He is a grower of florist's 




Charles H. Totty, Pres.-elect, Society of American Florists 



plants on an enormous scale. The last por- 
trait is that of Mr. Benjamin Hammond, of 
Beacon, N. Y., very well known as a manu^ 
facturer of insecticides, etc. He is now presi- 
dent of the American Rose Society and for sev- 
eral years past its secretary, during whose in- 
cumbency the membership has been increased 
very greatly. 

Gardening From the Outside. — Here's a 
street car newspaper's contribution to the 
spud stuff. 

"A hint to the ladies: If you want potatoes 
from your garden do not pick the blossoms for 
a bouquet." They say lots of society people 
have planted sweets, thinking they were 
"murphs" — W. M., Detroit. 

Has No Rival. — I shall be obliged if you 
will have sent to me Index and Title page for 
Volumes XXIII, XXIV, and XXV. I take 
this opportunity to express my appreciation of 
the Garden Magazine which I consider has 
no rival in America and deserves a constantly 
increasing circulation. It is valuable both for 
the amateur and the professional, and person- 
ally I should miss very much not receiving it 
regularly. — AubreyTealdi, Landscape Gardener,. 
Ann Arbor, Mich. 




A. E. Kunderd, Pres.-elect, American Gladiolus Society Richard Vincent, Jr., President, American Dahlia Society Benjamin Hammond, President, American Rose Society 

THE MONTH'S REMINDER 

FALL PLANTING AND PREPARATION FOR WINTER 



OCTOBER presents more opportuni- 
ties to increase the value and the 
permanent beauty of your place 
than any other month. 
Where time is limited, spring work must 
include so many routine planting jobs and 
fixing up that frequently there is little time 
left for special things. 

So much has been said of trees, shrubs, her- 
baceous perennials, etc., in the Garden Mag- 
azine (see last month's, and previous years) 
on the advantages of fall planting that it is 
needless even to recapitulate here. There is 
one thing, however, that cannot be repeated 
too often, and the beginner particularly 
should pay particular heed to it. Do your fall 
planting early! 



The term "fall planting" may be mislead- 
ing. Some people consider fall to begin only 
with the advent of real cold, freezing weather. 
Now, while some things can be put in late 
(until the ground freezes), yet for the majority 
the safest rule is "the earlier the better," as 
they need to become "established" before 
freezing weather. 

Give heed to the following considerations in 
doing your fall planting: 

1. Get stock shipped in from the express 
office promptly and unpack immediately. 

2. Check up with your order carefully and 
make prompt complaint of shortage, poor 
stock, or bad condition. 

3. Keep all roots, shrubs, etc., away from 
vvind and sun, and wrap with burlap or water 



to keep the roots moist until ready for planting. 
If several days' delay is unavoidable, bury 
roots in soil in a shaded place — that is "heel 
in. 

4. Make holes large enough to take the ball 
of roots easily, and enrich the soil with well 
rotted manure and bone meal. Plant in well 
drained positions. 

5. Pack the soil firmly about the roots, 
pressing down with the foot or a tamper, so 
that the tree or plant is in the soil almost as 
firmly as if it had been growing there. 

6. Use water if the soil is dry, but not on top 
of the soil! Pour in water before planting, let 
it soak away and put in more when hole is half 
filled up. Leave an inch or two of loose soil 
on the surface after planting. 



82 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



Winter-Flowering Bulbs 

[""\ETAILS of planting in pots, bulb pans, 
*^ flats and storing in the coldframe, cellar, 
or pit preliminary to starting the bulbs have 
already been described in detail in the Garden 
Magazine for September. [At this writing it is 
assured that a limited supply of Dutch bulbs 
will reach us for planting this fall. There is, 
also, a small supply of domestic grown bulbs 
available but the total quantity will only just 
meet normal demands. Therefore place orders 
at once. — Ed.]. 

Are All New Plants Ready for Winter? 

A RE all the perennials and biennials (started 
■** for next year) in their winter quarters? 
Those started early enough for transplanting 
to permanent positions for flowering in the 
spring and early summer ought to be in place 
by this time and making good growth. 
Transplant to winter quarters, as soon as pos- 
sible, smaller plants to be "carried over" 
under mulching or in frames. Avoid any 
severe check by shading and giving plenty of 
moisture, so that they may become as sturdy 
as possible before growth stops. The mistake 
is made frequently of merely sticking in these 
things, and letting them go without further 
attention. A little liquid manure or nitrate 
of soda and frequent weeding or cultivation to 
keep the soil loosened up, and an occasional 
good watering, in absence of rain, will do just 
as much now to promote rapid growth as in the 
spring. 

Make Your Cuttings Before Frost 

r^HIS is the time for making cuttings of soft 
-*- wooded plants, such as Geranium, Helio- 
trope, Fuchsia, Verbena, etc. The new late sum- 
mer growth, which is beginning to "ripen up" is 
crisp and firm; and the temperature conditions 
are right to make the work of rooting the cut- 
tings easy. It is not necessary to have a 
greenhouse to root these things. An ordinary 
flat filled with clean, gritty sand and a layer 
of sphagnum moss in the bottom may be used 
as a "cutting-bed." Placed where it will get 
plenty of light without direct sunshine, and 
covered or closed in at night to keep the 
temperature at 40 degrees or so, the slip 
will give good strong rooted cuttings within the 
next four or five weeks. The little plants may 
then be potted up and carried along in a deep 
warm frame, or in the house or conservatory, 
and will make good strong plants for flowering 
next spring or setting out of doors in late 
April or May. Make the cuttings two to five 
inches long, removing the lower leaves and 
cutting the others back about a half. They 
may be placed in the sand about as close to- 
gether as they will stand and should be put into 
it about half their length. Keep the sand 
moist but not wet. Give a light sprinkling or 
spraying for the first few days to keep the 
plants from wilting but not enough to wet the 
sand, which should be kept rather dry until 
the cuttings have got over their tendency to 
wilt. 

Plenty of Plants for This Winter's Bloom 

"VV7"HETHER you have a frame, a con- 
* ' servatory, a greenhouse, or just a 
"flower-window" you can provide yourself 
with annuals for winter bloom by sowing the 
seed now in a frame or in a sheltered place. 
Use light soil, cover lightly, give one good 
sprinkling and then keep the soil covered with 
pieces of moist newspaper or a pane of glass — 
not quite air-tight — and in ten days to two 
weeks after sowing you should have an abun- 



October, 1917 



dance of such things as Stock, Clarkia, Calen- 
dula, etc., coming on to give good plants for 
pots or window boxes. 



Why Not Eat Strawberries This Winter? 

A NOTHER opportunity, generally over- 
7^ looked, is that of growing strawberries 
in the frame for an early crop. Very often 
frames are allowed to stand idle all winter. 
Take up good strong plants now and put in 
generous sized pots of rich soil, water them and 
keep them shaded for a few days. The pots 
for the present may be merely sunk in soil up 
to their rims to prevent their drying out 
rapidly. On the approach of cold weather put 
them into the frame where they can be given 
some protection with sash or shutters. It is 
not intended to keep the frost from reaching 
them, as they should have a resting or dor- 
mant period of at least several weeks before 
being fruited. If one has a greenhouse they 
can be brought in at any time during the 
winter. If not, they can be kept in the 
frames, and by starting them into growth 
under the sash in February or March will 
come in some weeks ahead of the crop in the 
garden. 



8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 



DO THIS MONTH 

Do plenty of fall planting — but get it done 

early! 
Put hardy perennials and biennials into 

winter quarters. 
Make sojl-wooded cuttings for winter and 

spring plants. 
Take in "stock" plants of Geranium, Helio- 
trope, etc. 
Start annuals for indoor bloom. 
Provide strawberries for winter and spring 

fruiting. 
Get the under glass crops — lettuce, radishes, 

etc. — under way. 
Take care of the tender bulbs in good time. 
Get after the aphids in frames and indoors. 
Keep on sowing seed for next year's crop of 

"humus." 
Get ready materials for mulching next 

month. 
Get your bulbs planted for winter bloom 

indoors. 



Get the Under-Glass Crop Under Way 

T F YOU have any glass on the place — and if 
you haven't there is yet time to get some 
before freezing weather if you order at once — 
give attention now to the crops for fall and 
winter. 

Have clean soil in the bed or benches in 
which lettuce, radishes, tomatoes, etc., are to 
be grown. It pays to put in fresh soil even at 
considerable trouble and expense. The old 
soil may be kept for potting up and using in 
flats for vegetables, etc., in the spring, or as 
compost for the garden. The soil for all these 
things should be, of course, made very rich. 
If manure is used let it be very thoroughly 
rotted, and fine. Much more is used than 
would be applied on an equal amount of space 
outdoors. The vegetables grown under glass 
have but 25 to 50 per cent, as much room as 
they would have in the open and, therefore, 
the soil must be made proportionately richer. 
In addition, it is desirable to keep them grow- 
ing as rapidly as possible so that the same space 
can be used again. As soon as the various 
crops are well started, or within a week or so of 
setting out or transplanting, liquid manure or 
liquid nitrate of soda — a tablespoonful dis- 
solved in two or three gallons of water, applied 
with an ordinary sprinkler — will be very help- 
ful in giving both flowers and vegetables a 
strong start. 



Time to Retire the Tender Bulbs 

XTVERY year thousands of dollars' worth 
of tender bulbs of various kinds are lost 
by being left in the soil after they should have 
been taken in. Of those ordinarily grown, 
which will be injured or killed outright by the 
first severe freeze, there are tuberous Begonias, 
Caladium's, Callas, Tuberoses, Cannas, Dah- 
lias, Gladiolus, Tigridias, and others of similar 
character. Of these, the first four mentioned 
are particularly tender and should be taken 
indoors immediately after the first light 
frost, which will blacken the foliage. Lay 
them in some warm, sunny place to dry, and 
cure under a greenhouse bench for instance. 
The others may remain until the foliage has 
been killed down, when it may be cut off six 
inches or so above the ground and unless 
severe cold weather threatens the bulbs may 
be left two or three weeks longer. Take them 
up before the ground begins to freeze up at 
night, however. 

Get After the Indoor Aphis Early 

A NOTHER matter likely to be neglected 
•^*- in the rush of cleaning up the fall work 
out of doors is attention to plants in the 
greenhouse or started in the frames. Don't 
let the aphis get a start! Tobacco dust or 
tobacco stems around the plants will help to 
keep them away but cannot be relied on al- 
together. Thoroughly fumigate or spray from 
time to time. The simplest, surest way is 
to spray or fumigate the plants regularly every 
ten days or so whether any aphis are to be seen 
or not, using one of the commercial prepara- 
tions of tobacco-extract such as Aphine, Black- 
leaf 40, etc. 

Keep on Planting Cover Crops 

13 EFERENCE was made last month to the 
■*-^ advantage of sowing all the space in the 
garden as soon as available with rye, or better 
still, with rye and vetch together, to form a 
cover crop for the winter and a crop for plow- 
ing or spading under in the spring. Keep up 
this work until freezing weather. Sow the 
seed extra thick, work it in with a rake and if 
the soil is dry give a good watering to assure 
prompt germination. To get big crops you 
must keep your garden full of humus. Don't 
begrudge the slight expense involved, even if 
rye is extra high-priced just now — so is fertili- 
zer, and so are vegetables. Your cover crop 
will save fertilizer and help you grow more 
vegetables. [Read the article On page 86 — Ed.]. 

Get Mulching Material Ready 

Ij^ALL preparation for the winter by mulch- 
ing is one 6f the important factors in 
keeping a place in good condition. While it 
is too early as yet to apply the mulch it is not 
too early to begin gathering the material re- 
quired. The advantages of getting it now are 
several. You can put it under cover and have 
it dry and ready to use and immediately avail- 
able. Clean, dry leaves are good for many 
kinds of mulching. A convenient way of 
gathering and storing them is to get some old 
burlap or grain bags and stuff them full of 
leaves as fast as the latter accumulate on 
lawns and drives. Marsh hay is better for 
some purposes than the leaves, especially for 
mulching strawberries, as it "stays put" and 
does not decay or remain wet in the spring. If 
there is not room to keep this under cover, have 
it piled in a neat stack near the garden or 
where it will be wanted for use. If properly 
"capped" when it is put up, it will shed rain 
and remain dry enough to use whenever 
wanted. 




1\ ™t R% v - ■ '•>- V^/ , 




Root -vegetables in a trench ready for covering with hay. Afterward mound up with Storing apples, potatoes, etc., in crates or barrels in a cellar is convenient. They may be 
earth. Blankets or mats are used temporarily till real cold sets in picked over from time to time if necessary 



Keeping It When You've Got It f. 



F. ROCKWELL 



STORAGE OF GARDEN PRODUCTS FOR THE WINTER WITH OR WITHOUT A CELLAR, INDOORS OR OUT 



SOME clever paragrapher once said: 
"There are a thousand ways of 
-making money, but only one way of 
having it — that is, to keep it" and the 
same may be said of the products of the garden. 
There are problems in the way of growing 
things, yet you will find a dozen gardeners who 
succeed in growing all, or more than, they can 
use where you will find one who saves every- 
thing that could be saved after it has been 
grown. It is a mistake to assume that the 
saving of the garden products is less important 
than growing them in the first place. At 
the present time when there is the prospect 
that within a few months hundreds of thou- 
sands of our own people and of our allies will 
be seeing the shadow of starvation, there is 
every reason for each one to do his or her ut- 
most to save everything from every garden, 
large or small, that can be saved. 




Why Vegetables Spoil 

"\7"EGETABLES and fruits spoil, many of 
* them in a very short time after being 
harvested or picked, as the result of the 
presence of certain bacteria which attack 
them immediately and start the processes of 
decomposition or decay. To make vegetables 
or fruits "keep" the gardener or housekeeper 
has to prevent the bacteria from attacking 
them. In canning or preserving these bacteria 
are kept away by the can or jar after all those 
present in the material to be canned have been 
destroyed by heat sterilization. That is why 
a leaky jar or can will quickly spoil — the germs 
get back into it again. 

Another way of keeping fruits and vegeta- 
bles is to lower their moisture content to such 
an extent as to prevent the destructive bacteria 
from making their attack in the usual way. 
That is what is done in drying, or, to use the 
more modern term, evaporating or dehydrat- 
ing, fruits or vegetables. 

A good many vegetables and fruits will 
"keep" for many weeks or even months if they 
are given the conditions of environment re- 
quired to keep their texture or cell structure in 
a normal state. That is 'what we do in 
"storing" vegetables and fruits for winter. 

Methods cf canning and drying have already 
been described at length (Garden Magazine 
for July). 




What Can Be Saved By Storing 

THE number of things that can be kept 
through the winter by storing, without 
artificial preservation of any kind, is much 
greater than commonly realized. 

The things which may be kept until early 
spring include beets, cabbage, carrots, celery- 
onions, parsnips, radish, rutabagas, salsify, 
squash, pumpkins and turnips. Those which 
may be kept for a number of weeks include 
cauliflower, sweet corn, lettuce, endive, pep- 
pers, egg-plant, melons and tomatoes. Mak- 
ing full use of both groups, the "winter 
garden" becomes a thing of real utility. i 

Different methods of storing are required for 
different groups. The beginner must know 
exactly what is meant when told to "store in 
the cellar" for winter, or to keep "in the store- 
room " at " a suitable temperature." The tem- 
perature suitable for some things is entirely un- 




Cabbage 



upside down in a trench. Fill level with light soil 
and mound to shed water 



This tells the story of storing celery. The earth is packed 
well about the roots only 

83 



Potatoes are dried off where dug for a few hours before 
storing in a dry frost proof cellar 



84 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1917 



suitable for others. Sweet potatoes will decay 
in a very short time under conditions in which 
ordinary white or Irish potatoes would keep 
perfectly; while Irish potatoes would get soft 
and begin to sprout if stored where sweet 
potatoes would keep. 

Where and How to Store 

pHE best and the most convenient place 
for storing most of these things is a cel- 
lar. Cellars, however, vary greatly. To keep 
most of the vegetables to be stored properly the 
cellars usually made nowadays are not so good as 
the more old-fashioned ones, which were more 




The outdoor pit as it should be 

completely underground and consequently re- 
mained at a more even temperature, and were 
dark. While too much moisture in a cellar is 
likely to increase the chance of things spoiling 
by decay, a cellar in which the air is kept dried 
out by artificial heat is almost as bad. Stone 
walls and a good dirt floor in a well-drained 
position seem to furnish just about the amount 
of moisture necessary to keep vegetables sound 
and plump without stimulating moulds, mil- 
dew and the various forms of decay. 

Such a cellar is not commonly available now- 
adays, however. The problem is, therefore, 
to do the best that can be done with existing 
conditions, which are likely to mean a small 
one-roomed cellar with enough small windows 
to keep it well lighted, a concrete floor, and a 
hot air or a steam furnace. With a cellar of 
this kind it is next to impossible to keep the 
temperature low enough or the air moist 
enough to have vegetables keep as well as they 
should. Usually, however, there is space 
enough to partition off" a small room to be used 
for vegetables alone, where conditions can be 
controlled independently of the rest of the 
cellar. This need not involve a great deal of 
expense. Rough pine 2 by 4's run from the 
floor to the ceiling, spaced 32 inches apart to 
centres and then covered inside and out with 
"wall board" which can be obtained in strips 
32 inches wide, and in any length desired up to 
12 feet or so, will give a substantial partition 
with a 4 inch dead air space that will effect- 
ively keep out the heat from the part of the cel- 
lar in which the furnace is situated. If the 
strips of wall board are bought of the right 
length there will be little or no sawing and 
fitting to be done and necessitate not more than 
a day's work in putting up the whole thing. 
Double doors should be placed at the most 
convenient point in the partition. These also 
can be made of wall board on light wooden 
frames; or secondhand doors which can usually 
be obtained at a very reasonable figure. 

Ventilation is an important point. That 
part of the cellar or other room which you 
plan to use for storage purposes should be 
provided with at least one and preferably two 
windows. They need not be large, but one of 



them at least should be well up to the top 
of the cellar or room. These windows also 
should have double sashes or be provided with 
wooden shutters, especially in sections where 
the temperature goes much below zero. In 
case only glass is used, a substantial shade or 
curtain of burlap or some other material 
should be supplied by which the room can be 
kept perfectly dark. 

If there will be more than a few bushels of 

such bulky things as potatoes, beets, carrots, 

turnips, etc., to be stored for the winter it will 

be advisable to provide bins of suitable size and 

so arranged that the boards on the front sides 

will slip into place loosely and can be removed. 

Substantial shelves over the bins will give 

practically as much space for putting barrels, 

crates, boxes, etc., as would be had without 

them. By making preparations of this kind in 

advance to utilize all the space available, a 

very generous winter supply of vegetables can 

be put into a small space. 

|i A room 8 or 10 feet wide 

ft by 12 or 15 feet long will 

wi«t>ow4 J accommodate enough of 

:j all of the vegetables men- 

j I tioned above to see the 

average family through 

the winter. 

STORE 

Eoon 




The cold room will keep most crops 
No Cellar! Then What? 

TN MANY cases, however, there will be no 
■*■ cellar available. The best substitute is a 
small room or a large closet, which can be used 
exclusively for a store room for this purpose — ■ 
if possible the coldest room in the house, and 
on the north or west side. , If necessary a 
partition (like that already described) can be 

GLASS SASH - 
WOOD SHUTTE.R- 




A hot bed can be pressed into service 

put in with little trouble. Make provision 
for ample ventilation and for keeping the room 
dark. If it can be provided with a window or 
a small door through which things to be stored 
can be taken in directly from the outside in- 
stead of being hauled through the house, that 
will of course be a great advantage. A few 
steps or a short ladder against the outside of 
the house will often make it possible to utilize 
this means of bringing things in. 

The Time-Honored Pit 

l^VEN where there is no cellar and no room 
*-* available in the house which can be used 
as a storeroom, provision for keeping a good 
supply of vegetables can be made without a 
great deal of trouble. A "vegetable pit" 
may be made in any well drained position. 
This is often so arranged as to form a com- 



bination vegetable pit and deep hotbed. As 
the winter supply of vegetables will be pretty 
well used up by March or April the frame can 
be used after that date for starting the spring 
supply of vegetable plants. 

Where even a frame pit of this kind is not 
available or there are more of the bulky 
things than there is room for in the cellar or 
store room, a good many of the vegetables may 
be kept in a simple trench or pit made in the 
open ground and given suitable protection. It 
is, of course, essential that good drainage be 
given, as any water collecting and standing in 
the bottom will mean sure ruin to the things 
stored. 



CEILING TiAFTER.5 



STORE ROOM 



WALL OP. COMPO BOARD 

P 
2X4- UPRIGHT 



l^ 



CELLAR TLOOR 




Detail construction of the store room 
Putting Away the Foods 

' I ''HE vegetables easiest to store for the 
■*• winter are potatoes, onions, and cabbage. 
Potatoes may be kept either in bins or tight 
or slatted barrels, or if more convenient, 
in bags. They should be well dried off before 
being put into storage, but not exposed to 
direct sunshine even in bags for more than half 
a day or so after digging, as they will very 
quickly "green up" and become bitter in taste. 
To keep them at their best maintain a temper- 
ature at as near 34 to 36 degrees as possible. 
For some weeks after storing, when the outside 
temperature will average a good deal higher 
than this, the windows or ventilators should be 
kept closed during the day and opened at 
night. In this way the average temperature 
of the cellar or store room can be kept 10 de- 
grees or so lower than the temperature outside. 
Onions, (which are harvested in August or 
September considerably before potatoes usu- 
ally are dug) are best not put into winter 
quarters until danger of hard freezing weather. 
After harvesting store temporarily in some 
open shed or other sheltered place where they 
can get all the air possible while being pro- 
tected from rain and early frosts. After the 
tops are thoroughly dried they are cut off and 
the bulbs stored in regular onion crates or in 
slatted barrels which permit free circulation of 
the air around and through the bulbs. This is 
highly important, as otherwise they will 
"sweat" and either sprout or rot, in either 
case being unfitted for going through the 
winter. While potatoes will keep as well or 
even better stored directly on a dirt floor, 
onions must be kept away from any source of 
moisture. The white varieties of onions and 
the extra large or "Spanish" type, such as 
Prizetaker, Giant Rocca, Denia, etc., are not 
as good keepers as the medium size yellow and 
red sorts, such as Yellow Globe Danvers, 
Southport Yellow, and Red Globe and Red 
Weathersfield. The former therefore should 
be used first if one has both types to store. In 
putting up onions for storing it will pay to 
look them over individually before putting 
them into winter quarters and sort them out, 

E lacing the most perfect and firm specimens 
y themselves and using the others first. 






October, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



85 



While cabbage will keep in a cellar or store 
room where a low temperature can be main- 
tained, part of the crop should be put in a 
pit or trench for spring use as it will keep longer 
there than indoors. Where there is not 
ample room in a cellar, space may be saved by 
taking the heads up with the roots attached, 
tying several together and suspending them 
from hooks or nails in the cellar rafters. For 
this purpose ordinary "corn ties" of stout 
tarred string with a wire clip at one end for 
fastening are very convenient. The heads to 
be stored in a trench should have the stems and 
most of the leaves left on and be packed in an 
inverted position. 

Keeping the Root Crops 

npHE various "root crops," including beets, 
■*• carrots, turnips, rutabagas, parsnips, sal- 
sify and winter radish are also easily kept, but 
to remain in the best of condition require more 
moisture than potatoes. For that reason they 
do best if packed in sand or light soil. This, 
however, has some objections as it is very 
heavy to handle and in case a store room in the 
house is being used involves a considerable 
"mussing-up." Sphagnum moss can be used 
as a substitute for sand or soil as it holds 
moisture for a long time and has the ad- 
vantage of being clean and very light to 
handle. The method of packing vegetables 
in moss is shown in the photograph on page 
95. These crops may be left in the ground 
until danger of hard freezing weather. Be- 
fore storing the tops are removed, but they 
should not be cut off too close to the roots. 
Leave half an inch to an inch of the stems with 
the roots. Store as soon as possible after dig- 
ging, so that they will not be exposed to the 
sun and wind. A store room, being more dry 
than a cellar, is not so satisfactory for storing 
vegetables of this kind; they may, however, be 
easily kept in a trench or pit, which will bring 
them through in the best condition for use in 
late winter and early spring. Parsnips and 
salsify, being perfectly hardy, may be left out 
where they grew for use as soon as the ground 
thaws out enough to make it possible to dig 
them. 

Celery is one of the most appreciated of 
winter vegetables, but requires special at- 
tention in preparing for storing. The part 




Remove the tops from parsnips in preparing for storage 



of the crop to be used during fall and early 
winter may be kept most conveniently in a 
trench out-of-doors. This should be dug about 
a foot wide and deep enough so that the 
plants when packed into it upright will come 
about level with the surface. They are put in 
with the roots and soil on, but dry when 
packed away. Upon approach of severe freez- 
ing weather the trench can be covered up with 
a mulch of marsh hay, straw, or leaves. For 
the winter supply use narrow boxes about a 
foot wide and deep enough to take the celery 
pretty near to the tops of the leaves when 
packed away in an upright position. An inch 
or two of soil or light sand is placed in the 
boxes and made moist before the plants are 
put in. These boxes can be placed in a cellar 
or store room. They should be examined from 
time to time and if necessary given enough 
water to keep the plants from wilting, apply- 
ing it to the roots only. Even though quite 
green when put away the stalks will come 
out white and crisp when they are wanted for 
use. 

Warm Temperature Vegetables 

CQUASH, pumpkins, and sweet potatoes, 
^ unlike all the vegetables mentioned above, 
which keep best at a temperature a few 
degrees above freezing, will keep in a fairly 
warm place, 45 degrees or more, and as dry 
as possible. Where there is an upstairs room, 
a closet or an attic with a chimney or stove 
pipe going through it, it is an easy matter to 
arrange a few shelves on which to store these 
things and in this way they may be kept until 
well into the spring. 

Tomatoes, Corn, and Cauliflower After Frost 

/^VF THE several vegetables which may be 
^^ stored for some time, thus having them for 
a number of weeks after they are usually "out 
of season," tomatoes, sweet corn, cauliflower 
and melons are the most important. To- 
matoes which have attained nearly their full 
size will ripen up gradually after being picked 
if kept in a cool, shady place. Put in the win- 
dow in the hot sun, as they frequently are, to 
ripen, they merely "cook." The fruits to be 
ripened should be picked with the greatest 
care and either wrapped individually in 
tissue papers or packed in excelsior or dry 
sphagnum moss or dead grass in small crates 
or in a cold frame where they can be covered 
when a dangerously cold night threatens. A 
few of the best plants may be taken up by the 
roots after the ripe fruits have been picked and 
hung up in the cellar or store room or a frost- 
proof shed and will keep in good condition for 
a long time. 

Mr. Robert Livingston, of Ohio, well 
known as the originator of so many splendid 
varieties, thinks the best way of preserving 
tomatoes for winter is to take ripe and sound 
fruits, free from any cracks or blemishes; 
place in a stone crock and pour over them cold, 
very strong brine. Cover the crock with a 
clean, white cotton cloth held in place by an 
inverted plate. Keep the receptacle in a clean, 
dry cellar. To prepare the tomatoes for use, 
soak them in fresh, cold water for 12 to 24 
hours, when they may be peeled and sliced like 
fresh fruit. When handled in this manner, to- 
matoes keep from four to six months. 

Sweet corn, of course, is likely to succumb 
to the first frost. If, however, the plants are 
cut — preferably just a day before the first 
freeze is to be expected — and placed in small 
shocks the mature ears will remain in fair con- 
dition for quite a long time, as the sap in the 



stalks and leaves keeps the ears from wilting 
as they would if pulled off. They can then be 
gathered as wanted from the cut stalk and 
while not so good as summer corn fresh from 
the living plants will be considerably better 
than having none at all. 

Cauliflower, while similar to cabbage in 
many respects, cannot be stored in the same 
way. If, however, the plants which still have 
immature heads or " buttons" on the approach 
of freezing weather are taken up by the roots 
and set closely together in a cold frame or hot- 
bed and given an occasional watering if neces- 
sary to keep the soil moist, they will continue 
to develop and keep fresh and plump for some 
weeks. 

Brussels sprouts — another cousin in the cab- 
bage family — are so hardy that they can be 
left out of doors where growing without any 
protection for use up until Christmas or even 
after. 

Nearly mature plants of lettuce and endive 
can be put into the frames in the same way, 
care being taken to keep the foliage dry and 
the soil moderately moist. All these things 
should be protected from hot sun by muslin 
covered sash or some similar device. 

Peppers, eggplant, melons and cucumbers 
may be picked and stored as described for 
tomatoes and will keep in good condition for a 
considerable length of time. The greatest 
care should be exercised, however, to get good 
sound specimens and to handle them like soft- 
shelled eggs. 

The temperature for cauliflower, lettuce and 
endive handled as described above should be 
kept as cool as possible down to 35 to 40 de- 
grees at night, while for tomatoes, melons and 
the other things mentioned, ten or fifteen de- 
grees more will be better. 

The most careful examination must be 
given everything that is to be stored before it is 
put into winter quarters. With both fruits 
and vegetables it is preferable, where con- 
venient, to go over everything as late as pos- 
sible in the season. It will frequently be 
found that some specimens that looked per- 
fectly sound and healthy at harvest time have 
begun to show signs of spoiling in the follow- 
ing few weeks. If these are thrown out or put 
aside for immediate use it will often save the 
remainder. 




By keeping carrots, beets, etc., in compartments they are 
easily reached 



Making Next Year's Garden Soil Better 



HF T5TTT"T/'MVr "\T V Specialist in boil rertility 
. T . DU1 1 U1N , IN . I . State School of Agriculture 

[Editor's Note: Now, as we stand with the season's experience behind us and the certainty of a needful season ahead, is the right time to plan 
to bring our garden soil nearer to its maximum of -productiveness in order to secure the best returns from our labor and seeds next year.] 



THE problem of a garden soil differs 
from that of a field soil only in its 
intensity. In field crops the amount 
of labor, per acre, is much smaller and 
the interest on the land is less, making it 
possible to secure a profit from lands of less 
productivity. In a garden, on the other hand, 
the amount of labor is very great and the soil 
s usually of so much greater value, that, unless 
the soil is kept at its maximum of fertility, the 
overhead expenses will make the garden show 
a net loss, instead of a profit. The problem 
of maintaining this high level of productivity, 
may be properly considered under three 
headings: 

1. Physical factors, which include the 
amount of available water, the size of the soil 
particles, the number and size of the air 
spaces, drainage, temperature, and color. 

2. Chemical properties of the soil, which in- 
clude the amount of available nitrogen, phos- 
phorus, potassium, calcium, etc. 

3. Biological factors, which include the 
presence of beneficial or injurious animal life 
and the proper relations of bacteria. 

The Part of Water 

'T V HE best garden soils are rather sandy in 
-*■ texture, although this makes little 
difference to the person whose sod happens to 
be of clay or silt. The sandy soils are more 
easily worked and give the more ready response 
to the fertilizer applied. 

A good garden soil is usually rather porous, 
and contains in the neighborhood of fifty per 
cent, of pore space, which allows of rapid 
movement of water and air. Soils of this 
nature do not hold quite as much available 
water as clay loams and for that reason every 
effort must be made to increase the water- 
holding capacity, as it is only the water which 
is held on the surface of the grains in the form 
of a film which is available to plant roots. It 
is necessary to remove by drainage any sur- 
plus or free water which may occur. [On most 
Long Island soils nature has provided such 
excellent drainage that this is not important, 
but in other sections, the first requisite to suc- 
cess is a series of tile drains, laid parallel, two 
and a half rods apart and forty inches deepl. 
Proper drainage admits air to the lower levels 
of the soil and increases the depths of the 
roots, and insures the crop against drouth. In 
addition to this it enables the gardener to 
work his land immediately after a heavy rain 
and thus keep up with a growth of weeds, 
which thrive as well as cultivated plants under 
such favorable conditions. 

The Organic Matter Sponge 

"^TEXT to drainage, the most important 
-^ factor in the control of soil moisture is 
the presence of large amounts of organic mat- 
ter. Just as a sponge holds more water than a 
handful of gravel, so a soil well stored with 
humus holds more than any texture of soil 
which contains a less amount. 

The intensive cultivation which a garden 
receives, permits rapid decay of this organic 
matter, and for this reason a garden soil does 
not long remain in the best condition of fer- 
tility unless large applications are made of 
stable manure, or some such cover crop as 
crimson clover or winter vetch. As the gar- 
den is often in use from earliest spring until 



late in the fall, it seems impractical to raise any 
large amount of green manure, and for this 
reason gardeners always depend upon very 
heavy applications of stable manure to main- 
tain the proper amount of organic matter in 
the soil. The presence of this organic matter 
in the soil increases the absorption of heat, 
by making it dark in color, and raises the tem- 
perature several degrees. The oxidation of 
this organic matter also produces a consider- 
able amount of heat, which has been esti- 
mated as the equivalent of burning a ton of 
coal per acre a season. 

The Garden Compost Pile 

/"\NE of the most ready methods by which 
^^ a gardener can add organic matter to 
his soil is by the use of a compost heap. Some 
old boards should be used to make a pen at 
least ten feet square in the corner of the gar- 
den, into which should be thrown all weeds and 
parts of vegetables which cannot be used in the 
kitchen. With this should be mixed at fre- 
quent intervals, a few shovelfuls of rich dirt 
from the garden. In a good sized garden there 
will accumulate, during the summer, several 
tons of material almost equal in value to pur- 
chased stable manure. If the weeds are 
pulled and thrown into this heap, the fer- 
mentation will destroy all the seeds and as 
many of them contain more plant food than 
the cultivated crops, the mixture will greatly 
increase the productivity of the garden. 

As the soil is a poor conductor of heat, this 
organic matter also raises the temperature of 
fertile soil above that of a less fertile one. The 
increase of even a very few degrees of the tem- 
perature on the soil is highly desirable in an 
early spring, when it is difficult to get seeds to 
sprout, or transplanted vegetables to grow 
properly. A thorough cultivation of garden 
soil, combined with a large amount of organic 
matter, is important in maintaining a large 
supply of air in the soil. This air is necessary 
for the proper development of beneficial micro- 
organism, and in preventing the accumulations 
of organic acids in the soil, which is often the 
result of imperfect decay of vegetation. 

The Part of Chemicals 

' I *HE chemical factors of soil fertility are 
■*• more readily controlled by the gardener 
than physical factors, in fact most people think 
that soil fertility consists wholly in the ad- 
dition of large amounts of plant food to the 
soil. While this is not strictly true it is never- 
theless a fact that if plants are to make the 
largest and economical growth they must have 
present much more plant food than is actually 
used; more than ninety-five per cent, of the 
plant is derived from air and water which are 
combined by the marvelous alchemy of the 
plant into such substance as plant fibre, starch, 
sugar, etc. The small amount of food derived 
from the soil first is, however, of the greatest 
importance in promoting the activities of the 
green leaf and unless all of the needed sub- 
stances are present, the growth of the plant 
will entirely cease. 

The most important element from the 
standpoint of the cost as well as from the 
probability of its being deficient, is nitrogen, 
which is used by most plants in the form of 
nitrates. Nitrates may be purchased in the 
form of nitrate of soda in whirh form the nitro- 
gen costs about thirty cents a pound. 

86 



Unless nitrogen is present in the necessary 
quantity, growth is slow, the color of the plant 
is pale- and the product unpalatable and 
stringy. If nitrate of soda is used it must be 
applied in small amounts at frequent intervals 
while growth is going on. Many gardeners 
dissolve nitrate of soda in water at the rate of 
a tablespoonful to the gallon which is quite 
strong enough to supply the needs of our 
plants. 

A good quality of stable manure contains 
not more than ten pounds of nitrogen in a ton 
and this is in a rather slowly available form. 
When twenty or thirty tons of manure are 
applied per acre, each year, it will supply as 
much nitrogen as can possibly be used by the 
vegetables, but as so many horses have been 
replaced by motors, it is becoming increasingly 
difficult to secure large amounts of stable 
manure. A plot 100 x 40 ft. is almost one 
tenth of an acre, and two two-horse loads 
would suffice for a garden already in a state 
of good fertility. Three two-horse loads would 
be a heavy dressing, 

Nitrogen is of particular importance in 
promoting the leaf and stem growth of plants, 
particularly cabbage, lettuce, and similar 
vegetables. Where the fruits or the seeds are 
the desired crops larger amounts of phos- 
phoric acid must be used which may be 
applied in the form of acid phosphate, used at 
the rate of five hundred pounds to the acre. 

Bone meal is a well and favorably known 
source of nitrogen and phosphoric acid, but as 
it is slow in its action, it is not well to depend 
upon it for crops grown the same season. It 
should always be used for crops like asparagus 
or rhubarb, which remain several years on the 
same ground. 

Now that our usual sources of potash have 
been cut off, it is not possible for us to buy any 
considerable amount in the form of fertilizers. 

Most of the potash in plants is contained in 
the stems and lower leaves which makes an 
added reason for saving unused portions of our 
vegetables as a compost. 

Lime is needed on almost all garden soils, 
having an especially beneficial effect on beans, 
beets, and lettuce which are improved in yield 
and quality by moderate applications of lime. 
For convenience in applying, it is best to buy 
a hydrated lime in paper sacks. A half ton of 
this applied to an acre every second year will 
keep the soil in good condition. 

Heavy fertilization and thorough tillage 
always result in a heavy loss of lime in the 
drainage water and the rapid decay of the 
organic matter in the soil leaves a residue of 
acids which must be neutralized if the land is 
to maintain its fertility. 

The Part Played by Lime 

'TpHE effect of lime is as largely biological 
■*" as it is chemical, and a fertile garden 
soil is an exceedingly lively place, swarming 
with untold millions of bacteria and other 
forms of micro-organisms, some of which are 
injurious, others beneficial, and others of no 
importance to us. 

We do know, however, that the most fertile 
soils contain the largest numbers of bacteria, 
and we know enough of their effects to be sure 
that the production of nitrates, which are nec- 
essary to feed the plants, is entirely due to the 
activity of three separate groups of bacteria, 



October. 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



87 



which only thrive in soil neutral in its reaction. 
It is, moreover, certain that the bacteria which 
enable the leguminous plants to use the nitro- 
gen of the air thrive best in the presence of 
lime. It is known that there are found in 
many soils, organic products which inhibit 
plant growth, even when present in minute 
amounts, and that these products are not so 
often found in soils which contain a proper 
proportion of lime. 

Present Time Opportunity 

CINCE it is becoming increasingly difficult 
^ to secure stable manure in sufficient 
quantity it behooves the gardener to make the 



most of his own resources which include the 
growing of green manures whenever the land is 
not busy with a saleable crop. After the mid- 
dle of August certain parts of the garden are 
left bare while others will retain their crops 
until late in September or even October. 
Crimson clover is the most valuable of all the 
green crops and as the seed is cheap it should 
be sown on every square foot of available 
soil using not more than a half pound of 
seed to the square rod. As it is sometimes 
difficult to get crimson clover properly started 
in dry weather it is wise to put on the same 
land at the same time a seeding of rye which 
is the most reliable of all green cover crops. 
It has such a remarkable ability to start 



growth in dry ground that it can be depended 
upon to grow when all else fails. [In the 
North October will be too late to sow any 
cover crop other than rye. Ed.] When the 
seed can be obtained it is well to use in ad- 
dition to these a sprinkling of winter vetch as 
the three species together would make a larger 
and more useful growth than any one alone. 
Such a covering of green manure will be 
sufficient to add most of the nitrogen necessary 
for the next year's garden; will supply a 
quantity of organic matter sufficient to carry a 
crop through an additional two weeks of 
drought and will save from leaching out in the 
drainage water this winter as much plant food 
as is required for next season. 



Using Fruits and Vegetables Wisely 

CROPS HAVE BEEN GROWN, CANNED, AND STORED.— THEIR PROPER USE ON THE TABLE IS THE PRESENT PROBLEM 
OF THE PEOPLE IN ORDER TO REALIZE TO THE LIMIT THEIR POTENTIAL VALUE 

[Editor s Note: This article, which has received the approval of the U. S. Food Administration, has been prepared by recognized authorities for 
the purpose of giving those who own gardens a realization of the great part they are able to take in the existent crisis. It is not the part of wisdom to en- 
deavor to live withoirt proper food at proper times, and in proper quantity. We have, however, been prone to eat without regard to any far-reaching in- 
fluence because we lived in abundance and luxury. Now, with the need of all the peoples of the world pressing for our considerate attention, we must 
choose our food for the best interest of the whole world. The home gardener s patriotic duty is clearly laid down: He must utilize to the fullest 
extent the food materials easily at hand, so as to liberate elsewhere those other food materials that are more concentrated and more easily transported. And 
it is not a hardship — only learning to live up to opportunities .] 



IN THIS fall season, with plentiful fruits 
and vegetables surrounding us on every 
hand and with the fear before us of a 
scarcity of food in all lands, it is worth 
while to think whether we may not use more 
freely and more wisely these supplies that lie 
at our doors. 

If we live in the country, fruits and vege- 
tables are notonly abundant but cheap andmay 
often be had for the gathering; we who have 
our own gardens, need no inducement to use 
freely the material that we have planted, 
tended and watered through the long summer; 
those w-ho live in a city apartment, and have 
had no garden to plant, and if the fruits and 
vegetables are so expensive as to seem almost 
like luxuries, still must use them if at all pos- 
sible, both because they are good for them and 
because they may be made to take the place 
of some of the foods upon which we have been 
accustomed to depend. Even the many who, 
in this time of high prices, can only use the 
cheaper foods must still have at least the small 
amount of fruits and vegetables that are neces- 
sary for well-being. 

Most of us have thought of the grapes or 
cantaloupe we eat for breakfast, or of the 
orange salad for lunch, or the apple compote 
for dinner largely as a matter of flavor, an ad- 
ditional gratification for the palate; we have 
used vegetables chiefly to give variety. We 
have, of course, known in a vague way that 
these foods are desirable from the standpoint 
of health, but how or why we have hardly 
cared to question. 

To-day there has come an emergency- We 
are asked to eat wisely and well. We are 
asked to change some of our food habits. 
Among other things we are asked as far as pos- 
sible to make use of the "perishables" that 
nothing may be lost. If we are to do this in 
the right way and make these take the place of 
some of our usual foods, we not only must 
know their real food value but we must know as 
well the fundamental needs of the bodv and 
how these are supplied by the different foods. 
Only then are we ready to use in place of part 



of our meat, our cereals, and our sugar, these 
foods that are difficult to transport, when 
transporation is needed for other purposes, 
and that may play an important part in the 
present situation because they set free some of 
the staple foods for the use of our Allies, for the 
use of our own people who are living on a mini- 
mum amount, and for our soldiers. In or- 
dinary times we may "muddle along" in our 
well-to-do fashion, with the comfortable 
assurance that if we are using an ordinary 
mixed diet we are probably getting what we 
need. To-day we must know; we may no 
longer guess. 

AXrE ALL know in a general way that our 
" » food furnishes material to build the body 
and to repair the waste that is constantly 
going on as a part of the life process; that it 
furnishes fuel, which yields heat and gives the 
energy not only for the work that we do but 
also for the internal work of the body — such as 
the beating of the heart. We have only lately 
begun to understand that this is only part of 
the story, and that the food furnishes also 
certain things that we may call regulating sub- 
stances. 

Some of these are the mineral salts that also 
act as building material, some are acids such as 
add flavor and refreshment to our fruits, and 
some are the newly discovered substances, as 
yet unnamed, whose nature is unknown, but 
which seem necessary to health and growth. 
These have sometimes been called "vita- 
mines" and are sometimes spoken of simply as 
"fat soluble" and "water soluble" substances. 
The fat soluble substance is found in milk fat, 
in egg yolk, in meat fat, and in the green leaves 
of plants. This seems to be especially neces- 
sary for children since growth does not take 
place without it. The water soluble substance 
is more widely distributed and is found in 
fruits and root vegetables and in some 
amount in most of our common foods except 
fats, cereals that have had the outer coating 
removed, and such foods as sugar and com- 
mercial starch. 



"Food" or "Fuel" Values? 

/^\UR FRUITS and vegetables, with a few 
^^ exceptions, have only a small amount of 
that indispensable kind of building material 
found in meat, milk, eggs, and grains, called 
bv that much shunned name protein. Only a 
few of them can furnish much fuel in the form 
of starch, and still fewer offer it in the form of 
fat. All ripe fruits and many vegetables con- 
tain sugar. But it is especially because of the 
abundance of mineral matter such as iron and 
lime salts, and of the regulating and growth- 
promoting substances, that we need always in- 
clude at least some of these foods in our diet. 
They furnish, too, some of the indigestible 
matter that we may call roughage and that 
must be provided to give enough bulk to our 
diet. The fruits are nearly all somewhat 
laxative, due not only to the roughage but to 
the mineral matter and acid present. They 
are a good supplement to cereals, meat, and 
eggs. Most of the vegetables and fruits, even 
acid fruits, such as oranges and lemons, after 
they are utilized in the body are no longer acid 
but alkaline. 

WE FIND all the time different estimates 
of the food value of fruits and vege- 
tables. One picks up a paper and finds that 
cabbage, for example, has "very little food 
value" and is an extravagant addition to the 
diet. Some else will say that the same food is 
exceedingly desirable. The truth depends 
upon our interpretation of "food value." If 
we mean by this the fuel value of the food, i. e., 
if we mean that the food will produce a large 
amount of heat or power to work, in other 
words, that it has a high energy value, we must 
agree that very few of our fruits and vegetables 
have a high food value. Perhaps we might bet- 
ter say that they have a high value as food. 

A Word to the Cook 

SINCE we use our vegetables largely for 
their mineral salts, we should see that in 
the process of cooking this mineral matter is 
kept and not thrown away. Steaming the 



88 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1917 



^*^<fcr 



*a*sr &£■£?*■ 



vegetable, or, if it is cooked in water, using so 
little water that it may be served with it, or 
saving the water for the making of cream 
vegetable soups, are all ways of doing this. It 
is stupid to choose vegetables for our diet 
because of their one special value, and then 
throw away much of the material that gives 
them that value. Delicious soups may be 
made from the water in which cabbage, cauli- 
flower, asparagus, peas, corn, spinach and 
other vegetables have 
been cooked. 

In trimming celery 
for salad the leaf and 
the tougher stalks 
may be laid aside to 
dry. The tougher 
leaves of the spinach 
may also be dried. 
Part of the bunch of 
parsley or mint, onion 
or carrot, that is not 
used, even the peel- 
ing and tough stems 
of mushrooms, may 

be dried, and all of these may be used for soup 
or flavoring. 

For drying these small amounts no special 
apparatus is necessary. A tin plate kept on 
top of the gas oven, or in some place near the 
stove where it will get a small amount of heat, 
is all that is needed. In the same way, if an 
ear or two of corn is left from the dinner, it 
may be cut from the cob and dried and used an- 
other time for a vegetable or for soup. "Dry 
as you go" might be the motto for this method 
of saving. 

EMERGENCY USE 

To-day the question arises how far can 
we use these fruits and vegetables not merely 
for their own value but to take the place 
of other foods. We can use them safely in 
large amounts if in this generous use we do not 
neglect the fuel and body building foods, and 
if we choose them carefully we may use them as 
meat savers, cereal savers, and sugar savers. 

Fruits and Vegetables as Meat Savers 

TV/T EAT is one of the foods upon which we are 
^ -*■ accustomed to depend for much of our 
body-building material. The best vegetables 
to take its place are peas (including the cow 
pea so common in the 
South) and shelled 
beans, such as kidney, 
lima, and soy beans. 
These have a fair 
amount of this body- 
building material that 
is so essential not only 
to our welfare but to 
our very existence. 
This protein is not of 
quite the same kind 
that is present in milk, 
eggs and meat, so that 

it may be used only to supply part of thewhole 
amount we need. It is better then to think of 
these vegetables as meat savers rather than as 
meat substitutes, but the addition of a very 
little meat, or milk — even skimmed milk — or 
egg is all that is necessary to supply the lack. 
One half a pound of shelled green peas or 
beans, or one fourth of a pound (one cup) with 
a cup of skimmed milk or an egg, gives as 
much body-building material as one fourth of 
a pound of beef. 

Other vegetables may be used to extend the 
meat flavor and to make it go as far as possible. 
Many of us eat too much meat. If we can eat 



less and yet have the flavor that we like we 
shall be better off and just as happy. If we 
are accustomed to use only a little meat, it is 
all the more necessary that we should get all 
the satisfaction possible out of it. In our 
stews we might use one fourth as much meat 
as we have been accustomed to use, and double 
or triple the amount of vegetables. A satis- 
factory dinner may be made from a very little 
left-over meat, put into a casserole or covered 




A well chosen dinner, giving the right proportion of 
muscle-building food, with enough starch, sugar and fat to 
give the needed fuel. The spinach contains iron and other 
mineral matter, and some of the other foods contain the re- 
gulating substances so necessary to health and growth. 

The dinner on right is less expensive, but it is as well 



selected. Most of the protein is supplied by the bread, 
since the cereals are the cheapest source of this muscle 
building food, and by the baked beans, that like all the 
legumes contain a very large proportion of it. Even the 
least expensive diet must have some fresh vegetables or 
fruit. Here cabbage is chosen 



dish between thick layers of sliced earrots or 
turnips, with a little water and seasoning 
added and perhaps a little left-over gravy, or 
broth, and the whole cooked in the oven until 
the vegetables are thoroughly done. The 
New England "boiled dinner," with its many 
vegetables and its small amount of meat, is an 
old method of carrying out this plan. 

Cereal Saving — Potatoes 

' I v HATour present need is to save our cereals, 

■*■ especially wheat, no one questions, and 

for this we must look chiefly to the potato 

and the sweet potato, among vegetables; 




This dinner looks attractive, but when we study it we 
find that too many of the foods that are used in it are 
chosen from the group that contains a large amount of fat. 
The dinner consists of cream of tomato soup, mutton 'chops, 
creamed potatoes, greens cooked with bacon or pork, andsuet 
pudding with hard sauce. It contains over 3 ounces of fat; 
1-J to 3 ounces is all that should be used for the whole day 




This dinner has too much of the muscle-building food 
called protein. Fish, eggs, nuts and beans each may be 
used to take the place of some of the meat in the diet. 
Here we have them all, with meat besides. 

The dinner shown to the right has too many foods from 



the two groups that are rich in sugar and starch. Meat pie 
and baked potato, green peas, bread and butter, and cottage 
pudding with chocolate sauce, in one meal show how by 
unwise choice, one characteristic of the well-chosen diet — 
a right proportion between protein and fuel— was omitted 



among fruits we may use the partially ripened, 
cooked banana. 

The potato, not only in common usage but 
from a dietetic standpoint, is in a class by it- 
self among vegetables. One may live entirely 
upon the potato, as some Danish investigators 
have done for several years. 

Five ounces of potato yields as much fuel 
value as one ounce of cereal, uncooked, but 
since in cooking the cereal we add from 2 to 3 
times the amount of water, we must serve 
about twice as much potato as cereal to give 
equal food value. A small potato (4 or 5 to the 
pound) has as much starch as a large slice of 



bread (1 oz.), though it contains a little less of 
the body-building protein. Now that pota- 
toes are again abundant we may eat less bread 
and use more potato. In America the average 
consumption of potato is about one-half pound 
per day for each person, and this might be 
materially increased. The potato should be 
cooked in its "jacket," for much is wasted 
in paring and the pared potato loses more 
of its mineral salts in the water than the un- 
pared. 

Fruits as Sugar Savers 

EpOR saving of sugar 
*■ we depend chiefly 
on fruits rather than 
on vegetables, though 
beets, carrots, pars- 
nips, artichokes, and 
especially the sweet 
potato, contain a good 
deal of sugar; while 
onions, cabbage, some 
kinds of peas, string 
beans, sweet corn and 
squash also contain a fair amount of sugar. 

We sometimes divide our fruits into flavor 
fruits and food fruits, but the dividing line 
between these is very indefinite. Bananas 
would naturally fall into the food class since 
the banana contains a large amount of real 
food in the form of starch — or sugar in the 
ripened banana. Oranges and peaches, on the 
other hand, belong to the flavor fruits, with 
less than half as much fuel value as the banana. 
Grapes, with their large amount of sugar, 
plums, and cherries come in between. We need 
to remember this in planning our bill of fare. 
Dried fruits — dates, figs, raisins, prunes — have 
so much sugar that they may well be used in 
place of candies. 

While the raw fruits to many are the most 
attractive, some find them more difficult to 
digest than the cooked fruit. While we may 
use cooked fruits in combination with cereals 
and in other ways for puddings and desserts, 
some of the simplest ways of cooking them are 
quite as satisfactory. The apple sauce made 
from cooking the whole apple, skin and all, and 
straining it, uses every particle of the flavor 
and the mineral salts present. Pears baked 
for three or four hours in a deep dish, with a 
very little water, either with or without a 
small amount of 
sugar, turn such a 
beautiful red that 
thev are a delight to 
the eye as well as the 
palate. Baked quinces 
prepared in the same 
way, either with or 
without the addition 
of apple, is a use of the 
fruit that might be 
more often made. 
Prunes may be cooked 
without sugar, and to 
many are much more palatable. If the prunes 
are soaked over night, and cooked in the water 
in which they were soaked until the water is 
reduced to a thick syrup, one has an article 
little like the ordinary stewed prune. 

Jams in Place of Butter 



JAMS and preserves, through the ac 
of sugar, are foods of a high fuel 



the addition 
value. 
Jam is regarded as of great importance on 
the Continent of Europe to-day and all the 
Continental governments hav^ taken steps to 
procure sufficient jam in order to cover this 
need in the diet. 



it 



Bog 55 Gardening With Native Plants 



BY NORMAN TAYLOR B^^tanfc Garden 

A PRACTICAL SOLUTION OF UTILIZING A WET HOLE THAT IS OFTEN A TROUBLESOME SPOT- 
PLANTS THAT DELIGHT IN SOUR, UNDRAINED SOILS 



-CHARMING NATIVE 



THE reason for having a bog garden 
is that in it may be grown many 
very interesting plants that cannot 
be grown in any other situation; 
and, besides, many ordinary swamp plants can 
also be grown along its edges. 

There must be a clear distinction made be- 
tween bogs and other wet or swampy places 
before bog gardening can be a success. In the 
marsh or swamp the drainage is usually fairly 
regular and free; in the true bog the drainage 
is practically nil, or only free during the spring 
thaw. Because of this lack of drainage there 
is in all bogs an accumulation of acidity in 
the bog-water, which is strongly acid and dark 
colored in some glacial potholes, more moder- 
ately so in some of the partly drained bogs of 
the coastal plain regions of the country. There 
is usually, but not always, a deficiency of lime 
in bog soils, and in nature there is a very large 
percentage of mycorrhizal plants found in 
them. The relation of the mycorrhizal habit 
of getting food and the acidity of the bog is 
a very delicate and complex one and little is 
actually known of it. But experience has 
shown such a relation to exist. 

Making an Artificial Bog 

TF YOU have an undrained or a poorly 
•*■ drained area about your garden the prob- 
lem of having a bog garden almost solves itself. 
But the demands of others who wish to grow 
the many beautiful species that will only be- 
come naturalized in such places, has led to the 
construction of artificial bogs. These may be 
of any size from a few square feet to com- 
paratively large areas, and methods of con- 
struction must vary according to the nature 
of the subsoil. In places where there is a 
layer of hard-pan and the downward drainage 
is poor, it will only be necessary to dig out the 




Fringed Orchid (Habenaria) one of the most showy native 
plants that can be cultivated only in a bog 



desired amount, fill in enough blue clay to 
make the basin water tight and then put in the 
mixture to be described presently. 

A more permanent and satisfactory type 



of construction is to make the basin of con- 
crete, the walls and floor of which should not 
be less than six to eight inches thick, to pre- 
vent the concrete from cracking during frost. 
Waterproof the concrete, and because in all 
concrete mixture there is lime, it is best to 
smear clay over the walls and bottom. The 
completed bog, whether of concrete or merely 
scooped out of the ground, should be two feet 
deep, its edges practically flush with the sur- 
rounding ground. If of concrete, sods will 
easily grow over it and the hard line of the rim 
may thus be completely hidden. Be sure 
before filling with the mixture that the tank is 
watertight, just as though it were for a Lily 
pond. The shape of the structure, whichever 
type of construction is used, must be a matter 
of individual taste. While informality is 
the essence of bog gardening a "regular ir- 
regularity" is most to be fought against. Ten 
minutes' observation of natural bogs, their 
shapes and shore lines will put the imaginative 
bog gardener in possession of all the sugges- 
tions needed, to prevent putting impossible 
bog gardens in impossible places. As a 
cardinal feature remember that the drainage 
from the surrounding region should be all 
in, not out. 

The management of the bog garden requires 
some skill and observation. As the amount of 
evaporation from the surface is enormous, 
water must be added, either artificially or 
naturally. Strive to keep the bog just full 
enough not to overflow, thus keeping the whole 
sponge wet, but preventing the leaking out 
of the valuable acids that are the life of 
the bog. Both for the effect and for the 
good of the bog it is desirable to cover all the 
open spaces in it with live sphagnum moss, 
which when once established, will make a 
delightful carpet. 




The "bog" at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, was shipped from the New Jersey pine barrens and placed in a prepared basin of concrete lined with clay. Anything that came up was 

allowed to grow, and any undesired plants were not retained. Others are added from time to time 

89 



90 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1917 




The Sundew (Drosera intermedia) an insectivorous plant 
which traps flies, etc., with its glandular hairs 

Making a Bogplant Soil 

' I *HE mixture to go in the bog garden is 
•*■ preferably one that has come out of a 
Cranberry or natural bog — muck, twigs, 
water, slime and all. From such a mixture a 
host of very interesting bog plants will spring 
up the first year and these may be isolated in 
clumps after the first season. A good plan 
when following this procedure is to let the 
inner part of the bog "run wild," clearing a 
strip of a foot or two all round the edges, for 
the cultivation of species needing, for exhi- 
bition purposes, more open spaces. Provision 
should be made, either in this strip or in any 
other open place in the bog for two things, (i) 
A place where only sand and peat soil, mixed 
about half and half, is found, to be used for 
certain plants that are described in the lists 
following: and, (2) some small space of 
practically open water where the very interest- 
ing Bladder-worts may be grown. The latter 
situation can be made by scooping out the 
muck for a few inches, filling in with sand and 
peat soil, leaving about five to six inches 
depth of water. 

For those who cannot get muck from natural 




The Pitcher plant catches insects in the leaf-like pitchers 
and feeds on them. Plant shown in bluom 



bogs a soil can be mixed of leafmold, sand, and 
twigs and leaves of the Oaks or of Mountain 
Laurel or Rhododendron refuse. Guard against 
getting the mixture too heavy and clayey. 
Sand and plenty of twigs and leaves of the 
species mentioned will lighten up the mixture 
— leafmold makes it more heavy. 

Plants For the Bog Garden 

TV/I ANY bog plants are very showy and 
■*• worth cultivation because of this. 
Others, such as the insectivorous kinds, are 
among the most wonderful plants in nature, 
for they have the unique distinction of being 
able to digest animal matter directly, a habit 
otherwise unknown in all the realm of vege- 
table life. The devices for catching and keep- 
ing unwary insects are ingenious beyond the 
imagination of most of us. Darwin's "In- 
sectivorous Plants" is more fascinating than 
any fairy tale. 

Many bog plants are necessarily omitted 
from the following list, and it should be re- 
membered that a number of purely swamp 
species, not mentioned here, can also be grown 
in bogs. The delight of a bog garden lies in 
the fact that many, very many, of the bog 
plants may be collected in the wild and trans- 
planted. For those who cannot collect there 
are dealers who specialize in water plants. 

SHRUBS FOR BACKGROUND EFFECTS 

Rhodora {Rhododendron canadense), purple 
flowers before the leaves in April and May, 
3 to 5 ft- 

Swamp Azalea (Azalea viscosa) white or pink 
flowers after the leaves in May or June, 
5 to 8 ft. 

Sheep Laurel (Kalmia angustifolia), purplish- 
pink flowers, summer, 1 to 2 ft. Also 
Kalmia glauca in northern regions. 

Leather Leaf (Chamaedaphne calyculata), 
small whitish flowers along one side of the 
branches, May, 1 to 2 ft. 

Labrador Tea {Ledum . latifolium), white 
flowers in terminal clusters; leaves russet- 
brown below, 2 to 5 ft. 

Wild Rosemary (Andromeda polifolia), droop- 
ing white flowers, early spring, leaves 
silvery below. Under 2\ ft. 

Creeping Snowberry (Chiogenes hispidula), 
prostrate, with tiny white flowers and snow 
berries. Leaves dark, evergreen. 

There are many others but those named are 
the best for the temperate regions of the 
United States. In the South many others are 
to be found. 

PERENNIALS, GROWN CHIEFLY FOR THEIR 
FLOWERS IN ANY OPEN PART OF THE BOG 

Water Arum (Calla palustris), a greenish- 
flowered plant, having a conspicuous white 
spathe. Showy and hardy. 

Calamus (Acorns calamus) sword-shaped 
leaves and a fingerlike flower cluster; the 
root is the medicinal calamus. 

Violet (Viola lanceolata), a delicate, very free 
flowering violet with lance shaped leaves. 

Milkweed (Asclepias lancelota), a deep red 
milkweed, very showy, and with smooth, 
narrow leaves. 

Purple Marshlocks (Potentilla palustris), a 
sprawling, rather rank bog plant with 
purple flowers. 

Ditch Stonecrop (Penthorum sedoides), green- 
ish-yellow flowers in curved spikes, summer. 

Golden Club (Orontium aquaticum), very early 
flowering, and making a patch of gold in 
March, or April. 




Several species of Closed Gentian can be grown only in 
the bog garden 

Buckbean (Menyanthes trifoliata) , with three- 
divided leaves and many conspicuous white 
flowers is a valuable addition. 

Swamp Pink (Helonias bullata), flowering in 
April to May, is our most conspicuous spring 
bog flower. 

There are many Asters, Goldenrods, and 
Eupatoriums that grow in bogs, as well as 
some Gentians, but the bog species must be 
collected from the wild. 

IN WET, SANDY PLACES 

Here must be grown all the species of Yellow- 
eyed grass (Xyris), curious plants with long, 
delicate, grasslike leaves and tiny heads of 
yellow flowers. 
Also species of Bunch-flowers (Eriocaulon) 

should be 
grown here. 
They are not 
large, have 
sword-shaped 
leaves and 
white, erect 
heads not un- 
like the ever- 
lastings. 
With these too, 
must go the 
M e a d o w 
Beauty (dif- 
ferent species 
of Rhexia). 
Beautiful 
purplish- red 
flowers. 
All the plants in 
this class and 
the following 
are to be had 
from dealers 
in bog plants 
or collected 
in the wild. 
There are 
others such 
as Lophiola, 
Abama, and 
Zyadenus. 

IN OPEN WATER 

The Bladder- 
worts are dif- 
ferent species of Utricularia, some with purple 
and some with yellow flowers, some floating on 
the surface and supported by air-bladders, 
others rooting near the edges of the pool. 





SFB 








'■jmgt 




yffl 




jAw^BVH 






i 

I 
1 




■K 




1 
j 


fv^l 


f . ' j 




1 j 










EBt| 





Ladies' Tresses, a bog Orchid of slender 
habit, flowers white 



OCTO B E R, I 9 I 7 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



91 



The most in- 
teresting and 
delicate of all 
bog species. 

BOG ORCHIDS 

Many native 
Orchids can 
only be 
g r]o w n in 
bogs , and 
from them 
the following 
have been 
selected as 
the most 
noteworthy. 
All are per- 
ennials and 
may be had 
from the 
dealers. 
Calopogon pul- 
chellus, pink- 
purple flow- 
ers about an 
inch in diam- 
eter, June 
and July . 
Leaves grass- 
_ like: 
Cypripedium parvifiorum, a small flowered 
yellow Lady's-slipper. Raise up so roots are 
not too wet. 
Cypripedium spectabile, showy Lady's-slipper; 
beautiful rose-purple or nearly white flowers. 
Habenaria blephariglottis, a white-fringed 

Orchid with a showy spike, I to 2 ft. 
Habenaria ciliaris, yellow-fringed Orchid, very 

showy spike, 12 to 18 in. 
Arethusa bulbosa, beautiful purplish pink 

flowers, about the last of May, 3 to 6 in. 
Spiranthes cernua, white, slender spikes. The 
Ladies-tresses. Several others, even more 
slender species are known, but must be 
collected. 




The purple Calopogon. one of the 
most beautiful native bog orchids 



Besides these there are more than forty other 
species which may be collected by the 
enthusiast. Nearly all of our most beauti- 
ful native orchids are bog plants. 

INSECTIVOROUS PLANTS 

These will be grown more for their peculiar 
habits of getting their food and for their 
odd form than for their beauty. They are 
of several types; some catch insects in a tube- 
shaped leaf, drowning them at the bottom of 
the cup, others have sticky hair to which the 
insect becomes fastened, and the most 
wonderful of all, Venus' fly-trap, actually 
traps its food by a contraction of its jaw- 
like, prickly leaves. The best insectivorous 
bog plants are as follows: 

With Pitchers: Sarracenia purpurea, having 
short purplish red pitchers, quite hardy 
northward, our common northern pitcher 
plant. Sarracenia rubra, the red trumpet 




The Sheep Laurel, with showy pink and purple flowers in 
summer, is a useful bog shrub 



leaf with tall 
pitchers. 
S arracenia 
flava, also 
with tall 
pitchers but 
yellow. Sar- 
r a c e n i a 
Drummondii, 
with varie- 
gated pitch- 
ers, the larg- 
est and most 
showy of all. 

The last three 
must be 
taken in dur- 
ing the win- 
ter north of 
Washington, 
D.C. All are 
much more 
showy than 
the first. 

With Sticky 
Hairs: _ All 
'the species of 
Drosera, or 
Sundews, 
have the curi- 
ous habit of 
catching and 
digesting in- 
sects. They 

are all small plants which should be planted 
in masses on sphagnum moss. All are quite 
hardy. 

With Contracting Leaves: The Venus fly- 
trap, a low perennial with two valvelike 
leaves that contract whenever an insect or 
other irritation comes between them. 
Closing up rather rapidly, they are among 
the most interesting plants to have growing 
in the bog garden. Not hardy north of 
\\ ashington, D. C. 




The showy Yellow Fringed Orchid 
is common in many wild bogs 



One Successful "War Garden" Effort 

THE WORKINGS OF AN ACTUAL CASE TAKEN AS TYPICAL IN LAYING PLANS FOR THE FUTURE ON THE LESSONS 

OF THE PAST 



WHEN the electrifying "appeal" 
came in late spring the response to 
the President was whole souled and 
universal. Wonderful gardens blos- 
somed where hitherto tin cans and weeds 
abounded. Literally the waste lands were 
made fruitful. All this, of course, is now 
history. We saw with our own eyes, you and 
I, and we marveled greatly that there was so 
much latent garden spirit needing only the 
proper stimulus. In large cities like New York 
and Philadelphia municipal demonstration 
gardens were planted in the public parks. 
Boston appointed a special home garden ex- 
pert. East and west, north and south, gardens 
were started. The garden clubs turned from 
''pleasure" gardening to "profit" gardening 
and lent a hand in starting local action. The 
boy scouts were enlisted. 

Much credit is due the various local com- 
munities that took definite action quickly and 
produced results this year. In some places the 
final results were not entirely successful, but 
those communities may learn from the others 
so that next year's efforts will count on the 
right side. One of the decidedly successful 



centres may be taken as typical. Islip, on 
Longlsland, is selected because it seems to illus- 
trate the practical application of certain lines 
of action which brought good results. 

In April three ladies as representatives of the 
Islip Women's Suffrage Club, Mrs. Jay F. 
Carlisle, Mrs. August Belmont, Jr., and Miss 
Mary Smith, started the home garden move- 
ment. V> hatever they may have lacked in 
gardening experience was more than offset 
by keen interest and close application, re- 
sulting in one of the strikingly successful gar- 
den ventures of its kind in all the country. At 
the outset the active cooperation of a skilled 
gardener was engaged and he gave advice and 
supervision all through the season. Home 
gardens were encouraged where the space was 
available; if not, free garden plots were given 
to those who had no opportunity at home. In 
all, about 150 gardens w _ ere started and plant- 
ing charts supplied as guides — these were not 
ironclad, however, and were subject to varia- 
tion. 

The gardens were divided into four classes, 
girls, boys, women unaided, and family gar- 
dens — four prizes were offered in each class. 



The children were given gardens of a uniform 
size 15 x 25 ft., but were not confined to these 
dimensions, for a youngster could get more 
ground and felt able to do more according to 
his or her size or ability, he was encouraged to 
do more, but all were cautioned against 
starting too large a garden and were told very 
plainly that a garden 15 x 25 ft. well cared for 
was better far than 30 x 50 ft. only half cared 
for. 

Owners were notified that their gardens 
would be visited frequently; that the best gar- 
dens would be photographed. The cooperation 
of the "Movie Palace" was here sought and 
notice given that lantern slides of the prize win- 
ners would be shown at the time of awardingthe 
prizes. This had a wonderfully stimulating 
effect on the younger element, any one of whom 
would gladly have given almost anything he 
possessed for the honor of having his garden 
flashed on the screen as a winner. 

Before any actual work was started a lecture 
(illustrated with lantern slides) was given. 
This was to teach the beginners the rudiments 
of gardening, showing hozv to do the various 
tasks, but above all why to do them. Such 



92 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1917 



matters were discussed as, why lime is applied 
to gardens, the value of manure as a plant 
food, the place of fertilizers, the purpose of 
digging, how to make drills, why the soil is 
cultivated, advantages and disadvantages of 
artificial watering, tools required and the way 
to use them. The course in fact was a be- 
ginner's A. B. C. of gardening from the digging 
of the ground to the storing of the crops. 

The organizers, working on the theory that 
anything had for nothing was 
held too cheaply, agreed to fur- 
nish all seeds, fertilizers, and 
other requisites at cost, and to 
meet the cases of those who could 
not afford the expenditure at 
seeding time arrangements were 
made for payment when the 
crops were gathered, or by in- 
stallments if so desired. This 
proved a real incentive, better 
than scattering a quantity of 
free seed, and then visiting the 
garden in fall and finding only 
the garden wreck hidden by a 
tall monument of weeds; for 
those who didn't pay cash for 
their seeds felt that some one 
had a mortgage on their garden 
and they were trying hard to lift 
it and with few exceptions they 
did. 

Home gardens were preferred 
to community centre gardens for 
several reasons, firstly, the gar- 
den at home was more conveni- 
ent for the owners to cultivate; 
secondly, where a number of gar- 
dens are closely connected the 
owners of the poorer gardens get 
discouraged and give up; thirdly, an hour per 
day in the garden is vastly superior to one 
day a week; fourthly, the produce of a garden 
away from home is liable to waste because of 
the inconvenience; fifthly, considerable time 
is wasted in garden centres where the children 
predominate unless some one is there to look 
after them. 

Itwas the duty of the instructorto frequently 
inspect the various gardens, giving lessons to 
the children on any problem that came up, in- 
cluding such questions as these: What can I do 
to get rid of ants that destroy my seed? How 
far apart must I thin my beets? What shall I 
sow after the early peas and spinach? This 
idea worked splendidly, it kept up the interest, 



because the youngsters felt that they were 
actually learning something. 

The one great stumbling block in teaching 
children gardening (or anything else for that 
matter) is to get them to take things seriously 
and it was thought best to be frank with them 
at the start, insisting that gardening meant 
hard work, that successful crops were the re- 
sult of hard work and plenty of it. This course 
frightened off a number who wouldn't have 




Beans are always satisfying for beginners, for they are not exacting in soil requirements and 

yield good crops 



taken the matter seriously, and so would have 
given up their gardens at the critical time. 
Some garden organizers in other sections 
worked on a different theory, painting the 
bright side very rosily and thought much had 
been accomplished by getting a very large 
number to start irrespective of the chances for 
a successful conclusion. 

Unquestionably one of the greatest ob- 
stacles to surmount was the tendency to 
abandon the gardens during midsummer. 
Any one can garden during May and June 
when nature smiles her sweetest, but in July 
and August, when the sun is strong, when the 
mosquitoes are thick, when the swimming 
is fine, and when the pesky weeds grow a foot 



or more a day (or seem to at least) is the criti- 
cal time in the beginner's garden. Here the 
big part played by the principal had its effect; 
frequent visits being made to the gardens, and 
a word of encouragement here, or a suggestion 
there, kept many a half inclined slacker close 
up to the firing line. Any garden enthusiast 
would have found something worth while 
in a visit to these gardens during the summer, 
the originality of ideas displayed showed in- 
itiative. A dozen different types 
of tomato trellis were found and 
all had good sound common sense 
back of them; one garden was 
neatly hedged with carrots and 
parsley — practical, sensible and 
pleasing; in another lima beans 
and corn were sown in the same 
hill with the idea of using the 
corn to support the beans; still 
another garden was the work of 
a lad who had but one arm, but 
he hadn't asked for any handicap 
and he started from scratch 
along with the others. 

Just think what these gardens 
meant in this one little commun- 
ity alone! More than 150 plots 
that had never been planted be- 
fore, the yield — even though 
these gardens didn't have any- 
thing in quantity that Uncle Sam 
might send across the water, yet 
they did have plenty for the 
families of the youthful garden- 
ers — which released an equivalent 
amount for shipment abroad. 

One of the hardest points to 
teach was gathering the vege- 
tables when ready. This mat- 
ter can only be handled properly by fre- 
quent visits to the gardens; there must be 
persuasion. The youngsters had the idea that 
the garden was to grow vegetables and that 
when the vegetables were gathered their 
gardens suffered somewhat. This, of course, 
is true as far as appearance is concerned, but 
not from an economic viewpoint. It took no 
little effort to convince the youthful gardeners 
that their peas or beans should be picked. 

To sum up this success can be attributed 
to the following reasons, placed according to 
their importance: close application of the or- 
ganizers; frequent inspection of the gardens; 
frequent and timely advice by some one who 
knows. 




This was one of the really successful gardens, neatly ordered and well cared for throughout 

the season 



A back yard that in former years was a rubbish heap literally covered with empty paint 

cans 




THE PATRIOTIC GARDEN 



He also Fights who helps 





a Fighter Fight * * (HHoover) 




g«S^wS»! 



Message from the Food Administration 



THE GARDEN owners of America have it in their 
power to produce food for themselves and for others, 
so that the millions of people who face hunger next 
year can be largely relieved by them. Food raised in Am- 
erican gardens for home consumption next year will enable 
the organized mercantile interests of the country to build up 
reserves in supplies to meet these demands from abroad. If the 
housekeepers and the gardeners work together, we can feed our 
own army better in France. 

The home makers in America can grow food that will serve as 
ammunition and help us win this war. The result of this year's 
crops is now being preserved in many ways and placed in our 
cellars and storehouses. With proper care, we have enough of a 
supply to carry us through the winter, but next spring the cam- 
paign will open again. 

In spite of the fact that here and there has been inadequate use 
of supplies grown, on the whole, the general increase in garden 
supplies has been of great significance. Next year it must be 



more significant and even more intelligently planned, as to 
planting, as to harvesting-, as to marketing, preserving and stor- 
At this time, when savings of all sorts are necessary in order 
to pay for the war, we must try to choose the food crops that are 
most productive, most economical and most worth while for each 
individual home and table. 

The seed supply of next year must be carefully conserved. 
Those who can should save their own seed from their own 
gardens. Every one who takes care of himself in this particular 
affords some relief to the general strain. 

By concerted action in production and in conserving, we can 
not only support ourselves well, but c n care for our own army 
and for the women and children of t ose lands abroad which 
have been devastated by war. 

Patriotism can be most effectively shown by non-combatants 
by contributing to their own support and that of others. 

U. S. FOOD ADMINISTRATION! 



Gardens Add $100,000,000 to Nation's Wealth 



O. R. GETER 

hJew York 



A BROAD REVIEW OF THE COUNTRY-WIDE SPIRIT IN HOME GARDENS— WHAT "WAR GARDENS" REALLY MEAN 



EMERGENCIES which have never 
arisen before in the history of the 
country, or in the world for that 
matter, have given an impetus to 
the "back-to-the-soil" movement in the 
cities and towns of the nation which will have 
an important effect in breaking down the Ger- 
man submarine blockade and staving off 
threatened famine. Of necessity the little 
back yard garden, which has been ignored by a 



majority of the busy world, has been placed 
upon a pedestal where it promises to stay. 

When the call to arms came this spring the 
army of home gardeners gained several 
million recruits, due to one of the most remark- 
able drives for increased food production in the 
history of the world. Innumerable old rusty 
hoes and rakes were brought out with the first 
days of warm weather., and as a result America 
will be approximately $100,000,000 richer this 



fall, according to estimates made by experts 
in the Department of Agriculture. 

Hundreds of thousands of acres of idle 
ground located in the cities and towns of the 
country have served a useful purpose this 
summer which will be felt the world around. 
At no time in history has it ever been recorded 
that such recognition has been given the back 
yard garden and the humble commuter and his 
small town cousin will have found themselves 




Many line lawns of country estates were pressed into service this year and turned into productive areas. These two "before and after" views of the lawn of Mr. G. C. Eastman, Rochester, 

N. Y. are but typical of what was the almost universal practice. Grass succumbed to potatoes 

93 



9-t 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1917 



valuable factors in winning America's greatest 
war. Incidentally, as he lays down his hoe 
at the close of the season, the back yard 
gardener is finding out why it is that Amer- 
ica is the most wasteful nation on the face 
of the earth. This discovery is going to have 
its effect in giving stability to the "back- 
to-the-garden " movement brought on by the 
necessities of the times, and for this America 
may be truly thankful, even if the war does 
nothing else in a constructive way. 

This conversion of the American people into 
first rate gardeners may be said to be one of the 
few blessings the world war will bring to Amer- 
ica. Experts estimate that if the war does no- 
thing else for the average American family but 
to show it how to become self supporting during 
the spring and summer months through its own 
back yard it will have paid off #7,000,000,000 
of the war credit within the next fifty years. 
Putting it differently, America has been 
losing more than $100,000,000 annually because 
of its failure to interest its citizens in intensive 
gardening like that which has been practised 
in Europe for generations. 

The present boom in gardening promises to 
make history as well as to cut the cost of living 
for the average family. Surveys made several 
years ago in a number of large Western cities 
opened the eyes of many persons to the im- 
portance of the home garden movement as 
never before. In one city, Kansas City, 
Missouri, it was discovered that more than 
20,000 acres of vacant lots were lying idle each 
summer when they might be converted into 
profitable gardens through the expenditure of 
a little time and money. Added to this were 
about 10,000 acres of back yards capable of 
supporting home gardens but which were 
allowed to lie unused. 

It was demonstrated conclusively that this 
waste land was sufficient to feed the population 
of the city during the summer months, pro- 
viding its citizens cared to go to the trouble of 
making use of the vacant lots and idle back 
yards. One can well imagine the results that 
Avould be brought about in the halfhearted fight 
against the high cost of living if the city could 
be aroused to the need of cultivating and mak- 
ing use of these ideal garden plots. For one 
thing, it would release an equal number of 
acres of land used to grow garden produce for 
the city in the outlying country districts and 
in other sections of the country. Being self- 
supporting, Kansas City would not require 
long trains of freight cars to deliver its vege- 
tables and fresh fruits during the summer 
months. Therefore, these idle freight cars and 
railroad equipment could be used in hauling 
other products suffering because of the con- 
gestion of traffic. 

What was true of Kansas City a few years 
ago has been true of almost every city in the 
country, with very few exceptions. This 
accounts for the tremendous drive for in- 
creased garden acreages made by hundreds of 
American municipalities. By this drive many 
thousands of badly needed freight cars will be 
released for important duties other than the 
feeding of the population of the large cities. 
These freight cars can be used advantageously 
in transporting war munitions and supplies, 
supporting the boys in khaki. It is in this 
manner that the garden movement promises 
to make itself felt around the world, for every 
week that America can save in equipping and 
transporting its expeditionary force to Europe 
will in proportion reduce the length of the war. 
Not only does gardening promise to hasten the 
end of the war, but it releases for foreign con- 
sumption thousands of tons of foods badly 



needed in other countries to avoid famine. For 
this and other reasons the average back yard 
gardener may well puff out his cheeks and strut 
with pride — he is a valuable cog in the world's 
greatest war machine. 

One of the most remarkable garden drives in 
the entire country has been in Des Moines, 
where a city of 100,000 was turned topsy- 
turvy in the interest of the movement to make 
the city self-supporting during the summer 
months. The city commissioners began their 
preparations for the garden drive weeks before 
the weather forecasters began to predict the 
arrival of spring. For one thing the city em- 
ployed a high salaried garden expert to take 
charge of the municipal garden movement. 
During the spring and summer months, at 
least, this office shadowed in importance all 
other municipal offices. 

The weeks that followed the employment of 
the garden supervisor were electric with garden 
news. Huge quantities of free garden seeds 
were obtained through congressmen and by 
purchases made under the authority of the 
city. These were given out without charge 
to any applicant who would promise to plant 
and cultivate a vacant lot or back yard garden, 
no matter how small. The call for free seeds 
was so great that the supply was exhausted 
several times, but the city faithfully made good 
its word and saw to it that every gardener 
who wanted them got his free seeds. 

The next movement was the making of a 
survey of the vacant lots and idle plots of 
ground in the city limits. Thousands of these 
unused lots, the majority of which had been 
preempted for dumping grounds or had been 
allowed to grow up in weeds, were found before 
the survey was concluded. Arrangements 
were made to utilize these vacant lots, rent 
free, for gardening purposes, and the city saw 
to it that every applicant for garden space 
was supplied with a vacant lot located as near 
his home as possible. Before it was time for 
the first seeds to be into the ground 2,000 
of these vacant lots had been claimed and were 
being cleared of trash and debris by am- 
bitious gardeners. The city commissioners 
then drafted an ordinance which made it pos- 
sible to seize and cultivate every vacant lot in 
the city not put to some useful purpose. The 
garden supervisor was instructed to seize and 
put under cultivation all vacant lots and un- 
used property on which weeds were found 
growing. This added several hundred lots to 
the city's garden acreage, as idle property 
owned by so called slackers was drafted for pub- 
lic service. Theowner did not share in the pro- 
fits accruing from the utilization of his property 
in such cases, for he was allowed no rent. 

The protecting hand of municipal authority 
was extended still further when the com- 
missioners passed an ordinance, or rescued 
an old statute, making it possible for gardeners 
harassed by their neighbors' poultry or live 
stock to make short shift of any offenders 
caught destroying garden property. Persons 
who had been in the habit of making short cuts 
through vacant lots found the law's stern 
hand pointing out the sidewalk for them, gar- 
den property of this sort being inviolate. 

Estimates made early in the season indicated 
that a total of nearly 5,000 new gardens had 
been added to the cultivated area within the 
city limits as th^ result of the agitation for a 
greater interest in gardening. What is true 
of Des Moines is true of a hundred other of the 
larger cities of the country, so that one may 
readily understand the dollars and cents value 
of the "back-to-the-garden" movement in 
America. 



In hundreds of localities school children were 
dismissed from school days and even weeks 
earlier than the close of the school year in 
order that the boys and girls might help in 
planting gardens. Boy scouts and girl scouts 
were drafted for garden work in hundreds of 
communities, although it must be said to their 
credit that drafting in the strict sense of the 
word was unnecessary. Not only did the 
schools and municipalities take an active part 
in launching the garden movement, but 
thousands of corporations and business houses 
became aggressive advocates of the garden 
movement. Almost every railroad of im- 
portance had opened its right of way for the 
cultivation of garden and farm crops by early 
spring, releasing many thousands of acres of 
idle land for this useful purpose. Almost all 
these railroads encouraged their employees 
to plant gardens on this or other idle railroad 
property, with the result that thousands 
of families who otherwise would have been 
without the ground needed for a home garden 
were supplied with all the ground they could 
possibly take care of. In many instances free 
seeds were supplied to needy employees. 

What the railroads have done for their 
employees they have done for the general 
public in an even larger measure. With 
few exceptions all the great western railroad 
systems have opened their right of way 
property to the cultivation of farm and garden 
crops. For the most part no charge is made 
for this ground, although one railroad does 
charge #5 for each lease, no matter how 
large. This road has thousands of acres of 
alfalfa planted along its right of way. Near 
every large city hundreds of garden plots may 
be found on railroad property of this sort. 

Great corporations and important business 
firms of the nation have shown their patriot- 
ism by encouraging the garden movement 
among their employees. One such corporation 
which has erected scores of model tene- 
ments for its workers, not only supplied the 
ground and the seed, but offered cash prizes for 
the best gardens in order to encourage an in- 
terest in this work among its employees. The 
result was most beneficial for several hundred 
little gardens blossomed out in new places 
during the spring. Thousands of firms have 
provided free seeds, given their employees half 
holidays or taken other steps to put the stamp 
of their approval on garden work. 

One of the most active forces in the drive for 
more gardens has been the organized woman- 
hood of the nation. Women's clubs and or- 
ganizations in every state and community 
have taken an active interest in the garden 
campaign by planting gardens themselves, and 
encouraging children to plant gardens, and 
have offered cash prizes amounting to many 
thousands of dollars for the best gardens. This 
work has been carried on as a part of the thrift 
campaign in which the services of the nation's 
women have been urgently required. 

One of the best examples of what has been 
done to enlist the boys and girls in garden work 
is found in Lincoln, Nebraska, the model 
school garden town of the country. Ap- 
proximately 5,000 school children were en- 
gaged in cultivating home and school gardens 
under the supervision of the school authorities, 
cooperating with the federal authorities in 
developing the school garden plan to its 
greatest possible perfection. 

For several years the children have culti- 
vated school gardens as well as home gar- 
dens. Whole schools are engaged in the 
garden campaign, and each room has its own 
plot of ground to cultivate and maintain. 



October, 191 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



95 



This work is, of course, done during the 
vacation season, but it is very seldom that 
volunteers must be called in to work a ne- 
glected garden. Prizes are offered each season 
for the best gardens, and in some schools the 
children are paid for their work in cash or 
receive a certain share of the vegetables they 
grow. The surplus crops are sold through the 
agency of the children's market established on 
a prominent downtown corner, where the 
children gather each Saturday morning to sell 
the produce raised in the school and home 
gardens. Canning demonstrations are held 
each Saturday afternoon and the left over 
vegetables are thus saved for future use. 

The interest in the home gardens is equally 
keen, owing to the inducements offered for 
making vacation money. Vegetables not re- 
quired for the family use are sold on the mar- 
ket, and many of the children make from #50 
to #200 for their season's garden work. The 




Root crops may be packed in sphagnum moss and brought 
indoors to keep 

profits returned by some of the school gardens 
are equally high, often reaching #2,000. Cash 
prizes are awarded for home garden work in 
each school district in the city. 



The Lincoln plan was declared the model 
of its kind a few years ago by the federal gov- 
ernment and Lincoln was made the headquar- 
ters for the western end of the school and home 
garden movement. A new department of 
garden activity, known as the commercial gar- 
den work, has been added, and hundreds of 
boys and girls have enlisted in this work each 
year. This year the number was greatly in- 
creased. Children engaged in this department 
of gardening activity are interested in the com- 
mercial side of gardening exclusively. They 
are shown how to engage in the garden business 
at a profit, and the earnings of some of the 
boys and girls who engage in this work in a 
serious way often amount to more than #ico 
for a few weeks' work. Widespread adoption 
of the Lincoln plan might be worth con- 
sidering as a means of creating a permanent 
interest in gardening work in all large cities 
of the country. 



13 ECAUSE, hitherto, we have not taken 
*-* the garden as seriously as its economic 
importance deserves we have, as a people, 
overlooked many fall planting possibili- 
ties for food crops. The season of next 
spring's fresh vegetables may be hastened 
by sowing seeds of hardy vegetables this fall! 
While fall sowing of vegetable seeds may be 
unusual in northern sections, yet, it is thor- 
oughly practical, as nature herself proves to us 
each spring. Here and there, chance seedlings 
will appear in the garden, long before the 



PRESENT SOWING FOR EXTRA 
EARLY CROPS 




Help the general food conservation plans by storing even a 
few beets and carrots in boxes of sand 

gardener can sow seeds — the result of some 
seeds blown about the preceding fall and prop- 
erly stored by nature. 

The vegetables adapted to fall sowing are 
carrot, lettuce, mustard, smooth-seeded peas, 
radish, spinach, and turnip. The one im- 
portant point to watch is not to sow the seeds 
until cold weather has come to stay. 

However, October is the month in which to 
prepare the ground. It should be well fer- 
tilized (manure, humus, or artificial fertilizer), 
deeply dug, thoroughly raked and put in the 
identical condition as though spring garden 
making time were here. Where humus or 
commercial fertilizer is used, it should be raked 
into the surface rather than to be spaded deeply 
into the ground. 

Then wait for freezing weather and just be- 
fore the ground freezes hard, sow seeds as 
usual, cover as usual, and let nature take its 
course. It happens sometimes that a belated 



warm spell (Indian summer) causes some of the 
seeds to sprout and seedlings will appear. But 
little is lost if subsequent frosts destroy them. 

Spinach will often make a good growth, sown 
even very late in the fall. But since it is an 
exceptionally hardy vegetable it is easily car- 
ried through the winter under the slight pro- 
tection of a four-inch cover of strawy manure 
or hay or dry leaves. 

Rather deep covering is advisable with all fall 
sown seeds because the alternate freezing and 
thawing of the soil causes the seeds to work to- 
ward the surface anyway. 

Since all the vegetables sown this fall will 
mature in early spring, it is essential, of 
course, to sow extra early varieties, examples of 
which are given herewith. These are se- 
lected as illustrative types, and other equally 
early varieties may be substituted. 

Carrots, Early Scarlet Horn, Oxheart, and 
Chantenay, all serve the purpose well. They 
mature in the order here mentioned and will 
beat the spring sown product by a good two 
weeks. Sow the seeds thinly, in rows, about 
18 inches apart. Cover about one half inch 
deep in light soil, one fourth inch in heavy soil. 

Lettuce, Black Seeded Simpson, May King 
and Prizehead are unsurpassed for fall sowing. 
All three will stand disagreeable spring weather. 
May King, fall sown, will form small, but 
tightly folded heads early in June, when 
spring-sown plants are just developing the 
larger leaves. Lettuce seeds may be sown in a 
manner similar to carrots. 

Mustard, Fordhook Fancy and Elephant 
Ear thrive both perfectly during the very early 
spring and may be enjoyed over a longer period 
(in combination with spinach) because the 
cool weather retards their going to seed. 

Peas, of the smooth seeded sorts only, are 
Pedigree Extra Early, Prolific Early Market, 
and Alaska. The last named sort, while of 
poor quality, is the most easily procurable. 
What Mr. Geo. W. Kerr says in last month's 
Garden Magazine about fall sowing of Sweet 
Peas is equally adapted to culinary peas. Sow 
them in single rows, 18 inches apart, or in 
double rows 2 feet apart. 

Radishes are surpassed only by spinach in 
their adaptability for fall sowing. Proof of 
this: more chance seedlings of radish turn up 
in the average garden every spring than of any 



other vegetable. Scarlet Turnip White 
Tip, Rosy Gem, and Scarlet Globe are sorts 
that will be of edible size when roots from 
spring sown seeds have not outgrown the 
seedling stage. Sow like carrots or let- 
tuce, or broadcast like spinach. 
Spinach, Prickly Seeded Winter is the best 
for sections where winters are very severe. 
Its arrow-shaped foliage does not give frost a 
very large surface to work on. Long Season 
(or Triumph) is a very much fleshier sort that 
requires longer to reach good size. Sow either 
in rows, like carrots, or scatter the seeds 
broadly in beds, raking seeds carefully into the 
soil. 

Turnips, either the Early White or Early 
Purple Top Milan perfect handsome, flat roots, 
very early in the spring. Sow thinly, in rows, 
12 to 18 inches apart, cover one fourth inch 
deep. 

Vegetables from Bulbs or Roots 

Onions. There is also opportunity to set 
out Perennial Winter or Egyptian Tree 
Onions, also Multipliers and Potato Onion sets. 
All must be planted in the fall. If kept out of 
the ground over winter, they shrivel badly and 
are apt to rot after planting. These onions 




Before the root vegetables are put into the storage pit or 
box cut off the leafy tops, but not the root tips 



96 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1917 



will furnish both green "scallions" as well as 
large onions, long before either may be grown 
from seeds or common sets. 

Asparagus, rhubarb, and horse radish may 
still be planted and a year's time be gained in 
having them large enough for use. Remember 
that asparagus should not be cut for at least 
one year after two-year-old roots are planted, 
and for two years if one-year-old roots are 
used. The same may be suggested for 

rhubarb. Horse radish planted now will be 
ready for digging next fall. 

Enjoy these Delicacies at Christmas 

•"TOWARD the end of the month (after the 
*■ frost has killed the tops) go into your gar- 
den and dig up one of the largest clumps of 
rhubarb. Bring it into the cellar, place in 
bottom of a barrel and move within 10 feet of 
furnace. Within a few weeks you will be able 
to cut long, pink sprouts that will make the 
most delicious sauce. Of course, doing this 
means the complete sacrifice of the clump 
which will have all the life "forced" out of it 
before spring. 

Witloof chicory roots should be dug this 
month, tops cut back to within an inch of 
crown of plant and set out again in boxes in the 



cellar. The boxes in which to grow this de- 
licious vegetable must be deep enough to hold 
the roots in an upright position (8 to io inches) 
besides allowing a covering of six or eight ad- 
ditional inches of sand or light soil, through 
which the sprout should push, to be of choicest 
quality. 

Dig up a couple of roots of parsley, trim 
slightly, cut back top to within an inch of 
crown, saving the delicate centre sprouts, how- 
ever. Plant two or three of these roots in a 
six inch pot and keep in a sunny window in the 
living room. It will supply garnishing. 

Taking Care of the Root Crops 

tTARDINESS (or lack of it) is the de- 
* ■*■ termining factor in handling the root crops 
this month. Beets, carrots-, celeriac, kohl- 
rabi, winter radishes, turnips and rutabagas 
must be harvested before heavy frosts become 
the rule, as should also onions and leeks, 
though these two really do not belong among 
the root crops, proper. 

On the other hand, parsnips and salsify 
may remain in the open ground all winter, pro- 
tected just sufficiently to make easy access to 
the rows possible whenever a supply of roots 
is wanted. 



Beets, carrots, etc., may either be stored in 
pits in the garden, or in boxes with dry sand or 
soil in a frost proof cellar. In any case, see 
that the roots are in first-class condition, free 
from blemishes, bruises or defects caused by 
chewing insects — roots of that kind are apt to 
rot and will infect the others. 

Root crops stored outdoors must have well- 
drained pits, so that any seepage of water 
during the winter does not spoil the bottom 
layers. Several inches of coal ashes or cinders 
spread all over bottom of pit, will serve the 
purpose well. Spread the sound roots over 
this in layers and cover with from 2 to 4 inches 
of soil at first. As the weather gets colder, 
add more soil and, eventually, some straw or 
mats, kept in place by boards. 

Cellar-stored roots may be packed in barrels 
or boxes, like potatoes, for instance. When 
small individual boxes are resorted to for the 
different kinds of roots, put an inch layer of 
dry soil or sand in bottom of each; then place 
roots on top of that, filling space between with 
more soil. Then follow with alternating lay- 
ers of roots and soil until box is nearly full, 
when it should be topped with soil. All root- 
crops will keep well if handled in this fashion 
and if kept away from heat and light. 



ORDERS OF THE DAY 



grow as long as they wish, but to reduce this 
length somewhat bend them over without 



-jfc- When a compost pile is not desired 
much of the garden debris may be used 
for mulching the perennial crops such as 
asparagus, strawberries, blackberries, 
rhubarb, and fruit trees provided that the 
material is not infested with insect or fungous 
enemies. In that case better place it on a 
pile of dry rubbish — pea sticks, for instance 
— and burn it without delay. Weeds that 
are so nearly mature that their seeds would 
prove a menace to future crops may be burned 
— but there should be no such weeds, only 
younger ones. 

ic Be sure to save all ashes from bonfires 
because they are rich in potash which in these 
days is almost beyond price so far as garden- 
ing is concerned. They may be scattered on 
the garden soon as made without danger of 
loss because potash is "fixed" in the soil. 
Hence potash in any form may be applied 
in the fall, so may phosphoric acid. Not so 
nitrogen, especially in the form of nitrateof soda 
and sulphate of ammonia, because being highly 
soluble it will be washed out of reach of the 
plant roots unless the ground is well hidden by 
a cover crop at the time. Use such soluble 
fertilizers in the spring as a rule and their 
effects will be more noticeable and satisfac- 
tory. 

-k To PREVENT NEWLY SET AND SMALL FRUIT 

and ornamental trees from being whipped 
about and loosened by the wind tramp the soil 
firmly about their bases, piling it up several 
inches and tramping again. Then drive a 
stout stake on the side opposite the prevailing 
wind and tie the tree to it, first passing the 
tying material, preferably a broad band of 
burlap, around the tree at least once so tree and 
stake won't rub at the point tied. The ad- 
vantage of having the stake on the leeward 
side is that the sawing of the bandage will be 
prevented and the stake will support the tree 
at more ' than one point. Stakes should be 
driven in the ground at least two feet and ex- 
tend above four to six. 

■^r It's an easy matter to get new plants of „ •. ., . . . . , . ,. ., , . , ... 

J Tii Save the last green tomatoes by picking after the frost kills 

BLACKCAP RASPBERRIES. J USt let the Stems the vines. Wrap in paper and put in cellar to ripen 




damaging them and let the tips touch 
the ground. When they do touch, fasten 
them so the wind will not whip them 
about. In a couple of weeks these tips 
may have formed roots and the buds near 
the ends may have begun to develop shoots 
which in due time and with similar pegging 
will take root. Leave them alone until next 
spring unless you put a little mulch on them 
for the winter. But don't attempt to trans- 
plant them in the fall; they don't do as well 
as when spring planted — too many die. When 
severing them avoid cutting off too much of 
the parent stem. 



ic Those big, old stems in the currant and 
gooseberry bushes had better be cutout. They 
have borne now for four years and the fruit 
is becoming inferior. They choke the younger 
proportionately more productive stems. 
Moreover, they are a menace to the balance of 
the plant because being on the wane they at- 
tract insects and diseases. As soon as the fruit 
has been gathered they may be cut out piece- 
meal if necessary to avoid damage to the bal- 
ance of the bush. As to the spindly little stems 
that are beginning to form a thicket, better 
wait till spring to cut them out; their foliage 
will help strengthen the balance of the plant. 

ic Rose chafers or beetles are pretty 
nearly the recognized "limit" of bug pests. Un- 
til ayearor two ago they were believed to thrive 
upon kerosene and arsenates and to have 
such resilience that a two hundred pound man 
as an upper millstone and a concrete pavement 
as the nether were necessary to put them out 
of effective business. These are the inch-long 
bronzy olive awkward leggy beetles so common 
on grapes, roses, cherries, apples, raspberries, 
etc., ad. libitum. Much can be done to re- 
duce the number of beetles, which prefer sandy 
soil in which to lay their eggs, by destroying 
grasses on which the larvae feed from mid- 
summer till fall and again during the latter 
part of May — three times a week apart. From 
November till midspring the creatures are too 
far below the surface to be reached by tillage 
tools. 




At least some of the space in the greenhouse may be utilized for vegetables. Side bench planted with lettuce and cauliflower 



Food From the Greenhouse This Winter w *L craig 



CONSTANT SUPPLY OF FRESH VEGETABLES TILL SPRING COMES ROUND AGAIN- 

IN A COOL CONSERVATORY 



-WHAT CAN EVEN BE DONE 



NOT ONLY must we of America 
plant bigger acreages but we must 
learn to crop them more intensively. 
To assist in food production (and I am 
referring now more particularly to vegetables) 
greater use must be made of greenhouses; we 
are aware that commercially the growing of 
lettuces, cucumbers, tomatoes, beets, radishes 
and one or two other vegetables is an important 
industry; we also know that on the majority of 
the larger private estates a greater area will 
probably be devoted to them the coming 
season, but are there not many thousands of 




Tomatoes demand a higher temperature than the ordinary 
vegetables and hand pollination 



amateurs, who either have or could afford to 
have a greenhouse of modest dimensions which 
could be devoted to winter or spring vegeta- 
bles, and which could at the same time be 
utilized to start vegetable and flower plants for 
the garden? 

When traveling through Great Britain, 
Americans are impressed by the numerous 
small greenhouses owned by suburbanite com- 
muters, to say nothing of those to be found 
about the allotment gardens and owned by 
working men. After three years of war few of 
these greenhouses are closed and in fact, the gov- 
ernment looks with disfavor on any thought 
of reducing the greenhouse interest, realizing 
that the structures can be utilized to greatly 
augment food supplies. Those in our own 
country who operate greenhouses should 
continue to do so, and so increase the output 
of useful food crops and not from false ideas of 
"economy" or "patriotic" reasons tell us that 
they purpose to "shut down for the duration 
of the war!" 

War time is the time to produce all possible 
vegetables from under glass and not a few 
people are now building greenhouses adaptable 
to their culture, and which can later on be 
utilized for flowers. In time of war we should 
prepare for peace, and a greenhouse built now 
will prove a good investment. The owner of a 
greenhouse has manifold advantages over the 
man who has to start plants in the home or 
even in a cold frame. Plants can be grown 
earlier and of a better quality, ensuring earlier 
returns. 

The type of house must depend on the 
means of the owner. An even span structure 
is usually the most economical and practical. 
Greenhouse builders are always ready to build 
houses which will not prove a blot on the land- 
scape, which can be easily and economically 

97 



heated and cared for, and which will prove a 
source of pleasure to the owner. 

CROPS THAT COMBINE 

But what crops can the ordinary person 
grow in a greenhouse? They are many, but 
we will look only to the more important. A 
few (such as string beans, tomatoes, and cu- 
cumbers) require a minimum temperature of 
58 degrees to 60 degrees in winter and unless a 
special warm division is reserved in the house 
it is much better to grow spring or early- 
summer crops of these. Vegetables needing 




Use the space under the bench for forcing seakale rhubarb, 
asparagus, etc. 



98 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1917 



cooler treatment are lettuce, endive, cauli- 
flower, beet, carrot, pea, spinach, water-cress, 
mustard, cress, radish, parsley, mint, and chives. 
These will do well in a night temperature of 
45-5° degrees. 

USING UP ODD SPACE 

Additional crops which can be grown below 
the benches include mushrooms, chicory, as- 
paragus, and rhubarb. The mushrooms will 
do very well in a cool house, provided the beds 
are protected from drip and darkened. The 
asparagus and rhubarb roots succeed well on 
the floor at the warmest end of the house, the 
rhubarb and chicory should be darkened for 
best results. Asparagus roots can be dug from 
the garden for forcing or bought from a 
specialist in vegetable roots for forcing. Sev- 
eral batches can be started during the winter, 
the earliest can go in about November 20th. 
Simply cover the roots with soil and keep well 
watered. Asparagus can be cut in two to three 
weeks from planting and can be cut from 
profitably for four or five weeks. Then start 
another lot of roots. 

Soil for the Benches 

[" TSE a mixture of 'garden loam (pasture 
*-' loam if you have it) and well rotted man- 
ure, two parts of the former to one part of the 
latter. Mix thoroughly and leave the rougher 
portions at the bottom of the benches. The 
loam must be well enriched, as you will want 
to plant two, or possibly three, crops in it dur- 
ing the year. Cow manure is specially good 
for light soil, horse manure for heavier loam. 

Lettuces do best in light soil and the heading 
varieties like May King and Hittinger's Bel- 
mont must have it; the leafy kinds succeed 
well in heavy soil. The crop requires from 
io to 1 8 weeks to mature from seed according 
to the season. The young plants should be 
transplanted into flats before being placed in 
the benches, 8 to io inches apart each way. 
Special care is needed in watering. The large 
market growers who have solid beds soak well 
at planting time and this usually carries the 
crop to maturity if the soil is stirred from time 
to time. A lettuce crop planted before Sep- 
tember 15th will be headed up by Thanks- 
giving. If a further batch of young plants is 
then ready, they will come in about the end of 
February; before planting second crops the 
soil must be well forked over and some addi- 
tional rotted manure or pulverized sheep 
manure added. Too much water will cause 
both rot and sun scald on greenhouse lettuces. 

Radishes mature in from 24 to 40 days ac- 
cording to the season. Scarlet Globe and 
Forcing Deep Scarlet Turnip are desirable var- 
ieties. 

Beets and Carrots are better not started 
until the end of January, at which time a 
sowing of French Scarlet Horn Carrot can 
be made. Sow the carrots where they are 
to mature, they do not transplant as well as 
beets. Crosby's Egyptian Turnip Beet is un- 
excelled for indoor culture. Seed can be sown 
and seedlings pricked out in the bench 3 to 4 
inches apart. Both roots and foliage make 
good food. 

Peas. Do you want a late crop of peas? 
Then sow a row of Buttercup, Little Marvel, or 
Nott's Excelsior now. Outdoors they will 
mildew when sown late, indoors they will not. 
Then again with a greenhouse you can make a 
sowing in January or even February and have 
a crop long before the outdoor ones. Give 
them good soil, supports, a little water and feed 



well and you will be agreeably surprised at the 
picking you will get from a small space. 

String Beans succeed only in a warm house 
through the cold winter months, but a sowing 
made before September 15th will give a pick- 
ing in about 50 days. Wonder of France, 
Abundance, and Triumph-of-the-Frames are 
splendid indoor varieties. Sowings in a warm 
division can be made right through the winter 
and in 8-inch pots splendid crops may be had, 
but early in April they can be sown in the cool 
house and such a sowing will long precede 
those made in the open, and greenhouse beans, 
as indeed other vegetables have a delicate and 
delicious flavor. 

Greenhouse cauliflowers are vastly superior 
to such as are grown outdoors where they are 
often subjected to severe droughts. Make a 
sowing of Kronks Perfection Forcing Erfurt in 
November. These will give nice heads toward 
the end of March. Sown at Christmas heads 
will be ready from the middle of April on- 
ward. Cauliflowers need a rich soil and an 
abundant water supply; as the heads appear 
break a couple of leaves over them to keep 
them white. Allow plants 12x15 inches space. 

A few roots of parsley, mint, and chives along 
the edging of the bench will prove useful. 

Spinach. A sowing of Victoria at the cool 
end of the house will give a picking of leaves 
for a long time. After April 1st a sowing of 
New Zealand Spinach will come along rapidly 
and if you can give it 55 degrees at night you 
can sow about the end of September and have 
abundant picking all winter long. 

What Not to Do 

' 1 ''HE average small grower would be well 
■*■ advised not to endeavor to fruit tomatoes 
and cucumbers in winter, but by sowing at 
Christmas a fine spring crop may be had. 

Tomatoes need a drier atmosphere than cu- 
cumbers and it would be better not to grow 
the two together. Allow tomatoes 18 inches 
apart in the row, train to a single stem, rub- 
bing off all side laterals and shortening back 
the leaves a little, hand pollination of the 
flowers until April will ensure a better set. 
Splendid greenhouse varieties are Stirling 
Castle, Comet, Lister's Prolific and Carter's 
Sunrise. 

The English frame cucumber of which Im- 
proved Telegraph and Rockford are good types 
will be found very prolific; plants when fruiting 
need copious water supplies and liberal appli- 
cations of liquid manure if long handsome fruits 
are wanted. 

Various Salads 

SOWINGS of white mustard and curled 
cress may be made at frequent intervals 
where these are liked in salads. Sow the seeds 
broadcast and very thickly and do not cover 
at all. Water freely and cut before the plants 
make rough leaves; then stir up the ground and 
sow again. 

Water cress can be grown in the cool end of 
the house, it does not need to be grown in 
water, but will thrive so long as it has an 
abundant supply of moisture at the roots. 
Do not forget that valuable crops may be 
grown below as well as above the benches and 
the space can be used for water cress. 

Where Mushrooms Will Grow 

A/TUSH ROOMS will do well in a tempera- 
•*• '■*■ ture as low as 45 to 50 degrees at night, 
provided the beds are made below the benches 
where there are no heating pipes. It is as use- 



less to plant them near heating pipes as in a dry, 
furnace-heated cellar. 

Fresh horse manure with one fourth as much 
loam added and well mixed and turned over un- 
til the rank heat has subsided must be used. 
Dampen the manure if at all dry, when made 
up it should be just moist enough to squeeze to- 
gether without exuding water. Make the 
beds 9 inches thick, pound or tramp very 
hard. When the heat subsides to 90 degrees 
spawn a foot apart, each way, using pieces of 
spawn the size of an English walnut, do not 
press the manure heavily over these pieces of 
spawn for 8 to 10 days. Then firm the whole 
bed well, cover with two inches of loam, firm 
again and leave alone until mushrooms appear 
which may be as early as 4 weeks but will 
average 6 to 7 weeks. But don't get down- 
hearted even then if nothing appears as 
occasionally mushrooms will come abundantly 
after 12 to 15 weeks. They will crop profit- 
ably for 10 to 12 weeks and after that the 
manure can be used as a mulch on the benches 
or for incorporating with the soil. 

Summer Use of the House 

A GREENHOUSE devoted to vegetables 
need never be empty, even through the 
summer, as crops of cucumbers, tomatoes and 
muskmelons will succeed finely in them until 
it is time to clear them out for the next season's 
planting of winter crops. 

Other crops than those named can be grown 
under glass and the house can be used effi- 
ciently to start sweet corn, lima beans, egg 
plants, peppers, okra, tomatoes, melons, onions, 
celery, cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, which will 
yield much sooner than if started in the garden. 

General Attention to Pests 

tpUMIGATION once a week with nico- 
*■ fume paper or one of the nicotine ex- 
tracts evaporated will keep aphides and other 
pests in check. Spraying with nicotine is not to 
be recommended for vegetable crops indoors. 
A soap spray will help control white fly. For 
red spider, which comes with a too arid atmos- 
phere, force of water from the hose or garden 
pump is the best remedy. Carefully pick off 
any leaf-eating caterpillars and lay a poisoned 
mash for cutworms. For mice try a little 
white arsenic mixed with burnt meal and 
slightly moistened. 

Don't get discouraged because a few pests 
appear. There would be less charm in grow- 
ing crops if there were no foes to fight nor 
diseases to combat. These may sometimes 
give us a bad quarter of an hour, but if it were 
all plain sailing we would lose our alertness 
and watchful care and crops would be less 
bountiful than they are to-day. 



Color of Pansies and Hot Weather. — I 
suppose that other people must have observed 
that yellow Pansies will blossom all summer, 
while blue and violet ones will stop off as soon 
as the steady warm weather sets in. I had 
envied a friend this season and last because in 
his garden the Pansies are as bright (though 
not quite as large), at the end of August as they 
were in the Spring, while mine died down early 
in July. Then it came to me that mine were 
mostly dark colors, while the others were all 
yellow. I also remembered that it was the 
same last summer, though both plots were 
changed, except that the colors had not been. 
What is the philosophy of this ? And how can 
one handle the Pansy so that all the colors 
will thrive in hot weather? I recall more than 
one plot of yellow ones that are now in full 
bloom, but none of the darker colors.— John 
W. Chamberlin, Buffalo, N. Y. 



October, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



99 



A GREAT OPPORTUNITY 

From present indications (September 17th) it appears 
that the intending planter of Holland Bulbs, Hyacinths, 
Tulips, Crocus, etc., will be grievously disappointed this Fall. 

None of these bulbs, which usually arrive here in late 
August has yet appeared, and while it is claimed that one 
bulb steamer sailed before the embargo was placed, there is 
no further definite news of it, and one report has this 
steamer recalled. 

At best, this country will receive but a portion of its 
usual allotment if any, and planted late as they must 
necessarily be, the planter's success will be in diminishing 
measure. 

Your beds being ready, why not plant this Fall at least a 
few modern Peonies, and by planting Peterson's Perfect 
Peonies (acknowledged the world's standard) from now un- 
til the ground freezes, you will be assured of having a splen- 
did display of superb flowers early next summer. 

And if you place these in your permanent bulb beds, they 
may be safely transplanted next Fall if desired. And, too, 
unlike Holland Bulbs, they will not "run out," but will con- 
tinue to increase year after year. 

See my advertisement on following page 

George H. Peterson 

Rose & Peony Specialist 

Fair Lawn New Jersey 




MAKE EVERY FOOT OF GROUND 
HELP TO FEED THE NATION 

If the world is to be kept from starving 
every foot of ground must return its full 
value. If you have only a few square feet 
of ground plant a fruit tree; if you can set 
an acre or more, do so. 

A vegetable garden is good, but it must 
be made new every season. A fruit garden 
is best, for it will produce year after year. 

A Fruit Garden Started This 

Fall Will Help The Future 

Food Supply 

Every fruit tree you plant is a Liberty Bond for 
you and your country. It will help to keep all of us 
from suffering the pangs of hunger. 

Hoopes, Bro. & Thomas Company 

45 Maple Avenue 

West Chester - - Penna. 

Our salesman who may be in your vicinity, will help 
you in your plans. Ask him, or write to us 



Hoopes' 

Specialties 

for the 

Home Fruit 

Garden 

presents the select 
fruits for American 
gardens and orchards. 
Send to-day for a copy; 
plan your fruit garden 
now. 




Really Truly Specialists 



There are lots of POOR Peonies; why not have the 
benefit of really expert advice? Our fame is nation= 
wide. 'Most everybody everywhere knows of the 
ABSOLUTE SUPREMACY of our Peonies. Do you? 
One of the REASONS is because 



WE GROW PEONIES 
-NOTHING ELSE 



Suspicions of the other reasons will be awakened by 
our catalogue. Instant confirmation of them if you 
could visit our grounds and see the plants growing — 
the stock we send to you. Ask those who have been here 

"OUR REPUTATION HAS BEEN BUILT ON 
THE QUALITY OF OUR STOCK" 

DISTINCTIVE CATALOGUE TO YOU 

MOHICAN PEONY GARDENS 

BOX 300, SINKING SPRING, PENN'A. 



Bobbink & Atkins 





500,000 FEET 
UNDER GLASS 



500 ACRES /,. FTVforlds 

OF NURSERY JF Choicest 

(Nursery SGree^ 
to ducts 



Plant in the Autumn: 

This is the most pertinent advice a nurseryman can give 
his customers. It should be printed in letters 10 feet high. 
Nature prepares herself well in advance. She plants in the 
Autumn and so is ready for the first warm rains of Spring. 
You can't improve on Nature. Plant in the Autumn and 
you will save time and money and secure better results. 
AYeather, soil, labor conditions and prices are right — NOW. 
Take advantage of natural conditions and always buy 
where variety and stock are abundant. Thus you will 
secure selected quality, and your plantings will always 
please and satisfy. 

Visit our Nurseries — only 8 miles from New York. 
Catalogue of Autumn plantings on request. 

Rutherford, New Jersey 



Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in writing — and we will, too. 






100 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1917 



Just a Talk about 
a Hobby of Mine* 

THIS will be my last opportunity 
to talk'to you this year on a sub- 
ject that has been dear to me for 
twenty-three years, and in which I am 
to-day more deeply interested than 
ever — the Peony. 

Each Spring so many people express 
their regrets to me because they allowed 
the previous Fall to go by without making 
a peony planting. I feel, therefore, that 
I cannot let this month go by without a 
final reminder while there is yet plenty of 
time to plant, since I consider early Octo- 
ber the very best time of all. As a matter 
of fact, I do none of my own planting until 
after mid-October, and wherever exhibited, 
my flowers usually take most of the first 
prizes. 

My appeal to you on behalf of the 
Peony is not merely a business one. We 
already have the largest and most select 
peony business in this country, if not in 
the world, and with a barrel of flour in the 
larder, coal in the cellar and a Berkshire 
hog (thanks to a fellow peony enthusiast) 
fattening for Christmas, why should I care? 

If you knew the Peony as I know it, you 
would love it as I love it. The brush of a 
Corot, master of colors as he was, would 
falter before the modern Peony's wondrous 
range and delicacy of shades. De Longpre, 
the greatest flower painter of our time, 
threw down his brush in despair as he 
failed to catch the elusive tints — the won- 
drous sheen of the Peony. 

And who can drink in the delicious per- 
fume of to-day's varieties without wonder- 
ing what a Roger & Gallet — a Colgate, 
would give to match what Nature gives 
us so freely in the Peony. And speaking 
of Nature, did you ever stop to think how 
you and Nature working hand in hand can 
produce living pictures of beauty, such as 
no Rubens, no Corot, no Angelo ever 
achieved ? 

A very dear old lady, who herself gave 
most freely of her time and wealth to the 
betterment of humanity, once asked me if 
I realized how my own efforts were making 
mankind happier and more blessed. 

Time passes — opportunity slips by. 
Soon it will be a year too late. Send to- 
day for a free copy of 

"The Flower Beautiful" 

which tells you the whole story. 

George H. Peterson 

Rose and Peony Specialist 
Box 50 Fair Lawn, New Jersey 

* This advertisement appeared one year ago 
in the Garden Magazine and is repeated by 
request. It brought forth a good deal of fa- 
vorable comment, both from the publishers ^ of 
this magazine and from many advertising 
men in general. 



High Pressure Vegetable 
Gardening 

' I A HIS idea isn't mine. I stole it, but hav- 
■*■ ing proved it out I'd like to pass it on. 
It's about the best way that I know of for 
getting three crops of staple vegetables a 
year from the same land: 

Not far from Philadelphia, there is a 
little truck farm that bears all the earmarks 
of Pennsylvania Dutch ownership. Two 
years ago there was on that farm a field that 
was working as only a natural born gardener 
can make his fields work. This field was 
producing, continuously and in succession, 
crops of peas, potatoes, and sweet corn. 
I had only an instant glimpse of the field as 
I sped by on the car but I saw enough to 
convince me that it was a good scheme and I 
resolved to try it. 

Our garden has to work as hard as any in 
existence for a garden with us is not some 
ground to play with or on which to carry on 
nice little experiments but a piece of land that 
must be made to produce its maximum quan- 
tity of foodstuffs. On a portion of it, sixty by 
seventy-five feet in size, we planted on April 
3, Prolific Early Market Peas in rows four feet 
apart. About the middle of May, when the 
peas were well along toward bearing, Irish 
Cobbler potatoes were planted between the 
rows of peas. By the last week in June the 
peas were practically done bearing and were 
removed. In their place, after all the weeds 
had been cleaned out, White Plume celery 
plants were set out. At that time the potato 
plants were blooming and their leafy growth 
helped to keep the hot sun from striking 
directly on the young celery plants. Celery 
was substituted for sweet corn in the original 
scheme because it yielded a greater profit 
from a given area and was better suited to 
our conditions. As the celery grew the 
potato plants gradually died down until 
the first week in September when the potatoes 
were dug and the ground between the celery 
rows smoothed up, some of it being banked 
up against the celery. Most of the celery 
was left in the ground until November i, 
when it was lifted and stored. 

Under the "Dutch" method our garden 
produced forty pecks of peas valued at 50 
cents a peck, twenty-two bushels of potatoes 
valued at $1.75 a bushel, and seventy-five 
dozen bunches of celery valued at 50 cents a 
bunch. In producing this $96.00 worth of 
vegetables the expenses, of course, ran higher 
than if only one crop had been grown. It 
required more seeds and plants and more 
labor, and we had to use more manure in 
preparation and more fertilizer for the crops 
themselves. If it had not been for the 200 
pounds of 4-10-1 fertilizer, costing $5.00, our 
try at intensive gardening would have been a 
dismal failure for we know by experience 
that it is impossible to get constantly good 
crops from our garden unless we feed the 
soil sufficiently. 

We didn't keep an exact account of what 
our garden cost us but the largest estimate 
that we have been able to make is $45.00, 
which includes our labor and leaves us $51.00 
to declare dividends with. Our season, six 
to seven months from freeze to freeze, is 
just barely long enough to allow us to get 
three big crops a year from our garden. 
Modifications in the crops to suit other soils 
and other climates would of course have to 
be made if the "Dutch" system was tried 
in other sections of the country. 

Morgantown, W. Virginia, R. E. Allen. 



HOLLAND BULBS 

Darwin, Cottage and Early Tulips, 
Hyacinths, Narcissi, Crocuses, etc., 
of exceptionally fine quality 

Order early while assortment is complete 

PEONIES 

Best varieties in strong clumps 

PHLOX AND IRIS 

in Vigorous, Field-Grown plants 
New and choice sorts 

It is planting time now. Send to-day 
for our catalogue 

FRANKEN BROTHERS, Deerfield, 111. 



THE most complete stock of 
hardy plants in America. Illus- 
trated catalog of hardy plants, shrubs, 
trees and bulbs sent free on request. 

ELLIOTT NURSERY COMPANY 

326 Fourth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



m iiii iii 



=iv : ===r-j=j 



iliiiiil: 



Hi 



^KINNER 

System 



OF 1 R R lOATION 



DOUBLES GARDEN 
CROPS 

Saves them from drought loss. Ab- 
solutely bothertess. Special sprink- 
lers for lawns. Send for booklet. 

THE SKINNER IRRIGATION CO. 

SI 9 Water Street Troy, Ohio 




OF ALPINES AND ROCK 
PLANTS from the rugged slopes 
of the Rocky Mountains will con- 
dense more joy into a small space 
than any other style of Fall Gar- 
dening. The list includes rare and 
choice varieties of Anemone, Co- 
lumbine, Clematis, Delphinium, 
Gentian, Evening Primrose, 
Pentstemon, Yucca, Hardy Cacti, 
and many others not commonly 
cultivated, all hardy and easily 
grown. 

Besides native plants, we grow 
and catalogue all the best orna- 
mentals for the Northwest, in- 
cluding trees, shrubs, evergreens 
and hardy flowers. Either cata- 
logue free. 



Rockmont Nursery, Boulder, Colo. 



DUTCH BULBS 

are coming! 

The Quality of "Diamond Brand" Bulbs of igi7 crop 
promises to be superfine! We are not so sure about the 
Quantity, but hope enough will reach us to go around. 
C^^.V.7 rtffov To popularize the giant-flower- 

opeciai \jTrer. — i ng darwm tulips we wui 

mail 12 blooming bulbs each of CLARA BUTT, clear salmon 
pink, PHIDE OF II A i It 1.1 Ml. deep rose shaded 
scarlet and GRETtllEN, very light salmon, &f 
30 fine bulbs In all, postpaid for V 1 

FREE:— Treasures of Bulbland 

describes the choicest Hyacinths, Tulips. Daffodils, 
etc. Delivery in September. Write for your 
copy TO-DAY. 

NETHERLAND BULB CO., 32 Broadway, N. Y. 



If a problem grows in your garden write to the Readers' Service for assistance 



October. 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



101 




10£ a a ^n d Tulips for 25c 

Try this test collection and see what beautiful 
and stately varieties we have in this new class of 
Tulips, that grow 3 to 4 feet tall with enormous 
blossoms of the most wonderful colors. 
10 large bulbs, 10 sorts named f mailed for 25 cents 

Our Big Fall Catalogue Free 

All the best Hyacinths, Tulips, Narcissus, Crocus, Lilies, 
Iris and other hardy bulbs. Also Perennial Plants, 
Shrubs, Vines, Small Fruits and beautiful window 
plants for winter blooming. Over 30 exquisite varie- 
ties of Boston Ferns. 

JOHN LEWIS CHILDS, Inc., Floral Hark, N. Y. 



Fraser's Ready-to-Bear 
FRUIT TREES 

Dwarf Apples, 9 year old, $15 each. Four years old 
Apples, Pears, Plums, and Cherries, SI. 50 to S2.00 
each. Plant them this fall; gather fruit two years from 
now. If you want younger trees write for our catalogue. 

Samuel Fraser Nursery, Inc. 

173 Main Street, Geneseo, New York 





bunken Path H 



Bench House 



WRITE FOR CATALOGUE AT ONCE 
IMMEDIATE SHIPMENT ALWAYS 

SUNLIGHT DOUBLE GLASS SASH CO. 
927 East Broadway Louisville, Ky. 



FROST CANT STOP 
A BRAVE GARDEN 

It goes on green and growing Fall, Winter and Spring, 
if it is properly equipped with 



Sr Hot beds 

and Cold frames 

A Cold-Frame or a Hot-Bed, or both, at a small cost 
will hold your plants safe and give you profits worth while 
and pleasure unlimited. Double Glazed Sash are best, 
but we carry single glazed also. 

A Small, Ready-made Sunlight Greenhouse will give 
you the added advantage of working indoors. These also 
are double-glazed or single-glazed at your option. 



iX 






1 A Garden of Glory from Spring to Fall 

With a planting of carefully selected Iris and Phlox your 
garden will be a mass of glowing color from June to October. 
The Iris with its marvelous tints and markings will be the first 
perennial to welcome summer with opening flowers. After it has 
given you a spring-ful of joy the gorgeous Phlox bursts forth to 
claim your admiration. Many delightful colors are shown by the 
different varieties, and if the proper sorts are selected, you may have 
a succession of bloom until October. 
As it is important that both Iris and Phlox should be planted in fall, 
we are making special offers of several choice sorts of each. 



New England Iris Collection 



Each 
20 cts. 
15 cts. 
25 cts. 
35 cts. 
35 cts. 



Maori King, gold and crimson 
Mme. Chereau, white and blu : 
Amas, rich blue and violet 
Her Majesty, dark rose 
King of Iris, brown and yellow 
Princess Victoria Louise, Sulphur 

and creamy plum, very distinct 35 cts. 

Collection of 18 Plants, 3 of §A # 5Q 
Each Variety, Delivered for TT- 



Cromwell Phlox Collection 



Each 
20 cts. 
20 cts. 
20 cts. 



Baron von Dedem, intense scarlet 
Eiffel Tower, cherry pink 
Europa, snow white; crimson eye 
Elizabeth Campbell, salmon pink; 

dark eye 20 cts. 

Rynstrom, carmine rose 20 cts. 

Miss Lingard, finest pure white- 
Very early flowering 20 cts. 

Collection of 18 Plants, 3 of $0 .50 
Each Variety, Delivered for O 



Cromwell Gardens Handbook of Perennials, Roses, Etc. 

Tells about the choice plants grown at Cromwell Gardens. If you have a 
garden or greenhouse you need a copy. We will send you one on request. 

CROMWELL GARDENS, A. N.Pierson, Inc. 

Box 12, Cromwell, Conn. 



Landscape Planting Plan— Free 

A few evergreens, some Norway Maples, perhaps, and 
a little well-placed shrubbery will work wonders in beau- 
tifying your home. Harrison Quality Trees will thrive 
in any climate, north or south. They are well-grown with 
vigorous, compact root systems and carefully shaped tops. 




chards- 



Tellusyour needs. Our Service Department will help you 
make a selection and work out a successful planting plan — 
allwithoutcosttoyou. Besuretosendfor our 1917catalogue 
-free. It describes a complete line of ornamental trees, 
shrubs, and vines. Also fruit trees budded from bearing or- 
al! kinds. Write to-day and be prepared for the spring planting. 



"Largest growers of fruit trees in the world' 



cjj. G. Harrison & Sons 



Proprietors 



Box 56 
Berlin, Maryland 




Advertisers will appreciate vnur mentioning The Garden Magazine in writing — and we will, too. 



102 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1917 



gliilia,, i iiuilllllMlW u. mil, ,.,,,. ,,i,~ 




Top-Notchers § 

Perennial | 

Larkspurs | 

If you like blue flowers, you 
simply must have some of 
our wonderful seedling Lark- 
spurs with their regal spikes 
six feet or more in height in 
marvelous shades of dark- 
blue, light-blue and white. 

Special Offer 

For Immediate Planting §J 

To introduce our new Seed- 
ling Larkspurs, we will send 
prepaid to any address: 

1 ^ Assorted, One-Year Old (>C^ 

J. — Field-Grown Clumps, vj)«3 |§ 

Guaranteed to bloom con- 
. tinuously year after year. 

SEND FOR OUR CATALOGUE 

"PERENNIALS FOR 

FALL PLANTING" 

Place Your Orders Now for November 
Importation, Dormant Roses. 

Charles H. Totty 

Madison New Jersey 



^O -^ COMING EVENTS -** Q 

V9LUB ^SOCIETY NEWd 



Meetings and Lectures in October 

(Followmgdates aremeetings unless otherwise specified) 

^Massachusetts Horticultural Society, Bos- 
ton, Mass. Special Exhibition of Fruits, 
by announcement. 

1. New Bedford, Mass., Horticultural Society. 

2. Lake Geneva, Wis., Gardeners' and Foremen's 

Association. 
Garden Club of Pleasantville, N. Y. 
3-5. Woman's National Farm and Garden Associa- 

tion, Chicago, 111. Annual Meeting. 

4. Marshfield, Mass., Garden Club. 

5. Pasadena, Cal., Horticultural Society. 

New York Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, N. 
Y. Lecture: Autumn Coloration. 

8. Park Garden Club, Flushing, L. I. 
Rochester, N. Y., Florist Association. 
New Rochelle, N. Y., Garden Club. 

New York Florists' Club, New York City, N. Y. 

9. Gardeners' and Florists' Club of Boston, Mass. 

Meeting and Vegetable Exhibition. 

10. Short Hills, N. J., Garden Club. 
Lenox, Mass., Horticultural Society. 
Nassau Co. Horticultural Society, Glen Cove, 

L. I. 

12. Connecticut Horticultural Society, Wethers- 

field. 

Minnesota, Minn., Garden Flower Society. 

Westchester, N. Y., & Fairfield, Conn., Hor- 
ticultural Society. 

13. Dobbs Ferry, N. Y., Horticultural Society. 
New York Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, N. 

Y. Lecture: The Relation of Forests to 
Water Supply. 

17. Rhode Island Horticultural Society, Provi- 

dence, R. I. 
Tarrytown, N. Y., Horticultural Society. 

18. Marshfield, Mass., Garden Club. 

19. Pasadena, Cal., Horticultural Society. 
California Dahlia Society, San Francisco, 

Calif. 

20. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, 

N. Y. Lecture: Fall Planting and Winter 

Protection. 
22. Park Garden Club, Flushing, L. I. 

22-24. American Civic Association, St. Louis, Mo., 

1917 Convention. 
24. Short Hills, N. J., Garden Club. 

24-25. Lenox, Mass., Horticultural Society. Fall 

Show. 

26. Connecticut Horticultural Society, Wethers- 

field. 

27. Dobbs Ferry, N. Y., Horticultural Society. 
31-Nov. 4. American Pomological Society, Boston, Mass. 

Meeting and Special Fruit Exhibition. 

Pomologists to Meet at Boston 

IpHE Thirty-fifth biennial meeting of the 
*■ American Pomological Society will be 
held in Boston, Mass., October 31 — Novem- 
ber 4, 191 7, in connection with the Massa- 
chusetts Horticultural Society and the New 
England Fruit Show. Very full and extended 
programmes covering all phases of fruit grow- 
ing will be rendered and an exceptional exhi- 
bition of fruits, fruit products, and allied ma- 
terial will be staged. Unique exhibits and 
demonstrations with some of our newer fruit 
introductions such as the Avocada, and fruit- 
juices as the Loganberry-juice will be in 
evidence. 

On the whole the event promises to be one 
of unusual interest to American pomology. 
Boston's well known attitude toward both 
amateur and professional horticulture and 
pomology assures a delightful and instructive 
week to all those attending. The Secretary, 
E. R. Lake, 2033 Park Road, Washington, 
D. C, will gladly send full programmes. The 
President isProf. W. N. Hutt, Raleigh, N. C. 

American Civic Association 

ON OCTOBER 22nd to 24th the 1917 
Convention will be held in the City of 
St. Louis, which will be the first time that this 
Association meets west of the Mississippi, 
since its formation at the St. Louis World's 
Fair in 1904. It will give an excellent oppor- 
tunity for the stimulation of greater interest 
and activity in civic work, particularly 
throughout the West and Southwest. 
{Continued on page 104) 



Why Willadean Service 



COUNTS MOST! 



: :"r: p; 1 ? - 



H Most nurserymen are conscientious and sell I 

I good plants. Yet, frequently, the plants or ■ 

■ trees fail to satisfy because they are not suited I 

■ to the planter's soil and climate or do not prop- ■ 

■ erly fill his needs. When we started in business, H 
U nearly 20 years ago, we decided to give Service m 
H First, then sell plants. Willadean Service will H 

■ help you avoid failures with plants. Right now I 
m it will gladly explain the wisdom of ( 

Fall Planting of Hardy B 

Plants and Evergreens 

M AH plants that start growth very early in the m 

■ spring must be transplanted in the fall or suffer J 
I a severe shock, often death. Peonies, Phloxes, ■ 
H Irises and all "old-fashioned" hardy perennials §§ 
|§ should be transplanted now. Evergreens, such H 

■ as we ship, with a large ball of earth, may be H 
H safely transferred to your home ground as long as B 
( the ground can be dug. Send now for complete m 

■ catalogue and ■ 

WRITE FOR FREE ADVICE 

■ on what you may safely plant now in your locality and on H 
H your particular grounds. Unless we feel sure that we can ■ 
(| satisfy you, we shall not encourage you to order. This is H 
^ the attitude that earns us the loyal appreciation of thous- Hj 
ji ands of satisfied customers every year. Let's get to- || 
= gether! We'll make your plant problems our own. 

I WILLADEAN NURSERIES Sparta, Ky. I 



mm 




EXCLUSIVELY — 

Order Now. Restricted imports will create an unpre- 
cedented demand for American-grown bulbs — stock will 
be scarce and prices high in the Spring. 




ACS 

B. HAMMOND TRACY, Box 27, Wenham, Mass. 





Cfctllah ctn 
ut-to-Fit 

Greenhouses 

set into your place as well as if a high priced archi- 
tect planned them — and at a cost complete as low 
as his fee. 
They are made in a wonderfully equipped fac- 
tory, of any size you desire, and shipped 
to you so worked and marked any car- 
penter can set Ihem up. 

Factory production makes possible the 
best building at the lowest price. Hence 
they have every approved feature, and 
are as durable as they are artistic. 
Quality construction in every particular. 
Let us send you our catalogue telling 
all about them. 

CAI.LAIIAN DUO-GLAZED SASH CO. 
1313 Fonrlli Sd-cet Dayton, Ohio 



The Readers' Service will gladly furnish information about Gardening 



October. 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



103 






Peonies You Will Like 

Big, glorious flowers, a 
single one of which is a 
whole bouquet in itself; 
marvels in size, yet 
graceful in form; of 
charming tints and 
shades, delightfully fra- 
grant and long lasting 
after cutting, such are 

Brand's 

AMERICAN 
SEEDLINGS 

The sturdiest, ruggedest 
peonies that ever grew. 
They surpass many of 
the choicest imported 
sorts in freedom of bloom 
and worth-while character- 
istics. Because we have faith 
in the future of these dis- 
tinctly American creations, 
we have gathered about us 
the largest collection in the 
East. Exceptional care in 
growing and labeling them 
enables us to offer them 

Guaranteed 

True-to-Name 

Plan to plant some this 

month. Our collection of 

both American and European varieties consists of over 400 of the choicest. All 

dug.packed and shipped wi th greatest care to insure you the choicest flowers quickly. 

Send for free catalogue, describing all we grow in our nursery. Besides peonies, 

we grow every year about 500 distinct sorts of choice Gladiolus. Become ac- 

quainted^write NOW. 

BABC0CK PEONY GARDENS, R.F.D. No. 80, Jamestown, N.Y. 



Our Bulb 







Archie Brand — None Better 



if 



Specials 

include the newest and 
most beautiful types of 
Tulips and Narcissus. 

Collection A 75c 

One each of the follow- 
ing rare Narcissus and Daf- 
fodils : 

Elvira, King Edward VII, Cas- 
sandra, Madam de Graff, Glory, 
King Alfred, Glory of Noordwyk, 
Red Star, Firebrand, White Lady. 

75c Collection B 75c 

One each of these mag- 
nificent Breeder Tulips : 

Bronze Queen, Cardinal Man- 
ning, Chas. Dickens, Chestnut, Feu 
Ardent, Fairy, Golden Bronze, Go- 
det Par fait, Lucifer, Madras, Ma 
hony, Prince of Orange, Sabrina, 
Yellow Perfection. 

Our Free Catalogue 

'J ' Is a Textbook on Bulbs. Beautifully il- 

lustrated and giving exceptional informa- 
'. ' tion. It is a book you will keep for study 

and reference. Send for it to-day. 

WOOD, STUBBS & CO., Louisville, Ky. 



7 

7 



*m^/ 



INCORPORATED 



_3 



-Roses for Fall Planting^ 

Plant now for indoor bloom this winter and for early out- 
door bloom next summer. You'll find a lot of helpful 
suggestions in our 

Autumn Floral Guide 

Lists and describes Pot Roses for indoor bloom, Own-root 
Roses and Hardy Climbers for out-door fall planting. Also 
hardy Ornamental Flowering Shrubs, Peonies, double 
herbaceous. Hardy Perennials, Hyacinths, single and double, 
Tulips, tested on our own grounds, and fall seeds for fall 
planting indoors and out. 

Send a postal for the Guide to-day 

CONARD • ROSES 
& JONES CO., Box 24. WEST GROVE, PA. 
Robert Pyle, Prrs. A. Wintzer, Vice-Pres. 

Rose Specialists — Backed by so years' experience. 




KRELAGE'S BULBS 

For Fall Planting 

We have arranged to supply our patrons 
with a limited quantity of choice hyacinths. 
Narcissi, Darwin Tulips, etc., in popular as- 
sortment from stock in New York. A list of these 
will be sent free on request by 

J. A de VEER, 100 William Street, New York 

Sole Agent for E. H. Krelage & Son, Haarlem, Holland 



IRIS 

PEONIES 

PHLOX 



12 Choice Iris named SI. 00 
12 Choice Phlox . . . 1.00 

Peonies 2.00 

Send for list 
GEO. N. SMITH, Wellesley Hills, Mass. 



Horsford's 
Cold Weather 



and 
Lilium 
Bulbs 
PlaniS Ready Now 

Planted this fall they will 
give you beautiful blooms 
next spring and summer. 

HOLLAND BULBS 

in Darwin, and other fine 
Tulips, Hyacinths, Daffo- 
dils, etc. Autumn Bulb 
Catalogue No. N on request. 

F. H. HORSFORD 

Charlotte Vermont 



Don't pay a nickel each for 

Peaches and Pears 

when you can pick them off the trees 

Fruit picked ripe from the trees is far superior in taste 
to that which you buy from the vendor's stand. Such 
fruit is generally picked green and allowed to ripen in 
transit. Fruit, deprived of the nutritious sap from the 
mother stem, sometimes for weeks, can never equal the 
luscious flavor of that freshly picked. 

Go into partnership with Nature and let her provide winter luxuries for your 
table. Grow your own fruit and enjoy jams, preserves and jellies when- fruit is 
scarce. Your home grown, home made preserves are infinitely superior to the 
higher priced "canned" varieties. 




But when you plant, take care to plant sturdy 
stock of proven merit, that your forethought, ex- 
pense and effort may not be expended in vain. 
Hicks fine fruit trees, berry bushes, grape vines 
and strawberry plants are all of pedi- 
-' ''. greed strain. The) are now in prime 
\ condition to transplant. 

Hicks fruit trees planted 
this fall will gain a year's 




growth over those put out next sprin_ 
chance of loss because Hicks trees, big a 
guaranteed to grow satisfactorily 

Be sure to plant currants, 
gooseberries, and raspb 
ries. A few bushes 
of each will supply the 
needs of a family. 
Send for catalog. 



You take no 
nd small, are 



HICKS NURSERIES 



Box M, Westbury, L. I. 



Phone 68 




Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in writing — and we will, too 






104 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1917 




TULIPS NARCISSI 

HYACINTHS 

FALL is here and it is time to secure your bulbs if your spring 
garden is to be the delight you would have it. 

Let me supply your needs. I have all the finest varieties; the quality 
is the best and I know the results will please you. 

Send to-day for my catalogue "Your Spring Garden." 




172 Broadway 



>-~~ga££j 



Paterson, N. J. 





DON'T TAKE CHANCES 
WITH YOUR TREES 

Let us take care of thein now. We will know 
what to do and do it right. Experts in cavity 
filling, blocking, bracing, etc. Representatives 
available everywhere. Send for "Tree Talk" — 
the tree lover's manual. 

THE F. A. BARTLETT COMPANY 
538 Main Street Stamford, Conn. 




OSES Sf NEW CASTLE 



— the most authoritative book on rose planting, cultiva- 
tion and pruning ever published. Beautifully printed in 
colors, this valuable guide gives special prices and tells 
all about our famous Roses, Plants and Bulbs. It's the 
lifetime experience of America's largest rose growers. 
You will be astonished at our low prices. Tells how 
we prepay express charges anywhere in the U. S. and 
guarantee safe delivery. Write to the Rose Specialists 
for your copy to-day. 

HELLER BROS. CO., Box 1021, New Castle, Ind. 



Narcissus Bulbs Ready 

Mixture, composed mainly of varieties Poeticus Ornatus, P. 
Poetarum, P. Pheasant's Eye, single and double yellow Incom- 
parabilis, Stella, Barrii conspicuus, Mrs. Langtry, Dolly Cup, 
Minnie Hume, with occasional bulbs of other varieties. $1.00 
per ioo, #8.00 per icoo, postage or express paid. Prices on 
larger quantities furnished on request. 

Oronogo Flower Gardens Carthage, Mo. 



ORCHIDS 

Largest importers and growers of 
Orchids in the United States 

Send twenty-five cents for catalogue. This amount will be refunded 
on your first order. 

LAGER & HURRELL 
Orchid Growers and Importers SUMMIT, N. J. 




A Charming Birdbath 



w. 



of Artificial Stone 

fifteen inches square, three 
inches thick, hollowed out round 
two and one half inches deep in 
centre sloping to three-eighths 
at edge. Inexpensive, Practical, 
Artistic. 

Price $2.00. Three for $5.50, f. o. b. Verona. 
VERONA BIRD HOUSES. SEND FOR LIST 
H. BAYLES Verona, New Jersey 



Irises, Hardy Plants, Lilies and 
Japanese Garden Specialties 

Send for our new 1917-18 Catalogue 
Over 500 fine varieties of Irises 

Rainbow Gardens 



1980 Montreal Avenue 
St. Paul, Minn. 



SUNDIALS 

Real Bronze Colonial Designs 
From $3.50 Up 

Also Bird Baths, Garden Benches, Fountain 
Sprays and other garden requisites. 
Manufactured by 

The M. D. JONES CO. 
72 Portland St. Boston, Mass. 

Send for illustrated Price-List 




Traxler's Collection of Fragrant Peonies 

This collection contains all of Mr. Brand's "America's 
Best," all of the world's best, and nothing but the best. 
Nothing but fragrant varieties and only the best of these. 

You cannot ship bulbs from Holland. Why not plant 
peonies instead? 

Send for descriptive folder and price list. 
JOHN A. TRAXLER, 225 West 24th St., Minneapolis, Minn. 



THE BEAUTY 

of Hardy Phlox can not be imagined. 
They must be seen both in color and Show. 
I have over 300 varieties. Send for list. 

W. F. SCHMEISKE 

Hospital Station, Box 11 Bingham ton, N. Y. 




"^UJ,LlM*i,l.«ii"'» 



Beautify Furniture 

Protect Floor and Floor Coverings 
from injury by using 

Glass Onward Sliding 
Furniture Shoe 

in place of casters. 

If your dealer will not supply you 

write us. 

ONWARD MFG. CO. 

MENASHA, WIS. DEPT. T 




JLM Anr CO! TIT from your trees if you keep 
IVlWlxH- ri\Ul 1 them free from San Jose 
^Scale, Aphis, White Fly, etc., by spraying with 

GOOD'SSSFISH OIL 

SOAP N?3 

Kills all tree pests without injury to trees. Fertilizes 

soil and aids healthy growth. 

rnrP Our valuable book on Tree and 
r I\L«Li plant Diseases. Write today. 
JAMES GOOD, 2111-15 E. Susquehanna Ave., Phila. 




Underground Garbage Receiver 

Lynn »»„ OI » M .„» mass, installed at your home — means less danger from infantile pa- 
ralysis germs. Act NOW — for your protection. Eliminate the dirty garbage pail. Be- 
fore buying send for our catalogue. It will pay you. 

12 years on the market Look for our Trade Marks Sold direct factory 

C. H. STEPHENSON. Manufacturer. 40 Farrar Street. Lynn, Massachusetts 




III 
"BUFFALO" PORTABLE POULTRY RUNWAYS 

= enable you to make any size yard or runway desired. Can be moved to other locations at will. Prices as follows: 

= 7 ft. long x 5 ft. high $3.75 per section 8 ft. long x 2 ft. high $2.00 per section 

|H 2 ft. 6 in. long i 5 ft. (Gate) 1.60" «< ft. long x 2 ft. high 1.00 " " 

^ Above prices are for orders consisting of six sections or more and are F.O.B. cars Buffalo, N. Y. Best article on the 

= market for young- chicks, ducks, geese, and other small fowl or animals, also for enclosing small gardens in season. 

= Place your order to-dayl You will be well satisfied. Send check, money order or New York draft and we will send 

= you the greatest article on the market for poultry or dog kennel purposes. Booklet 67A describing this system will = 

g be mailed gratis upon request. BUFFALO WIRE WORKS CO. f Formerly Scheeier'» Sons) 46? Terrace, BUFFALO, N. Y. j 

iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 




(Concluded from page 102) 

Women Horticulturists' Meeting 
at Chicago 

PHE Woman's National Farm and Gar- 
den Association, organized to promote 
the practical training of women in outdoor 
occupations, will hold its annual meeting in 
Chicago, October 3rd, 4th and 5th at the 
New Morrison Hotel, Corner of Clark and 
Madison Streets. The President of this 
Association, Mrs. Francis King of Alma, Mich- 
igan, is well known to our readers, and its 
membership includes upward of 2,000 women 
actively engaged in a large way in farming, 
gardening, poultry and cattle raising. A cor- 
dial invitation is extended to every woman to 
write to the Secretary, Miss Hilda B. Loines, 
600 Lexington Avenue, New York City, for 
further information. 

Big Events for St. Louis in 191 8 

"D Y A radical change of plans the Society of 
- L ' American Florists' has taken a decidedly 
progressive step in arranging that its annual 
Convention for 1918 shall run simultaneously 
with the great biennial National Flower Show 
at St. Louis, April 6th to 15th. Mr. C. H. Totty 
is elected President for 1918, and in 1919 the 
Convention will go to Detroit. The united 
gatherings at St. Louis next April should be 
the greatest meeting of horticulturists, florists, 
and gardeners ever brought together. 



Some Bulbs Assured 



T I 



HE bulb situation this year is very 
-"- complex and from indications, at this 
writing (September 15th) there is little likeli- 
hood of any Dutch bulbs even arriving in this 
country before the first week in October. 
Under normal conditions the bulbs are usually 
here about the latter part of August or the first 
week in September, and the dealers anticipate 
an enormous congestion of business in the ef- 
fort to fill in six weeks orders that ordinarily 
are spread over twelve weeks. "Just now," 
writes one large dealer, "in fact I hardly see 
how the thing can be done." The purchaser 
must indeed possess himself in patience, and 
be considerate in the matter of delays, etc., and 
not blame too much to the dilatoriness of the 
dealers, who this year at least will possibly 
be entirely innocent. 

About three weeks ago a report appeared in 
the newspapers to the effect that the Holland 
government had prohibited the exportation 
of bulbs. Retail catalogues were ready for 
distribution and had to be held up pending 
further advices. Quick action on the part of 
the trade through the Holland Ambassador and 
our own State Department at Washington 
disclosed that this embargo referred only to 
small bulbs which had been sent last season 
to Germany for the feeding of cattle, and that 
there was no embargo on the normal supplies of 
the class of bulbs handled in this country. The 
only difficulty was the transportation. 

Large quantities of bulbs have undoubtedly 
been on the docks in Rotterdam since early 
in August, and we understand that 26,000 
cases left on board the S.S. Waaldyk Septem- 
ber 7th, due to arrive about the time this issue 
of The Garden Magazine is published. 

Now, while the dealer will of course do all 
in his power to get off all shipments when the 
goods arrive, the purchaser must be patient, 
but before all else he must needs also act 
promptly in placing his order if he does not 
want to run the risk of "getting left," for 
"first come first served." 



October, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



105 




::i 



IRON FENCE AND ENTRANCE 

GATES OF ALL DESIGNS AND 

FOR ALL PURPOSES, 

WE INVITE CORRESPONDENCE WITH 
THOSE WHO ARE INTERESTED> 

The Stewart Iron Works Co., Inc. 

**The World's Greatest Iron Fence Builders" 
650 Stewart Block Cincinnati, Ohio 

WRIT E FO R BOOK OF PES I G N S 



J • J it J H J • J 



SUN DIALS 



v'/nw 



Pedestals, Gazing Globes 

Dials to order for any latitude. Guar- 
anteed to record sun time to the minute. 

Illustrated detailed information sent upon request 
Ask for Folder C-2 

E. B. Meyrowitz, Inc., B iVw t \Tt"" e 

Branches: Brooklyn, Detroit, St. Paul. Minne- 
apolis, London, Paris. 



it J it J * 



A Garden Library for a 
Dollar and a Quarter 

Bound volumes of THE GARDEN MAGAZINE represent 
the last word on gardening. It is really a loose leaf cyclope- 
dia of horticulture. You are kept up to date. Save your cop- 
ies of THE GARDEN MAGAZINE and let us bind them 
for you. There is a new volume every six months, and Vol. 
24 is ready now. Send your magazines by Parcel Post and 
we will supply index, and bind them for you for $1.25. If 
you have not kept all of the numbers, we will supply the 
missing copies at 25c each, or we will supply the bound vol- 
ume complete for $2.00. THE GARDEN MAGAZINE can 
be of more service this year than ever before, and you can 
get most out of the magazine when you bind it, and keep 
it in permanent form. Address: 

' Circulation Department 

GARDEN MAGAZINE, Garden City, N. Y. 




Your Surest Chance to Get 
Holland's Best Bulbs 

is to send for Waterer's Bulb Catalogue — one of the 
most complete lists now ready. 

We ordered our stock and issued our catalogue 
"as usual" and are reasonably sure that sailings 
between the United States and Holland will be 
continued regularly so insuring the delivery of 
our goods. 

Get our catalogue and order without delay — now, 
before you forget. 

HO SEA WATERER— BULBS 



107-109 So. 7th St. 




PHILADELPHIA 





Guaranteed Costs ! 



Send to-day for free book— 200 plans— 
"Gordon- Van Tine Homes." Shows bungalows and 

houses $300 up. All wholesale. Ready-cut or not Ready-cut. 
Built everywhere by our 100,000 customers. Highest quality 
| material supplied complete. Prompt delivery anywhere. 2329 

Gordorv VanTineCft. ™££T* 

Satisfaction Guaranteed or Money Bach Davenport, Iowa 



PEONIES 

Fifteen fine named Peonies for $2.50, or 25 for $5.00, all 
different and truly labeled, a chance to obtain a fine collec- 
tion at half price, comprising such varieties as Festiva Max- 
ima, Delachei, Achillea, Lady L. Bramwell, Couronne d'Or, 
Prolifica Tricolor, Louis Van Houtte, and various other fine 
sorts. With any order of above for S5.00 I will include one 
plant of Baroness Shroeder, free. I have the largest stock in 
America of Lady Alexandra Duff (absolutely true) and many 
other fine varieties. Send for catalogue. 

W. L. GUMM, Peony Specialist 

Remington, Indiana 


The World's Choicest 

PEONIES 

Including all the New and Rare Varieties 

Le Cygne, Solange, Therese, La France, Martha Bulloch, 
Tourangeele, La Lorraine, Pnmevere, Rosa Bonheur, 
M. M. Cahuzak, Lovelines, Enchanteresse, Jubilee, etc. 
Send for new catalogue. Now ready. 

D. W. C. RUFF 
Globe Building St. Paul, Minn. 


TULIP BULBS, Postpaid 

Price per 100. Twenty-five of a kind at 100 rate, 
provided order totals 100 bulbs or more. 

Bouton d'Or, yellow . $1.20 Kate Greenaway, faint 

Caledonia, orange scarlet 1.60 P m k $2.00 

Mixed Parrots, feathered Mrs - p ° tter Palmer, dark 

edges 1 20 purple . ... 3.00 

■mi- j ht , -ci • Bar. de laTonnaye, pink 2.00 

all colo s y Fl0Wenng ' . 20 Wedding Veil, light gray 2.00 
all colors • • • • 1-20 white Queen _ blush 

tarncombe Sanders, red 3.00 white 200 

Clara Butt, salmon pink 2.00 Mixed Darwins, all 

As many more varieties in list. Send for it. 

0R0N0G0 FLOWER GARDENS Carthage, Mo. 


ROSES 

The aristocrats of rosedom are Fairfax 
roses grown on their own roots under 
slowly natural conditions (never forced), 
they are heavy, stocky and vigorous, and 
will bloom the first season under ordinary 
care. Send for my free booklet which gives 
valuable information for those wishing an 
abundance of roses next summer. 

W. R. GRAY 

Box 6 Oakton, Va. 



Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in writing — and we will, too. 



106 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1917 



Plant NOW, if You Would Enjoy 
The Glory of Lilacs Next Spring 



*>- 



4 



Lilacs begin to thrive so early in the spring that transplanting during 
that season often produces a serious setback and subsequent loss of a 
season's bloom. By setting out these highly ornamental and most useful 
shrubs this month, you gain a whole year of enjoyment. While planning 
which kind to plant, consider our exceptionally choice collection of 

New Hybrids on their Own Roots 

Own root lilacs are the only kind to plant. They are sturdier, hardier, bloom more freely 
and will always come true, no matter how severely they are pruned. The following 
choice varieties are our leaders: 

ALPHONSE LAVALLE, very large, blue, shaded violet. 
FRAU B. DAMMANN, immense single, pure white. 
MADAM LEMOINE, splendid double white. 
MAD. CASIMIR PERIER, a superb creamy white. 
SENATEUR VOLLAND, rosy red of charming shade. 
SOUVENIR DE L. SPAETH, most distinct purplish red. 
Prices for all of above, each $1.00. 12 for $10.00 

We will ship one fine specimen plant of each of above, 6 choice 
kinds for $5.00. All carefully dug, packed, and guaranteed to 
arrive in first-class growing condition. 

Complete Catalogue Free — Write To-day 

The book is really a complete index to the vast plant resources of our extensive 
nurseries. Whether you want fruits or ornamentals, in single specimens or thousand 
lots, we can serve you — and always with top-notch quality. 

AMERICAN NURSERY CO., Inc., Singer Bldg., N.Y. 

800 Acres— at Flushing, L. I. and Springfield, N. J. 



Special Offer: 



Right Now is the Time 
to Order Evergreens 

SEPTEMBER and October are suc- 
cessful months for transplanting 
Evergreen Trees and Shrubs. Ground 
and weather conditions are good and 
the roots have a chance to take hold 
and become acclimated. 

Evergreen Trees and Shrubs pur- 
chased at Andorra are bound to yield 
good results because they are grown 
right — lifted with a large ball of fine 
roots and securely packed for ship- 
ment. 

No matter what the distance, Andorra 
Trees and Shrubs will reach you in 
good condition. Our Catalogue — 
"Suggestions for Effective Planting" 
will enable you to order promptly and 
satisfactorily by mail. 

Andorra Nurseries 

Wm. Warner Harper, Prop. 

Chestnut Hill, Phila., Pa. 

Box 100 



California's Native Plants 

Do Well in Eastern Gardens 

A great number of my Californian plants 
are just as much at home in eastern 
gardens as in their native haunts. A 
planting of my novelties will add a dis- 
tinct Californian charm to your garden. 
They are fully described in Catalogue A, 
which gives fuU cultural directions. 

The Charm of English Gardens 

is obtained by plantings of hardy perennials. 
At The Terraces I have what is probably 
the most complete hardy plant collection to 
be found west of the Alleghanies. 

My New Catalogue E contains lists of 
about 200 different Irises, besides com- 
plete lists of Phlox, Larkspurs, Holly- 
hocks, Poppies, Michaelmas Daisies, and 
many other beautiful flowers. Full cul- 
tural directions are also given. Cata- 
logue E, or any of my catalogues, will be 
sent free on application. 

CARL PURDY 

The Terraces Box A, Ukiah, Cal. 



.;::,::.;.. run 



PERENNIALS 



AN UNUSUAL 
OPPORTUNITY 



IB ;■:■ ■■", 



Ten Cents Each — Not less than $1.00 worth sold; Express collect (no stamps, please) 
50 for $5.00. 100 for $10.00. Express prepaid 

HARDY PHLOXES in white, red or 
pink. 

BLEEDING HEART (Strong Roots.) 
GYPSOPHILA (Baby's Breath) 
DELPHINIUMS the most heavenly 
blue flower that ever graced a garden. 
We grow them by the thousands. Bella 
Donna and other finest Hybrids. 
GAILLARDIA, the lovely, artistic 
Blanket flower. 

How about Peonies? We grow them. Send for named list. 1917 Reliable Home Grown Seeds also 
Order from this ad direct, mentioning the Garden Magazine 



SWEET WILLIAM, Auricular Flow- 
ered and Newport Pink. 
AQUILEGIA (Columbines), Long 
Spurred and California Hybrids. 
COREOPSIS (one of the finest pure 
yellow flower that grows) . 
ACHILLEA and ANCHUSA. 
SHASTA DAISY, "Alaska" 



Strong, field grown plants ready for Oct. 
and Nov.planting. These plants will make 
a big showing in your garden next season 
and will thrive and grow in any climate. 
PUGET SOUND HARDY NATIVE 
FERNS. Giant Sword Ferns, 2 to 3 feet, 
35 cts. large clumps, prepaid.) Giant 
Maiden Hair Ferns, 2 to 3 feet, 35 cts. 
per clump, prepaid. 



The Pudor Farms 



Puyallup, Washington 



Vegetables Planted in Autumn 



i:;Eiji:iEJii.jiJi;ii;:jjiitt!i!.,Ujj;::i, 



:■■;: "■.'''!: ail 



^TURNIP-ROOTED chervil is a good vege- 
■*■ table for home use. The edible part is the 
root, which is used in the same manner as the 
carrot. The leaves are used the same as pars- 
ley for garnishing and in flavoring soups. I 
sow the seeds in the open ground as early" as 
possible in the autumn. It germinates the 
following spring and matures in early summer 
but is improved by remaining in the ground. 
As a fact, radishes are suited to early spring 
and late autumn planting. I sow the seeds of 
Early Scarlet Short Top, French Breakfast, 
etc., in a hotbed or a cold frame, and they are 
easily grown during the winter. Spinach is 
well known as the standard plant for spring 
and fall greens, although for home use it may 
be grown also during the summer, especially 
the New Zealand variety. To have an early 
supply for home use, some grow it under glass. 
I don't. I sow the seeds in the open ground in 
early fall and it produces an abundance of 
greens during the late autumn and early 
spring. To be sure with the crop over winter 
and to hasten its early maturity, I slightly top- 
dress the beds with manure in the fall. It 
does well. My winter supply of lettuce comes 
from the seeds of Boston Market, sown in the 
autumn in a cold frame, the plants being later 
transplanted in a hotbed. It takes from 60 to 
90 days before it is ready for use. By the time 
the lettuce is consumed we have ready for use 
the Green Curled variety of endive, which 
seeds I sow a month or so earlier than the 
lettuce seeds. I plant corn salad, which is 
valued for salad purposes, for greens and 
seasoning as the plants are hardy and it takes 
only 60 days to get the crop ready for use, I 
make two sowings in the autumn, both in a 
cold frame, one for late autumn use, September 
1, and the other in the late fall, to be wintered 
for early spring use. For a winter supply of 
garden cress I sow the seeds in boxes, and cress 
is easily grown in the house. Succession sow- 
ing may be made as often as every 30 to 40 
days. Parsley is the most popular of all gar- 
nishing herbs. The leaves are used also for 
salads and for flavoring. It takes 90 to 120 
days to make the crop ready for use, so, in or- 
der to have an early crop of parsley, I sow the 
seeds in a cold frame in September, and make 
successional sowings continually. For winter 
I transplant the strongest plants to cold 
frames, so as to gather leaves all winter. 

For an early supply of cabbage, I sow the 
seeds of the Jersey Wakefield in the autumn in 
a cold frame, the plants being later trans- 
planted and wintering under sash. During 
the winter the plants make a slow, steady 
growth. With some hardening before trans- 
planting in the open ground early in the 
spring, a good crop of early cabbage may be 
expected. In order to have an early spring 
supply of onions, I plant the potato or multi- 
plier onion sets in the autumn and a succession 
crop in February. The sets planted in the 
fall remain in the soil over winter and produce 
excellent early green onions, and by the time 
these onions are consumed/ the crop planted in 
February is ready for use. I also plant in the 
autumn the small bulbs of the top or tree var- 
ieties, which produce onions the following sea- 
son. The Welsh onion seeds stand well the 
winter of our vicinity and I sow them liberally. 
The leaves are mild in flavor and are used in 
seasoning. They are ready for use just by the 
time the chive beds are heavily picked off and 
couldn't be relied on for some time to supply 
the seasoning for home use. 

Maryland Samuel H. Garekol. 



Advertisers uill appreciate your mentioning Tlie Garden Magazine in writing— and we ■will, too 



October, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



107 



Dainties from the Sunny South 

Here's a thoughtful gift for the boy or girl away 
from home or for any friend whose palate appreciates 
tasty delicacies. Kumquat, Guava and Scupper- 
nong Jelly. Orange and 

Pineapple Preserve and Grape 
Fruit Marmalade of such high 
quality as to be distinctive and un- 
forgettable. Just think how these 
would taste to you through a lone- 
some Yuletide or through a period of 
convalescence and send them along! 
A satisfying, airtight, unbreakable 
cupful of the choicest of the warm 
Southland's sweet-meats in a green 
wooden box bearing a poinsettia 
decoration and a beautiful, hand- 
tinted presentation design and verse 
— all sent postpaid for $2.00. 
timely suggestion from 1000 
in the Pohlson Year Book 
of New and Distinctive 
Gifts that carry a message of 
discrimination and thought- 
fulness. This book, sent with 
any purchase comes alone for 
6c in stamps. It is a marvel 
of ingenuity — the key to a 
shopping season of delight. 
Send for it. No. 1669. Southern Dainties 

POHLSON GIFT-SHOPS 
22 Bank Bldg. Pawtucket, R. 1 




yjililMttil; . . 



DEMING 



C minutes a day and a Deming 
airpressure pumping system elim- 
inate household inconven- 
ience — insure running 
water in home and barns 
winter or summer. Large, 
free Bulletin gladly mailed 
— write 



The Deming Co. 

120 Depot St., Salem, Ohio 



r 





POlfERY 

GIVES ENDURING CHARM 



Send for our illustrated -w- 
'catalogue of Flower Pots. 
Boxes.'Vases.Benches". Sundials. 
Gazing Globes, Bird Fonts and 
other Artistic Reces lor Garden 
and_InteriorDecoration. 

GATSOV8H5rlERRAG)TTA(b. 

3214 WALNUT ST. PHILADELPHIA. 



Have You Gardening Questions? Experts 
will answer them free. If a plant fails, tell us about 
it and ask help from the Readers' Service. 



I For Safe 
f/ / Tree Surgery 

^ / The Davey Tree Expert Co. 

^A^% k 1204 Elm St., Kent, O. 

Davey 

Tree Surgeons 




W< Dreer's Reliable 
J Spring-Blooming 

4 / Bulbs 

DO not miss the joy of having a bed or border 
of bulbs next Spring. Plant them this Fall 
as early as you can and success is certain. 

We import the very highest grades of the finest 
varieties and offer in our Autumn Catalogue splen- 
did collections of Hyacinths, Tulips, Narcissus, 
Crocus, Snowdrops, etc., etc. 

The Fall is also the time to set out Hardy 
Perennial Plants, Vines, Shrubs, etc. Our Autumn 
Catalogue also gives a complete list of seasonable 
seeds, plants and bulbs for out-doors, window 
garden and conservatory. 

M ailed free to any one mentioning this 



Henry A. Dreer, 'SdESSTp? 



fTHE PATHWAY TO PERENNIALS 
j LEADS STRAIGHT TO THE 
1 PALISADES NURSERIES 





A Highway of Perennials leading to Hampton Court Palace, London. 
By planting this Fall a similar effect can be produced by Next Summer. 

Remember — If It's a Hardy Perennial 

or so-called Old-Fashioned Flower worth growing, we have it in one shape and another in quantity 
the year round. We have the largest stock in this country, all Made in America, and our prices will 
average 15c each, $1 .50 a dozen, $10.00 per 100. 

They should be planted 
They make roots during 



"pj* 1 1 Planfincr T° Grow Hardy Perennials and Old-Fashioned Flowers Successfully. 
* **" * Irtil Llllg • j n September, October, and November like Spring-flowering bulbs. 
Fall and Winter, establishing themselves for Spring and Summer blooming. 

A PALISADE HARDY BORDER. A perfect picture in your garden to last for years will be the result if you allow 
us now to plan a scheme, whether of contrasts or of harmonies, to be carried out this Fall. Our "Artistic" Border, ioo 
feet by three feet, costs $25.00 only. Consider what is "saved" by this system, and what is gained in true beauty. 

PALISADES NURSERIES, Inc., Perennial Growers 

Visitors always welcome at out Nurseries, where they can make selections from more than a thousand varieties of Hardy Plants 



Telephone 200 Piermont 



Sparkill, N. Y., Rockland County 



Metropolitan Sectional Greenhouse 



In this Metropolitan Sectional Greenhouse, size 8 feet 6 inches wide 
by 1 2 feet long, you can grow your favorite kinds of flowers and veg- 
etables. Can be connected with the residence or garage, or put up 
as a detached house. Is glazed on all four sides, has front and rear 
doors, plant benches and ventilating system. Anybody who can 
handle a hammer can assemble it. Crated complete, with bolts, 
screws, hinges, nails, door knobs — in fact everything to finish the 
house together with detailed printed instructions for erection. Price 
$130 f.o.b. Brooklyn. With heating pipe $50 extra. With heating 
pipe and boiler $100 extra. 

M&tropditai) Mater iaIG> 



price any one can afford 



1309-1315 Flushing Avenue 



Brooklyn, New York 




Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning Tlic Garden Magazine in writing — and. we will, too 






108 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1917 




No. 582. Sweet Grass Sewing ISasket. 9 inches in diameter, 
Made in the characteristic Indian hand weave by real Indians. 
A genuine bargain 



$1.00 




No.58S. Three 
White Narcis- 
sus Hulbs 

in gift box 

No. 584. 6 Yel- 
low Polyanthus 
Bulbs, similarly 
packed 50c 

No. 585. One 

Chinese Lily 
Bulb, similarly 
packed 35c 



No. 843. Solid 10K Gold Waldemar Chain, very strongly 

made. Waldemars are the most popular watch chains on the d*0 Cf\ 
market. We offer this one at a low price «p«J«DU 

The "Baird- North Way" 

Picture yourself sitting at home in the evening 
with the family or imagine yourself alone during the 

dull hours of the day with nothing particular to do. What 
wonderful occasions to consider the Christmas Gift Problem! 

For opportunities such as these why not have the Baird-North 
catalogue when it is impossible to have the stores? With it you 
can settle your gift problems, economically, speedily and easily. 

This is the"Baird-North Way" — shopping along the lines of 
least bother, with the counsel and advice of the family or the 
careful thought due to quietness. 

The "Baird-North Way," with our particular attention to 
price and service has made us the largest Mail Order Jewelry 
House in the World. 

Send for our 200-page catalogue of Diamonds, Watches, Tew- 
elry, Leather Goods, Novelties, Toiletware, Tableware, etc. 



Every article is guaranteed to 
satisfy you or we will refund 
your money. We guar- 
antee free, safe 
and prompt 
delivery. 



$ 



Vol 



fw* 



%v 



tf#* 



V 



*# 



Gentlemen : 
Please send me 
FREE without obliga- 
tion your 200 page cat- 
alogue, containing 10,000 
articles of jewelry and gifts. 



Name. 



Address .. 



A LAWN EXPERT 
will answer your lawn questions and advise how 
to get the best lawns through the Readers' Service. 



Ideal Gift For XMAS 




Sent od 
Free 

Trial for 

Amas A f amous piedmont Red Cedar Chest for Xmas. 
choice of 90 styles and designs sent on 15 days' fre 
We pay the freight. A Piedmont protects furs, woolens, 
plumes from moths, mice, dust and damp. Distinctly beau- 
tiful. Needed in every home. Lasts for generations. Finest 
Christmas, wedding or birthday gift at great saving. 
Write to-day for our great new illustrated Christmas 
catalogue a7id reduced prices — all postpaid free. 
Piedmont Red Cedar Chest Co., Dept. 23, Statesville, N. C. 



ml 



Reduced 

Factory 
Prices. 
Fre i gilt 
Prepaid 





Some Good Things for the Small House 

Mr. James Collier Marshall, Director of the Decorating Service of The Garden Magazine's Advertising Dept.. will solve your problems of home 
decoration — color schemes, hangings, floor coverings, art objects and interior arrangements, making purchases at the most favorable prices. This 
service is free to our readers. Address inquiries to "Inside the Garden Home," The Garden Magazine, 1 1 West 32nd Street, New York. 

THERE is no place in the house where artistic effects can be achieved so easily as in the dining room. Here 
all is a matter of taste in selection and careful arrangement. Once the furnishings are decided upon the 
decorative and useful adjuncts apparently follow of their own accord. 
All the articles shown here are well suited for use in the small house where costs must be reckoned, and of 
those the dishes at the foot of the page are especially worth while. Note 
its unusual shape, the ribs of which are outlined with dull gold, that adapts 
it for use either with antique or modern furniture. An open stock set, it 
is very reasonable, the whole service of 108 pieces costing only $68.50. 

The cut glasses seen here, 

r - ■ 1 copied from the old Waterford 

JUKa BBBfiSMtT '' pattern, will be excellent com- 

^H ' : '-'"-■■■"' _^^^ panions for the white and gold 

^^^^^MMHPW^^^" china, though, of course, it 

not so cheap. This fine new 

replica of an old design is per- 

M haps better looking than its pro- 

■ H totype since the glass is clearer 

and the cuttings more sparkling 
for that reason. There are seven 
different glasses in the complete 
set — cocktail, claret, sherry, liq- 
ueur and the three shown here, 
watergoblet #50 per dozen, cham- 
pagne $45, and finger bowl $50. 
^^^^^^^ Aside from these staples for 

^Bp^B^^'^^H^ table use there sunn- very 

pK """^k teresting things for individual 

"~^ ^ use. A little yellow pottery cof- 

fee pot with creamer and sugar 

tray arranged in stack form is one of these and may be had for the 
trifling sum of $1.25. It is excellent for the breakfast tray. 
An oval tin tray about 15 inches long is also an interesting and useful adjunct of the small house. A brilliant 
parrot is wonderfully painted on a soft green ground and framed by the black rim. Price, $3. 
Tables are always good and there can never be too many of them. 

"Only once in my experience," said a well known decorator, "have I seen a house that seemed to have too 
many tables — they were everywhere and of every de- 
scription. But as they were all in use I feel obliged to 
admit they were necessary. However, the trouble lay 
not in their number but in the fact that they had not 
been properly selected for use with one another. Had 
this point been carefully attended one's attention 
would not have been attracted to their presence." 

Never was a truer statement made regarding any 
object of decoration though it doubtless applies more to 
tables than to other things. Tables are very necessary 
and several are needed in nearly every room, but they 
must be suited not only to their surroundings but to 
each other since here the comparison is keenest. 

The lyre drop-leaf table shown here is essentially a 
living room or hall piece, though it might under cer- 
tain circumstances be used in a man's sitting room 
where it would be excellent as a smoke table since its 
dimensions, 2 feet tall and 20 inches wide are well adapt- 
ed for this use. Its lyre design suits it well to the Sheraton, Heppelwhite and Early American types of furnishing, 
and at #35 it is very reasonable. 

Entirely different is the dainty tray topped stand seen beside it. This is distinctly Italian in design, its 

whole top being charmingly painted in ivory, or green, 
after the florid Florentine manner. Besides, it is dis- 
tinctly feminine and should be used only in those parts 
of the house that are strictly the woman's domain — the 
dining room, beside the tea table and in the boudoir. 
Beautifully made it sells for $41. 

Another table very satisfactory for living room and 
hall is of mahogany with four carved spool legs, two 
of which fold in very closely, permitting the round top 
to tip up, like an old fashioned tip table in effect though 
far more staple and strong. It will appeal especially to 
those who must conserve space and who need some com- 
bination arrangement for tea service and cards. Of 
mahogany it sells at $17.50. 

There is also a low mahogany stand patterned after 
the Louis XV designs, which is intended for telephone 
use. This has a capacious undershelf for telephone 
books and a shallow drawer in one end for a memo pad 
and pencil. This is quite inexpensive. 





The Readers' Service will give you suggestions for the care and purchase of cats and dogs and other pets 



October, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



109 



Serviceable Attractions for Beautifying 
Home Grounds 

"Pergolas" 

Garages with 

Pergola Features 

Lattice Fences 

Garden Houses 

When writing enclose 10c. 
in stamps and ask for 
•'Catalogue H-30." 





HARTMANN-SANDERS CO. 

Factory <fe Main Office Kew York Office 



Elston <fc Webster Ave. 
CHICAGO 



6 East 89th St. 
NEW YORK CITY 





Ifurn Your 
back on it 



It is not a 

furnace heat. It is a health heat, 
produced by the Kelsey Warm Air 
Generator. A heat that is full of tonic 
oxygen, and mixed with just the right 
amount of moisture. 

Aside from its genuine comfort, it saves 
coal. In fact, we go so far as to claim that 
it delivers more heat from less coal than 
other heats. Then we proceed to prove it. 

Want the proofs? Send for booklet. 

THE f(&LSEV 
WARM Am GENERATOR I 
232 James St. Syracuse, N. Y. 

NEW YORK— 103-P Park Avenue 
CHICAGO— 21 7-P West Lake Street 
DETROIT— 95-P Builders Exchange 
BOSTON— 405-P P. 0. Square Building 




FURNACE TROUBLE BANISHED 
LESS FUEL— MORE HEAT 



PILLEY's Clinker Tongs 

Remove clinkers from 
furnace while fire is 
alight. PILLEY'S 
CLINKER TONGS are 
flexible and retain a firm 
and steady grip on the 
clinker. Handle guards 
protect your hands from the heat. 
PILLEY'S CLINKER TONGS Will save 
their cost regularly. Less coal required 
when clinkers are removed. They are 
made of steel and iron and will lastalife 
time. SendSijo. We prepay express- 
age right to your home. Agents wanted. 
PILLEY MFG. CO. 609 3rd St., Sl Louis, Mo. 




JSlo Dealer ever offers U 
uou a substitute for 

WHITTALL RUGS 

—without a reason 

YOU don't have to buy many 
good rugs in a lifetime, be- 
cause really good rugs natu- 
rally wear a long time. So, isn't it 
strange then, how some people can 
be talked into buying a rug that 
"looks" something like a Whittall, 
just because it costs a few dollars 
less? They forget that the chief 
quality in a rug is Durability, and 
the trouble is that 

DURABILITY DOESN'T SHOW 
ON THE SURFACE 

That's why some dealers succeed in get- 
ting the extra profit on the so-called "just- 
as-good" kind. Don't let glib salesmanship 
deceive you. Invest your money in a 
\ Whittall— the rug that grows old grace- 
fully. If you will let Durability and 
Beauty be your guiding points, your 
choice must invariably be a Whittall. 



This Trade Mark is Your Protection and 
Your Guarantee 




'Oriental Art in Whittall Rugs" is a handsomely illus- 
trated book in colors, which anyone may have by writing 

M. J. WHITTALL ASSOCIATES 

303 Brussels St., Worcester, Mass. 



* 



No. 3 Poultry House for 6o hens — 2 units 



Setting Coop 



HODGSON PORTABLE HOUSES 

The various models of these houses are arranged afterjnhe most scientific methods of raising poultry. Years of experience have proved 
this. The brooder can be operated outdoors in zero weather. The poultry house is made in sections that can be quickly bolted together 
by any one. The setting coop keeps a hen by herself while setting. All neatly painted. Send for illustrated booklet. 



E. F. HODGSON COMPANY 



Room 311, 116 Washington Street, Boston, Massachusetts 
6 East 39th Street, New York City 



Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in writing — and we will, tea 



110 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1917 



Salt Mackerel 

CODFISH, FRESH LOBSTER 



FOR THE 
CONSUMER 



NOT THE 
DEALER 




FOR YOUR OWN TABLE 



FAMILIES who are fond of FISH can be supplied DIRECT 
from GLOUCESTER, MASS., by the FRANK E. DAVIS 
COMPANY, with newly caught KEEPABLE OCEAN FlSH, 

choicer than any inland dealer could possibly furnish. 

We sell ONLY TO THE CONSUMER DIRECT sending by 
EXPRESS RIGHT TO YOUR HOME. We PREPAY 

express on all orders east of Kansas. Our fish are pure, appe- 
tizing and economical and we want YOU to try some, payment 
subject to your approval. 

SALT MACKEREL, fat, meaty, juicy fish, are delicious for 
breakfast. They are freshly packed in brine and will not spoil 
on your hands. 

CODFISH, as we salt it, is white, boneless and ready for 
instant use. It makes a substantial meal, a fine change from 
meat, at a much lower cost. 

FRESH LOBSTER is the best thing known for salads. 
Right fresh from the water, our lobsters simply are boiled and 
packed in PARCHMENT-LINED CANS. They come to you 
as the purest and safest lobsters you can buy and the meat is as 
crisp and natural as if you took it from the shell yourself. 

FRIED CLAMS is a relishable, hearty dish, that your whole 
family will enjoy. No other flavor is just like that of clams, 
whether fried or in a chowder. 

FRESH MACKEREL, perfect for frying, SHRIMP to 
cream on toast, CRABMEAT for Newburg or deviled, SAL- 
MON ready to serve, SARDINES of all kinds, TUNNY for 
salad. SANDWICH FILLINGS and every good thing packed 
here or abroad you can get direct from us and keep right 
on your pantry shelf for regular or emergency use. ,«■ 

With every order we send BOOK OF RECIPES s' 

for preparing all our products. Write for it. Our ,'' 
list tells how each kind of fish is put up, with ,'" 
the delivered price so you can choose _'' Frank E. 

just what you will enjoy most. ** Davis Co. 

Send the coupon for it now. -'' Central Wharf 

,*' Gloucester, Mass. 



FRANK E. DAVIS CO. 

225 Central Wharf 
Gloucester, 
Mass. 



Please send me your latest 
Fish Price List. 



Name 



City . 



Tulip Bulbs Ready Now 

May-Flowering mixture contains nearly all the common varieties 
of the Cottage-Garden type, besides some higher priced novelties. 
Breeders, Bizarres. Violettes. Parrots, and a few Darwins. 80 
bulbs postpaid for $1.00, or 40 tulips and 50 narcissi. Tulips per 
1000. prepaid, $10.00. 



Oronogo Flower Gardens 



Carthage, Mo. 




School of Horticulture for Women 

AMBLER, PA. 

Two years' practical and theoretical course 

in Horticulture. Next entering class for 

diploma students January 15, 1918. Fall 

course of ten weeks for amateurs begins 

September 11th. Write for particulars. 

Early registration advised. 

Elizabeth Lei^hton I.ee, Director, Box 105 



■ I I Every Library must contain 
^~ a complete Kipling — that 
/\. iV. is if you plan to afford your 
children the heritage of the Anglo- 
Saxon family. 

Published by 

Doubleday, Page & Company 

Garden City, New Yor\ 



FOR. THE SOUTH 




OEGIN now to bank up the celery with 
*-* earth but only if it is dry, otherwise it 
will rot. Tie a soft twine around the celery 
plants, beginning at one end and twisting the 
twine around each plant down one row then 
up the next and down the third, using the 
same ball of soft twine to the very end of the 
last row. Pack the earth around the plants and 
as the plants grow pack it around again and so 
on until it is a high mound, and at the end of 
November cover all with pinetags or straw, 
and on top of this place boards to hold it down, 
and slope the boards like the roof of a house to 
take off the rain and snow. The celery from 
the very first should be constantly sprayed 
with bordeaux to insure against blight, and 
should also be fed with nitrate of soda or 
manure water to push it along. 

TN THE orchard remove dead limbs, prune 
-*- away the limbs that crowd each other, so 
as to let in the sunlight, and keep the young 
trees headed low to simplify the gathering of 
fruit. Plant all fruit- trees in the Autumn, 
except the stone fruits. Plant the deciduous 
trees and shrubs, with the exception of the 
Tulip Poplar and the Birch. February is the 
best time for these, as also for evergreens. 

Sow grass seed for lawn and orchard. 

Hyacinths, Tulips, Narcissus, Crocus, Lil- 
lies and other outdoor bulbs should be planted 
now. Those which were planted in pots for 
the indoor garden the last of August can now 
be brought into the house to bloom for Christ- 
mas. Bring the potted bulbs in every two 
weeks so as to have continuous bloom through- 
out the winter, first putting them in the cellar 
and then bringing them to the light and 
warmth of a sunny window. 

Get in all the tender plants, either putting 
them in a pit, greenhouse, or conservatory. 
Remember to give plenty of air every day, but 
do ont let the air blow directly on the plants 
when the weather is very cold. Water the plants 
thoroughly so the earth in the pot be wet 
through, and not a little sprinkling on top. 

Save seed of specially fine vegetables and 
flowers this year, because of the scarcity. 
Send in your order to the seedsmen as soon as 
possible, and order a sufficient amount so as 
to have continuous crops next season, plant- 
ing as much in your vegetable garden as you 
can well take care of. 

Push to maturity the lettuce in the cold- 
frames by feedingwithmanure water, and make 
another sowing of seed for a later crop, planting 
some in coldframes and some in a protected 
place in the open ground for a crop in April. 

r~\rVTDE perennials; plant hardy Roses, 
*-* plant tender ones, from pots, in spring. 
Trench the Rose beds by digging about two 
feet deep between the Roses and filling in 
with well rotted cow manure with a little 
bonemeal. 

In planting out currants, gooseberries, rasp- 
berries, grapes, and all fruit and ornamental 
trees and shrubs dig deep holes putting rich 
earth with a handful of bonemeal in the bot- 
tom, leaving the poorer soil for the top. 
Pack the earth firmly about the roots, placing 
a stake on either side to which tie the tree so 
as to prevent the strong winds displacing them. 

Virginia J. M. Patterson. 




AMERICA 

MUST FEED 

THE WORLD 



Europe is hungry. Disaster lurks 
in the wake of submarines. The 
loss of each food ship is a tragedy. 
But the idle acres of America 
could grow more food per year 
than all of the enemy's ships can 
destroy. 

Every Idle Acre Helps the Enemy 

Hinder rations and you hinder 
victory. Submarines will continue 
to sink food ships. Other ships 
and more food must take the place 
of those destroyed. 

Clear— Plow— Plant 

Remove the stumps and boul- 
ders — drain the swampy places. 
Cultivate every available acre of 
land. Don't let labor shortage 
hinder you. 

<8[HJU> 

RED CROSS FARM POWDER 

will do the work of many men — 
cheaper — better — quicker. 

GET OUR BIG BOOK FREE 

Find out how Du Pont Red 
Cross Farm Powder will not only 
save you labor but will improve 
your soil. 

Send now for your copy of 

The Giant Laborer No. 523-F. 

E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., 

Wilmington, Delaware. 



&jms»swW' jJr. 






THE READERS' SERVICE 
gives Information about Real Estate 



cale 1 



Don't Think Only of Scale 

when you think of 

"SCALECIDE" 

it is all there is to 

Dormant Spraying 

Does all that any other spray will do — but 
no other spray will do all that "SCALE- 
CIDE" will do. Kills all kinds of scale- 
all forms of fungus and insects that can be 
reached in dormant season— and invigorates 
your trees — and costs no more. Read our 
money-back proposition before ordering 
anything else. 

Send for free booklet, 
"Profits in Fall Spraying" 

B. G. Pratt Co., Mfg. Chemists 
50 Church St. Dept. I New York 



Write to the Readers' Service for suggestions about garden furniture 



October, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



111 




Follow Our Boys 

in France! 

WHEN the papers are full of the brave deeds of our boys in France 
— your boy among them — will you be able to follow each forward 
drive ? When you read "Pershing gained Laroche" what will it 
mean to you? How far have we gone from the Meuse ? How much more 
must we gain? Follow the forward drive of the allied troops with your 
boy at the front. Every village, every ridge, every small stream on the 
western front will be as clear to you as if you were there, if you have the 

New Geographical Manual 
and New Atlas 

The Story of the World in Maps 

The wonderful details of the western front form only one phase of this great work. 
There are 240 pages of maps — Maps Political, Economic, Geographic, Vegetation, 
Population, Language, Racial, Physical, Historical. There is the Dictionary of 
Vegetable, Animal, and Mineral Commodities. There are Automobile Maps of 
every state in the Union — Postal and Railroad Guide for the United States — Maps 
of the Battle Fronts. 

This an Atlas with a new idea — it doesn't only give the location and boundaries 
— it shows by colored picture maps the story of this world and the standing to-day 
of the nations. Take France, for instance. There are six different and separate 
maps of France, telling you, at a glance, whether France is rich in coal and where 
— whether it is rich in iron — what its economic situation is — what its climate is — 
what it grows — what races live there — what languages they speak. These are 
maps that call forth for you the imagination — the thrill of undiscovered countries. 
They are adventure for the man who stays at home. 

With the help of this Atlas you may look back beneath the surface actions of this 
War and realize the basic racial antagonism that caused it. You can answer a 
thousand and one questions that come up as 3~ou read. Here are a few 
that perhaps you don't know: 



What is the hottest place in the world ? 
Where is Erzerum? 
What is the Skagerak? 



Where is our newest ally — Siam? 

Where does it rain every day? 

Where is Russia's newport on the White Sear 



Perhaps you think that Siberia is a cold, frozen place 
Sahara is an unbroken stretch of 
thousands of miles of sand. You 
are wrong. Look at these maps and 
learn the truth at a glance. 



Perhaps you think the 



After the War Maps Free 



To you who order this Atlas — maps showing the 
changes made after this war will be furnished free of 
charge, just as soon as these changes are settled. 

There will be a place in the Atlas to which you can 
fasten the new maps so that, while you have a complete 
Atlas of the World now, your Atlas will still be complete 
and new when the War is over. It will be very inter- 



esting to compare your old maps with your new ones. 
This Atlas has a most complete set of war maps of 
war fronts. Remember that newspapers sometimes make 
mistakes. With these maps before you, you can see for 
yourself whether we are advancing or retreating. \ ou 
can follow your boy abroad — you can see what he sees 
and hear what he hears and go where he goes. 



Garden 
10-17 



Doubleday, 

Page & Co. 

Garden City, 

New York 



Special Low Price on One Edition Only 

The great men of the world have always studied maps. Cecil Rhodes drew a red line from the Suez Canal to the 
Cape of Good Hope where to-day the Cape to Cairo Railroad grows. Rockefeller drew his oil pipe lines on the map, 
Haniman dreamed his railroad on the map and Lord Strathcona built the Canadian Railroad empire on a map. 
All people who amount to anything read and study maps. 

For one edition the price is the price of an ordinary book, yet this is the life of the world in maps such as you never 
sawbefore. The sender of the coupon is entitled to six months' subscription to World's Work for#i. Send the coupon now. 
It costs you nothing and brings this big, rich, complete Atlas free for examination. Look it over and find out the true fas- 
cination of map hunting — of reading the news with a map at your side — of interpreting history with the help of maps. 
Send the coupon for your copy of this sumptuous Atlas, now. Send the coupon — now — before the edition is gone. 

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY, Garden City, New York 




Send me, all charges 
prepaid. Geographical 
lanual and New Atlas, 
measuring 10 x I2| inches 
-bound in fine, red, silk cloth, 
stamped in gold. If it is not satis- 
factory I will return it within 10 
_ days, at your expense. Otherwise I 
will send you 95 cents at once and $1.00 
a month for 4 months. (If you prefer you 
nay send $4.50 with this coupon.) 



Also in rich leather, price $6.95 in installments of $1.00 
monthly or $6.50 cash— Specify leather if you want it. 
You raav enter my subscription for WORLD'S WORK for 
six months at the special price of $1. 



Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning Ike Garden Magazine in writing— and we will, too 



112 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



October, 1917 



Personality In Your Home 

Does your home reflect your personality? Are it's furnishings 
and decorations representative of your own taste ? You choose 
your own clothes. Do you choose your own home ? 

The New Country Life 

The New COUNTRY LIFE represents the best in comfort and delight 
for the home. Experts in homebuilding and decorating help its 
readers to create tasteful and distinctive plans. The next three issues 
form a symposium of home making. The theme of the color manuals 
will be "Color in Country Houses," "Oriental Rugs" and "Old Prints." 
The text of these color manuals is authoritative and so complete as to 
form a thorough study of each subject. The illustrations are in full 
color, and there are from 15 to 20 pages of illustrations in each issue. 

. It is written from an architect's 

Color 111 Country HoUSeS viewpoint by Aymar Embury II, 

and will appear in October. 

The most complete and clearest ar- 
r\ • • 1 n tide on Oriental Rugs ever published. 

Unental KUgS Mr. Arthur U. Dilley interprets this 

interesting subject in November. 

This will appear in December by 
(X\A Printc ii\Y fVio Mr. Frank Weitenkampf, Curator of 

via rnnib lor ine Prints of the New York Publlc Li _ 

Country OOme brary. The color illustrations will be 
well worth framing. 
\ 

Th New x ^ y° u own a h° me or a car ' if vou ta ke pride in your home 
COUNTRY N grounds; if your hobby is dogs, poultry or cattle; if you are 
Life \ a sportsman; The New COUNTRY LIFE will help you 

Garden City, N, Y. N to attain the best in your home life. 

\ 50c A COPY $5.00 A YEAR 

Enclosed is $1 00, N M dealers do nQt carry the maga _ 

tor w n 1 c n d1c3.sc * jo 

send me the next \ zine and to be assured of getting 

three issues of The the three color manuals to use 

New COUNTRY . 1 1 

life. \ in your home planning accept our 

N . special offer of three months for 

"Name \ $1.00. If you will return the coupon 

* x we will enter your subscription for 

Address \ three months. 

; \ 

City and State \ 

G. M. \ = 




T egetable Lore 

What to Plant— How to Plant 

A MAGAZINE for the benefit of the 
amateur gardener. Its aim is to 
teach planting, growing and cooking of 
vegetables. An all-year companion of 
the home gardener. No advertisements 
—no high-sounding terms. Just truthful, 
understandable advice for the happy men 
and women to whom the garden is a play- 
ground and a patriotic necessity. Full 
value to subscribers in excess of claims 
or money refunded. Issued monthly- 
sample free— $1.00 per year. 
MAURICE FULD, T4S7 Broadway, New York 



wmm 




Brooks Rupture 
Appliance is the product 
of science. Invented and 
manufactured by sanitarium 
experts, who for 30 years have 
been treating Rupture successfully. 
Don't accept a substitute. Insist 
on Brooks Rupture Appliance, ' 
the new scientific invention that has 
proven a feodsend to rupture-tortured 
humanity. Sent on trial to prove its 
worth. Made to measure. Du- 
rable — cheap. Write today 
for free measure blanks 
and full particulars. 



Brooks 
Appli 
Company, 
275B State St. 
Marshall, Mich. 



RHE&flE 







jte. * 




















mil ■-* jpjtoi^ ■ T- r - ^Hmc 41 










mm*MZtM 






\ 


iiuunwiuui 


UK 








5 












- 




*K vrtfWtfc--., 




























>,* 




^ 


i 






3 


-; 




ML -.-*■■ 1 \ 




-'-| 












: 


Have Flowers in Your 


% 


: 


Home all Winter 


'- 




At very little expense and with but little care 


- 


; 


you can have an abundant succession of flowers 


■ "-"J 




in your home throughout the entire winter. 


I 




A Very Simple Method 


? : 




for indoor culture is given in our Autumn Bulb 


~::? 




Catalogue. Let us send you a copy. Learn how to 
bloom Paper White Narcissi, Roman Hyacinths and 


- -:" 




- 


■ - 


other attractive flowers in your home. 


i 




You will also find in this catalogue cultural directions 


a 




and a list of bulbs for fall planting outdoors. It is a 


■-.=■ 




splendid guide for amateurs — write for your copy at 


= 




once. 


=i 




Narcissi, Paper White Grandiflora 


S 




First size, 13 to 15 cms. 50c. doz. $2.75 per 100. 


---- 




$25.00 per 1000. 


t 


: 


French Roman Hyacinths, White 


-% 


; 


12 to 15 cms circumference, $1.10 doz. $8.00 j>er 100. 


« 




$75.00 per 1000. 


5- 


- 


Arthur T. Boddington Co. 


I 




Seedsman Dept. G 


0: 




128 Chambers St. New York 


i- 






1= 












'-. 








'i'.-"<|'lpH. ■ , , ■ ,,!,,,,, 


'' : 



INGEE R0SES 




Sturdy as Oaks. 



Dingee roses are always grown on their own roots 
— and are absolutely the best for the amateur planter. 
Send to-day for our 

"New Guide to Rose Culture" tor 1917 

— it's free. It isn't a catalog- — it's a practical work, on rose 

growing". Profusely illustrated. Describes over iooo varieties 

of roses and other flowers, and tells how to grow them. Safe 

delivery guaranteed. Established 1850. 70 greenhouses. 

THK MNfJEE & CONAKD €0., Box 1037, West Grove, Pn. 



"I am reading 'The Balance 9 
all over again from the begin- 
ning just to renew my youth." 

\ Alex. Harvey in "The Bang 1 * 

Every bookstore has this novel 
Net $1.35. Doubleday, Page & Co. 




lndoo 



ORIGINAL ri| CHEMICALf 30,000 Sold 
TAjlOSOt -FifthYear 

More Comfortable, 

Healthful, Convenient 

Eliminates the out-house, open vault and 
cesspool, which are breeding places for 
germs. Have a warm, sanitary, odorless 
toilet right in your house. No going out 
in cold weather. A boon to invalids. 
Endorsed by State Boards of Health. 

ABSOLUTELY ODORLESS 

Put It Anywhere in the House 

The germs are killed by a chemical process in water in the 
container. Empty once a month. No more trouble to empty 
than ashes. Closet absolutely guaranteed. Guarantee on file 
in the office of this publication. Ask for catalogue and price. 
ROWE SANITARY MFG. CO., 5310 6th Street, Detroit, Mich. 
Ask about the Ro-San Washstand— Hot and Cold Running Water 
Without Plumbing 



The Readers' Service will give you suggestions for the care and purchase of cats and dogs and other pets 




HODGSON 

Portable HOUSES 

Are you thinking of erecting a small build- 
ing? If it's anything from a bird house to a 
cottage— listen. Imagine doing away with 
the trouble, worry and extra expenses that go 
hand in hand with building. Imagine buying 
the best lumber all finished, painted and fitted 
—ready to be put together in a jiffy to form 
the exact house you want. That's exactly 
what buying a Hodgson Portable House 
means. 

There are Hodgson bungalows, garages, 
play houses, screen houses, chicken houses, 
dog houses and every other kind of houses 
imaginable. Get a catalog and you'll see 
them all. They can be quickly and easily 
erected by unskilled workmen. They with- 
stand all kinds of weather. 

Here is the best way to buy. By paying 259o of the 
price of your house we will prepare and hold it until 
wanted. This saves you money and insures prompt 
delivery. Our catalog is illustrated with photographs 
— and prices, too. Send for it. 

E. F. HODGSON COMPANY 

Room 228, 116 Washington Street, Boston, Mass. 
6 East 39th Street, New York City 





Two Stoves Are 
"One Too Many" 

NO MORE need for a coal range for Winter and a Gas or Oil 
stove for Summer use. Two stoves is "one too many" for the DUPLEX 
ALCAZAR is two ranges in one and does more and better work than the 
two could or would. 

1f In this wonderful stove we find two complete ranges in one, burning a combina- 
tion of fuels either together, or singly, requiring no change or removal of parts. The DUPLEX ALCAZAR 
is made in two types: One using coal or wood and gas; the other designed for coal, or wood and oil. 



"RE 



DV PLEX. ALCAZAR. 



TWO RANGES IN ONE, 



mm*. 



\ If you want year-'round kitchen comfort, better cooking results and decreased 

fuel bills, use the DUPLEX ALCAZAR, ft is made in a variety of styles: In porcelain, steel and cast 
iron construction by a stove factory that makes "QUALITY" its watchword. The best dealer in your 
vicinity is displaying the DUPLEX ALCAZAR. See, or write us, mentioning whether you are interested 
in the Gas or Oil types. 

ALCAZAR RANGE & HEATER CO., 382 Cleveland Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 




A Dozen Delicious Melons 

All within arm's length — that's the kind of result you may expect from 

LUTTON GREENHOUSES 

T UCK does not enter into the case, for LUTTON construction permits every 
J - i available sunbeam to reach the plants. The owner is "a master of the seasons" 
for he can regulate the temperature and ventilation perfectly so as to reproduce the 
natural climatic conditions most favorable to the growth of each particular species. 
The most sensible investment in these times of stress is a Greenhouse and the 
most sensible type of Greenhouse is built by the LUTTON CO. This is not an 
empty claim, but is based on reasons that we can easily explain to you if you will 
give us the opportunity. 

WM. H. LUTTON CO. 

Main Office and Factory, 263-269 Kearney Avenue, Jersey City, N. J. 
Show Room, 3d Floor, Grand Central Terminal, N. Y. City 

Western Office, 710 Sykes Block, Minneapolis, Minn. 
Horticultural Architects and Builders of g 

Modern Greenhouses, Conservatories, """ 5S \ 

Sun Parlors, Garden Frames 




the 



As you can 



rencmg 
home grounds 

from the illustrati 



on. 



CELSIOR 



RUST I»ROOF 



S 



FENCE 

is quite sturdy, yet graceful and pleasing in design. 

It has wonderful rigidity and strength because of the 
overlapped loops, interlaced wires and the Excelsior 
patented steel clamps which hold vertical and horizon- 
tal wires firmly together. AFTER being made it is 
dip-galvanized, which not only makes it rust proof and 
long lasting, but firmly binds the whole together. 

Send for catalog B and you will have complete and 
interesting information. 

Ask your hardware dealer for EXCELSIOR 
garden necessities, such as 

Rust Proof Tree Guard, Tennis Rai!- 
ings, Gates, Bed Guards, Trellises, etc. 






WRIGHT WIRE CO. 

Worcester, Mass. 







Z.) 1 



IT 







So the public may know 



V ictrola is the Registered Trademark of 
the Victor Talking Machine Company desig- 
nating the products of this Company only. 

The use of the word Victrola upon or in 
the promotion or sale of any other Talking 
Machine or Phonograph products is misleading 
and illegal. 

Ask any Victor dealer to play for you any kind of music you wish to hear and to 
demonstrate the various styles of the Victor and Victrola — $\o to #400. 

Victor Talking Machine Co., Camden, N. J., U.S.A. 

Important Notice. Victor Records and Victor Machines are scientifically coordi- 
nated and synchronized by our special processes of manufacture, and their use, 
one with the other, is absolutely essential to a perfect Victor reproduction. 



Victor Supremacy 



: ^3 







imm.immihiuiimiiiimiiiiii i mmii i iiim^ 



THE COUNTRY LIFE PRESS, CARDEN CITY, NEW YORK 












November, 1917 




Price 


25 


Cents 


, 




. 


- 








i 






: 


i 


A 


■ 


i 


) 




f r | 1 


. 








; -^^ 


■ 






i y* 








t 









•^;... 



"■ 



/n 77ns Issue 
The Arnold Arboretum - - by Prof. C. S. Sargent 

Food Crops Under Glass 
Can You Cook a Potato? The Heating Problem 




ore 
' Profit 






SpEESKiii 



JlE^-J- 



c 7hat , s the only mason 
dealers offer substitutes 

or Whittall Rugs 



Tlicre are two kinds of stores which feature nationally 
advertised and trade-marked merchandise — those who 
Know The Best and strive to give you the benefit of 
their knowledge and their experience — and those who 
Seek Merely to Impress You with a suggestion of Quality 
by a smattering of articles of Known Worth and Merit. 

Your most reliable merchant 

invariably suggests Whittall Rugs 

But occasionally you will find a dealer who knows 
the Whittall Reputation for Reliability and so buys a 
few Whittall Rugs in the hope that you will accredit 
to his entire carpet department the feeling of Security 
and Confidence created by this Trade Mark 



c 



ri1K_M/JUK !>l Ql/ll.n Y 



y 



.^\\I\i } 




Such a dealer displays his Whittall rugs prominently 
on the front of his rug racks or places them on the 
top of the piles for much the same reason that the wily 
peddler places the best apples on the top of the barrel. 
He will seldom offer to sell you Whittall 
rugs voluntarily, but you can buy them 
even from him if you will ask for them and 
refuse to accept the substitutes he tries to 
force on you at a greater profit to himself. 

" Oriental Art in Whittall Rugs " is a beautiful book 
illustrated in colors which you may have by writing 

M. J. Whittall Associates 



( ~fhe\i Cjrow Old Cjrocefullu 



304 Brussels Street 



Worcester, Massachusetts 




GILLETT'S 

Jg; Hardy Ferns and Flowers 
For Dark, Shady Places 

Plan NOW to get ready to 

,^^ plant your native ferns, 

plants and bulbs early in 

the spring. Early plant- 

ing brings best 

results. 

Send for descrip- 
tive catalogue of over 
80 pages. It's FREE. 

EDWARD GILLETT 
3 Main Street, Southwick, Mass. 



A Garden Library for a 
Dollar and a Quarter 

Bound volumes of THE GARDEN MAGAZINE represent 
the last word on gardening. It is really a loose leaf cyclope- 
dia of horticulture. You are kept up to date. Save your cop- 
ies of THE GARDEN MAGAZINE and let us bind them 
for you. There is a new volume every six months, and Vol. 
24 is ready now. Send your magazines by Parcel Post and 
we will supply index, and bind them for you for $1.25. If 
you have not kept all of the numbers, we will supply the 
missing copies at 25c each, or we will supply the bound vol- 
ume complete for $2.00. THE GARDEN MAGAZINE can 
be of more service this year than ever before, and you can 
get most out of the magazine when you bind it, and keep 
it in permanent form. Address: 

Circulation Department 

GARDEN MAGAZINE, Garden City, N. Y. 




Hardy Trees and Plants 
for Every Place and Purpose 

THE Flowering Crabs blossom 
witba loveliness and fragrance 
that surpasses ordinary apples. 
Some double flowering sorts re- 
semble roses in form and beauty. 

Our assortment includes- numerous 
kinds, many of. which, in addition to 
flowers, have small brilliant red or yel- 
low fruits of highly decorative value. 
The Crab Apple Tree is small in stature, 
and therefore suitable for Shrubberies 
and places where small growing Trees 
are required. 

Lilacs and Crab Apples are but two 
families out of the very inclusive assort- 
ment of Hardy Trees and Plants that 
Moon's have* If interested in planting 
of any kind, write us and send for Cat- 
alogue A- 3 < 

THE WM. H. MOON COMPANY 
Nurserymen Morrisville, Pa. 

Philadelphia Office The Moon Nursery Corp. 

21 S. Twelfth Street White Plains, N. Y. 





For Safe 
Tree Surgery 

The Davey Tree Expert Co. 

100 Elm St., Kent, O, 



Davey 

Tree Surgeons 



November, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



113 



Requests for plants are constantly made to the Arboretum 
by persons who see or hear of them here and are unable to find 
them in any American commercial nursery. The Arboretum is unable 
to meet such demands which come from all parts of the country in 
increasing numbers, and Messrs. Farquhar at my suggestion have 
propagated and now offer for sale some of the most desirable of 
these Arboretum novelties, including a large number of the new 
trees and shrubs introduced by the Arboretum from China. Des- 
criptions of many of the plants offered in this catalogue, and 
of other new and interesting plants appear, as they flower here, 
in the Bulletins of Popular Information issued by the Arboretum. 






Arnold Arboretum. 



f.S- 




Quotation from introduction to catalogue, "New and Rare Plants," which will be 
mailed free on request to R. & J. Farquhar Co., 6 and 7 South Market St., Boston 



m 



Ideal Plants for 

Your Underglass Garden 

Do you recall the graceful, feathery, blooming pot plants, mostly 
white, sold around Easter by your florist? Astilbes, as they are called, 
make ideal pot plants, because they combine beauty and ease of culture 
in a high degree. You can easily grow them, in the house, if you plant 
our large (now dormant) clumps in pots NOIV! 

New Astilbe Hybrids ("spTetr) 

Far surpass the kinds commonly sold in size of individual spikes and brilliancy of 
colors. The following new Arendsi Hybrids, shown growing in our nursery below, bear 
lovely spikes, about 3 feet tall. 

CERES— light rose. JUNO— -rosy violet. ROSE PEARL— white with silvery sheen. 
SILVER WHITE— distinctly beautiful. VENUS— deep rose. VESTA— light rose. 

PRICE, 35c. each; $3.00 for 10 

Transplanted to the hardy border next Spring, they will live and bloom for years. 
Complete Catalogue, Yours Free on Request 

Designed to give you glimpses into one of nature's treasure stores of 
hardy plants. Rigorous, rugged Mount Desert Island, the home of Amer- 
ica's "Most Northerly" Nursery, produces plants of a quality not 
obtainable elsewhere. Let the catalogue acquaint you with all we offer. 

MOUNT DESERT NURSERIES, Bar Harbor, Maine 





A Garden Full 
/~jfe£f Darwin 

Tulips 





In anticipation of again placing before our 
customers a collection of Darwin Tulips we 
had a sufficient quantity grown so that we can 
offer 

75 Giant Darwin Tulip Bulbs, Finest Mixed, for $1 .25 
Selected from fifteen named varieties 

We Urge Early Orders — \\ rule we feel quite certain that 
we will receive enough bulbs to fill all orders for this collection, 
owing to present shipping conditions we may be obliged to 
return money to those ordering late. 

Few Spring flowering plants rival the Darwin Tulip for brilliancy of bloom. With flowers 
as large as the Oriental Poppy, in a wide range of colors and shades, borne on strong stems 
often exceeding three feet, they are a wonderful addition to the flower garden. 
Plant anytime before ground becomes frozen and they will bloom during May 

Mail this advertisement, or present at our store, with check, money order, cash or stamps 
and secure this exceptional collection, sent prepaid to any point in the U. S. east of the 
Mississippi. For points west and Canada add 25c ($1.50). 

Our 1917 Fall Bulb Catalogue sent on request 



f\ Our 1917 Fall Bulb Catalogue sens 



30-32 Barclay St. 
New York City 



Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in writing — and we will, too 



114 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



November, 1917 



"Totty's 'Mums" 

A Terse and Timely Truism 

For the past fifteen years, we have preached the 
gospel of improved Chrysanthemums, both for in- 
door and outdoor culture and to-day the very finest 
varieties in commerce are our introductions. 

We Are Still Progressing 

Our Novelties as yet unnamed, will be shown at all 
the large Fall Exhibitions. 

Novelties in Roses 

for Greenhouse Planting 



"COLUMBIA" 
The New Rose Pink, which 
is truly, the "Gem of the 
Roses." 

Price: 73c plant; $7.50 per 
dozen. 

"TITANIA" 
A brilliant combination of 
scarlet and gold, unique 
among the small flowered 
Roses. 

Price: 30c each; $3.00 per 
dozen. 



"OPHELIA SUPREME" 

Every once in a while, Na- 
ture makes a wonderful 
break, and produces, what 
in horticultural parlance is 
called a "sport." Such a 
production is Ophelia Su- 
preme, a wonderful improve- 
ment over its parent the 
well-known Ophelia. 

Price: 75c plant; $7.50 per 
dozen. 



The Outdoor Rose Novelties from Europe, will 
include: 

Dickson's Varieties for 1918 

H. B. Pinkerton; Marchioness of Ormond; Ulster Volunteer 
and Blush Queen, which will be fully described in our 191 8 
catalogue. 

We test all the World' 's Best Novelties for You! 

Totty— The Novelty Man 

Madison, New Jersey 



1111111111111111 illin ium 11111 nun 



ANDORRA 
NURSERIES 

IMorwaij dVjaples 






BEST of trees for 
street planting. 
Quick growing. Broad 
headed and very hardy. 
Approved byTree Com- 
missions everywhere. 
Andorra Maples are 
lift with splendid 
fibrous roots. 

Size Each Ten Hundred 

10 ft. $1.50 $10 $60 

12 ft. $2.50 $20 $165 

14 ft. $3.50 $25 $225 

ANDORRA NURSERIES 

Wm. Warner Harper, Prop. 

Chestnut Hill, Phila., Pa. 
Box 100 





A 




GORGEOUS in coloring, of 
excellent dimensions and 
growth, adding wonderfully to 
the beauty of the 
spring landscape 
will be the blooms 
that result from 
the planting of 
Thorburn's 
Bulbs. 

Send for our bulb 
catalogue at once 
so astoplantyour 
bulbs at the 
proper time. 

Or, send a $1 bill 
with your request 
for our catalogue 
and we shall send 
you a splendid 

assortment of our choicest bulbs. 

Write to-day. 

J. M. THORBURN & CO. 

53B Barclay St. Through to r,4 Part Plaef 

NEW YORK CITY 




The Readers' Service will gladly furnish information about Gardening 



November, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



115 




LB.- 




Cover Design — Inside the Greenhouse; 
With Oncidium Yaricostjm - - - J. P. Vcrrees 

PAGE 

Among Our Garden Neighbors - - - - - 117 

The Use of the Iris — The Hardy Yellow Rose — A Few 
Facts — Is the Fireless Cooker Used in Canning? — 
Why Does the Beetle Attack the Aster? — New 
Buddleia or Summer Lilac from Seeds — Flowers in 
February' — Antirrhinum Gibraltarica — Ferns for 
House Plants — When Room Plants Become Leggy — 
An Original Sundial — Fall Color in the Rock Garden 
■ — Meconopsis Integrifolia — Why Buddleias Die — 
Wintering Canterbury Bells and Foxgloves — A Gar- 
dener's Winter Pastime — Spice Sweet and Sweet 
Bough. Six illustrations. 

The Month's Reminder -------- T2 o 

The Arnold Arboretum — What It Is and Does 

C. S. Sargent 122 
Photographs by E. I. Farrington, Arthur G. Eldredge, 
George 0. Stoddard and others 

Electricity for Heating Frames 

IF. C. McCollom 125 

Plans by the author 

Little Chat on Greenhouse Heating 

/. N. Mac Arthur 127 
Photographs Supplied by Author 

The Greenhouse that Isn't Heated 

IF. N. Craig 129 
Photograph by Arthur G. Eldredge 

Getting the Garden Under Glass 

F. F. Rockwell 130 
Illustrations by the author 

Making Real Use of the Garden's Crops 

Inga M. K. Allison 132 
What the Florists Will Offer ln Holiday 
Plants --------- Robert Kift 133 

Photographs by H. Troth and J. A. Peterson 

Can You Cook a Potato? - Effie M. Robinson 134 

Photographs by H. E. Angell 

Winter Protection - - - - - C. L. Metier 135 

Photographs by the author 

November, in the South -------- 136 

Opportunity for Fall Planting — Preparations for Next 

Year's Food Gardens - - - - /. -1/. Patterson 

Fall Plowing for an Early Start - Samuel H. Garekol 

Society Notes and News ------- 138 

New Yore Spring Show -------- 138 

The Exhibition Season --------138 

Helping the French Orchardist3 - - - • - 140 

Why Not Bind Your Magazines? 
Bound volumes of The Garden Magazine give you an 
up-to-date Cyclopedia of Horticulture. Six numbers to 
the volume. Index supplied Free. The cost is only $1.23, 
when you send back your loose copies. 

LEONARD BARRON, Editor 




Published Monthly, 35c. a copy. Subscription, Two Dollars a Year. 
For Canada, §3.35; Foreign Countries, $2.65. 

COPVKIGHT, 1917, BY 

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY 

GARDEN CITY, N. Y. 



F. N. DOUBLEDAY, President 
ARTHUR W. PAGE, 
HERBERT S. HOUSTON, 
Vice-Presidents 



S. A. EVERITT, Treasurer 
RUSSELL DOUBLEDAY, 
Secretary 



irv 



"J\2E 



*#& 



Entered as second-class matter at Garden City, New York, 
under the Act of Congress, March 3, 1879 





Garden view of ornamental portion of greenhouse 
group erected for J. L. Severence, Cleveland, Ohio 



GREENHOUSES 

A Model One for Group Development 

FOR AN attractive well balanced group of houses, 
one either complete unto itself, or erected with the 
idea of possible future additions, let us hasten to 
put our unrestricted seal of approval on this one. 

The plan below shows its development into a com- 
pact, thoroughly practical grouping. 

Of course we have no intentions of putting undue 
emphasis on these large groups of houses, when what 
you may want just now is a much smaller one. 

But supposing you had wanted a large one; wouldn't 
you have been decidedly interested in this one ? 

Whatever size, however, you may be thinking of, send 
for our new catalogue. It contains all sizes from small 
leantos, up to houses much larger and more pretentious 
than even this one. 

HilcRingsj^ftmpany 



General Offices and Factory — Elizabeth, N. J. 
NEW YORK BOSTON 

1170 Broadway 49 Federal Street 



PHILADELPHIA 
40 So. 15th Street 




Plan of the Severence group as shown above 



Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in writing — and we will, too 



116 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



November, 1917 



*X 



■■■K. J 




Wing and Service House of the Range of Greenhouses 
erected for Galen L. Stone, Esq., Marion, Mass. 



WM. H. LUTTON CO. 

Main Office and Factory 
263-269 Kearney Ave., Jersey City, N. J. 

Show Room, 3rd Floor. Grand Central Terminal, N. Y. City 
Western Office, 7IOSykes Block, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Horticultural Architects 

and 

Builders of Modern Greenhouses of Quality 

ALL TYPES ALL SIZES 

Conservatories Sun Parlors Garden Frames 




Greenhouses and Garage erected for Rufus W. Scott, 
Esq., Germantown, Pa. 




A Small Greenhouse and Cold Frames, all heated by 
adjoining garage heating plant. 



Range of Greenhouses erected for Dr. H. N. Torrey, 
Grosse Pointe (Detroit), Mich. 



•■'■ "i T~"- 




Greenhouse for propagating purposes designed and built by the Wm. H. Lutton Co., to meet the special requirements of the Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University, Boston, 

Mass., under the direction of Professor Charles S. Sargent, the eminent horticultural authority. 



The Readers' Service will gladly furnish information about Nursery Stock, etc. 



The Garden Magazine 








Irises as Soil Binders — We have read with a 
great deal of interest, in the June number of 
The Garden Magazine, the article by Miss 
Sturtevant, giving some of her experiences in 
raising Irises from seed. It is to be hoped that 
her suggestion in regard to the formation of an 
Iris Society may be acted upon at no distant 
date. Is there not a partial answer at least, 
to the question: "What shall I do with the 
ones I do not want to keep?" in the use men- 
tioned for this type of Iris by Miss Tomlinson 
of Tennessee, in the same issue? In describing 
"a hillside garden," she tells us she planted 
German Iris to bind the soil. We know of an- 
other admirer of the Iris in California, who 
had a lot of Iris sent from an Eastern home, 
to plant on the terraces of her garden in her 
California home, for she said she had found 
they were the best plant to use for the loca- 
tion, to prevent washing of the soil. We are 
also told that in a certain locality in France 
they grow in millions, being used to hold to- 
gether the sand banks that surround the vine- 
vards. Surplus stock, particularly of the 
cheaper varieties and these new seedlings 
which are too good to throw on the dump heap 
— some better than many now being culti- 
vated — could be utilized for this purpose at 
slight expense provided one is not fortunate 
enough to have the stock. — Mrs. J. Dean, 
Moneta, California. 

The Hardy Yellow Rose. — In connec- 
tion with the hardy yellow Roses mentioned 
by A. E. Thatcher in The Garden Magazine 
for April and R. S. Sturtevant in the July 
issue, it may be of interest that the Copper 
Austrian was wintered successfully here, for 
several years, where the temperature will be as 
low as 40 degrees below zero every winter, at 
some time. It was not killed back at all until 
last winter when chere was severe frost and no 
snow until Christmas. The Scotch Yellow was 
not injured in the least. They have no pro- 
tection of any kind, being on the open prairie, 
but ordinarily the snow covers them from four 
to eight feet deep. The Wichuraiana Hybrid, 
Klondyk, has survived our winter as has the 
Soliel d'Or ("earthed up ' twelve inches or so). 
The Persian Yellow and Hanson's are hardy 
here. This year I am trying Yellow Austrian, 
single and double; Gottfried Keller, an Aus- 
trian Hybrid; and Daniel Lusneur, the only 
yellow Rugosa I have met, although Dolly 
Varden is described as ar ricot, and sometimes 



as pink. There is no lack of hardy Roses of 
other shades, but yellow is rare here. — A. W. 
Mackay, Canada. 

A Few Facts. — I bought my first copy of 
The Garden Magazine, February 1905, at 
the newsstand and, strange to say, have been 
buying a copy there each month since that 
time. Not very good economy, but I have 
always considered that The Garden Maga- 
zine was cheap at any price. This is the season 
for fish stories, so a seed story may add variety. 
Last March I concluded I would sow some seed 
of the Cardinal Climber indoors, to get an early 
start. After filing the seeds as per directions, 
I planted them in a bulb pan, watered them 
and placed a pane of glass over the top, after 
which I set the pan on the radiator (vapor 
system heat). This was at 3 p. m. At 10 
o'clock that night one seed had sprouted, and 
the next morning the young plants w T ere all up 
with their heads against the glass. Can you 
" beat" it? My friends all look sad when I re- 
late this story. I wonder why? — A. A. 
Knock, York, Pennsylvania. 

Is the Fireless Cooker Used in Canning? — 
The article on "'Doing Up' the Surplus From 
the Garden" which appeared in The Garden 
Magazine for June was accompanied by a 
photograph showing a fireless cooker, but I 
have never seen rules for its use in canning — 
"fool proof" rules, I mean. — /. H. Cary, Mass. 
— -The fireless cooker may be used in canning. 
Prepare the vegetables in the morning. When 
the fire is started in the range to get dinner the 
vessel containing the cans is put on the range, 
also a soapstone disc. By the time the water 
in the container boils the disc is hot, and both 
are placed in the fireless cooker for one hour. 
A demonstrator from the College of Agricul- 
ture at Ithaca claims that the same results 
may be obtained by blanching the vegetables 
and leaving them in the fireless cooker for four 
hours. I have had such splendid results with 
the three days' method that I have never tried 
the other way. — E. E. Trumbull, New York. 

Why Does the Beetle Attack this Aster? — 
Every book on gardening and countless impas- 
sioned articles impress upon one the value and 
beauty of Hardy Asters. So far I have failed to 
notice even one mention of any difficulties inci- 
dent to their cultivation. In my own garden, 
however, in Loudoun County ,Virginia, they are 

117 



useless, as the aster beetle attacks them as fe- 
rociously as it does the Annual Asters. I have 
tried all the best known varieties and one 
only, Mrs. Raynor, is immune. It is only these 
garden forms that are touched; the native spe- 
cies in our woods and along our lanes are abso- 
lutely untouched. It seems very strange that 
this trouble should be experienced only in my 
own garden — I doubt very much if it is so con- 
fined. And I think that the warning should be 
given to gardeners in our latitude (having 
about the same conditions as Philadelphia) 
that one's final garden effect should not come 
to naught. Do you know whether spraying 
would be helpful? — Mrs. Floyd W. Harris, 
Washington, D. C. 

NewBuddleia or Summer Lilac, from Seeds. — 
Did it ever occur to you, who is an admirer of 
this new summer flowering shrub, that you can 
raise it from seed and obtain a plant different 
in growth, shape of leaf, shape of blossom stalk 
and even size of individual blossoms? Two 
years ago we sowed a lot of seed from a faded 
blossom spike and hundreds of plants came 
up — amongst them were several entirely differ- 
ent from the parent plant. The flower spikes, 
instead of being tapering or pointing and 
gradually blooming out, are rather solid in 
appearance and round, not at all tapering and 
more blossoms are out at one time, and the in- 
dividual blossoms are larger giving the whole 
bush a much handsomer appearance; these 
new hybrids are very vigorous, rapid in growth 
and all together are a great improvement over 
the type. — The Pudor Farms, Washington. 

Buddleia Davidii, to which the numerous 
forms known as Veitchii, variabilis, magnifica, 
Wilsoni, etc., are referred, is extremely variable 
and our correspondent's form is undoubtedly 
merely another seedling variation and not a 
hybrid at all. Indeed a similarly compact 
form was seen at an exhibition of the Horti- 
cultural Society of New York in August. — Ed.] 

Flowers in February. — In the September 
number of The Garden Magazine a lady 
makes mention of some of the flowers that 
give her a successiomof bloom through every 
month of the year, but states that she does not 
always get outdoor bloom during January and 
February. She ought to add to her collection 
The Christmas Rose, Helleborus niger, which 
blooms profusely under the snow in midwinter. 
— H. G. R., Pa. 



118 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



November, 1917 



Antirrhinum Gibraltarica. — The Snapdra- 
gons such as we grow for cutting or bedding 
may on rare occasions live through the winter 
but are not dependable. In A. gibraltarica we 
have, however, a thoroughly hardy species 
which blooms right through the summer. The 
plant is particularly well adapted for culture 
in the rock garden, attains a height of 18 
inches and carries spikes of pink flowers. It has 
come through the past two winters with no 
protection other than a very thin coating of 
leaves such as is given to other such plants and 
can, therefore, be classed as reliably hardy. 
I have not noticed any rust or blight on this 
Snapdragon, although the ordinary varieties 
grown for forcing or bedding are badly affected. 
—W. N. C, Mass. 

Ferns for House Plants. — Many people 
have had my experience with the florists' 
all-ready-to-sell collection of Ferns in a fern 
dish. It is bought with high hopes; its life is 
short. When one considers that the florists 
put into a collection any of forty or so varieties 
of little Ferns, it is not surprising that such a 
selection is often a poor one. It is far better 
I find to specify varieties desired and have the 
fern dish filled with these. Among the best 
ferns for the house are the following: Pteris 
cretica albo-lineata; Pteris Wilsoni, a variety of 
cretica; Polystichum Tsus-sinense; Pellaea 
viridis; Cyrtomium falcatum variety Rochfor- 
dianum. The last named is a Holly Fern, one 
of the very best of ferns for fern dishes, single 
specimen plants and window boxes. — E. E. S., 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

When Room Plants Become Leggy. — A 
very good way of dealing with Rubber plants, 
Dracaenas, Cordylines, Aralias and similar 
room plants that have grown spindly — or leggy 
as it is called — is shown in the photograph. 
In the first place, it is needful to cut a small 
pot in half with an old saw. Then at about 
the middle of the stem make a long slanting cut 
upward half way through. Fill the two halves 
of the pot with damp moss and place one on 
either side of the cut portion of the stem, 
finally tying into position as shown in the 




illustration. Keep the moss damp and in a 
month or so the upper portion of the plant 
will have sent out a quantity of roots into the 
damp moss. When this has taken place the 
upper portion may be severed from the rest 
of the plant and potted up separately. Very 
often after this treatment the lower part of the 
plant sends up some shoots and, apart from 
the new specimen secured, its own improve- 
ment will be the outcome. — S. Leonard Bastin, 
England. 

An Original Sundial. — The accompany- 
ing photograph shows a "home-made" sun- 
dial, which conforms to the garden and house 
to which it belongs. The house is a remodel- 
led farmhouse surrounded by orchards and 




Lowering a "leggy" plant by inducing root formation at a 
convenient height 



Bird bath made by setting rough stones in cement around a 
shallow basin 

fields bounded by old stone walls. These 
walls furnished material for the sundial, only 
the very choicest moss and lichen-covered 
stones being used, and all laid up in Portland 
cement. The flowers (all hardy perennials) 
in the garden are planted around an oval 
grass-plot, and the sun-dial stands in the mid- 
dle of this with stepping stones leading to and 
around it from each side covered entrance. 

Narcissus bulbs are to be planted at the 
base this fall for early spring flowering, fol- 
lowed later by summer flowers. 

The dial itself is of bronze. But it is the 
cement top which is unusual, being rounded 
off and roughened to look as much like one of 
the stones as possible, and having ferns and 
leaves pressed into the cement while it was still 
soft and removed just before it dried. A bird 
bath was made in the same way, using an old 
china wash-bowl as a foundation built up 
with cement to be shallow enough to please our 
feathered friends. The basin is surrounded by 
paving stones laid in cement. The imprints 
of the ferns and leaves look not unlike fossils. 
Indeed those in the bird bath might have been 
made by leaves falling from the Maple tree 
overhead. 

Some time there is to be a teahouse at one 
side, with a thatched roof and stone seats; 
built in a semi-circle into the stone wall which 
separates the flower from the vegetable garden 
— and which, covered with vines — forms the 
wonderfully artistic background for the whole 
garden. — B. S. Provost, Winsted, Connecticut. 

Fall Color in the Rock Garden. — It seems 
as though a rock garden was mostly a spring 
garden but with September my hit-or-miss 
patch (that for lack of better term I call a 
rock garden) has gathered charm. A few 
big plants of Campanula rotundifolia, still 
decked with their lavender bells, are rampant; 
a little colony, near by, of the doubtfully 
hardy Parnassia caroliniana with its shiny 
basal leaves and eight-inch stems bearing sea- 
foam-white buttercups forms a bit of contrast. 
Farther on, gray Artemisia struggles for 
supremacy with the tender green of Sedum 



^^S^*'- 


1 H 


. M 


[fo, : 

4, 




$• - ' 


- 


.._ — »%■■■■. 






■^; 


■ ■■ k ' 


- rt * 1 


, - - - •■— X; 





Such a sundial is easily 
made from a few large stones 
and a little cement 



spectabile, its 
rather dull mauve- 
pink (touched off 
by the deeper tones 
of the variety Bril- 
liant. Here and 
there wild Asters, 
the smooth leaved 
laevis, the starry 
ericoides and clust- 
e r e d cordifolius, 
have seeded in; the 
shade - loving co- 
rymbosus lightens 
most happily the 
dull "magentery" - 
pink of Lespedeza Sieboldi which throws 
its graceful sprays out over an outstanding 
boulder, while lower down in the moist shade 
the white again enlivens the scattered 
yellow of the Wood Goldenrod. Here also 
are dull blue Closed Gentians, late lingering 
Cardinal-flowers and the frosted fronds of 
Ferns. The frost brings many a colorful 
tint to a wider landscape but in my re- 
stricted space where perennials reign alone 
Euphorbia corollata is all that gives a scarlet 
bit of autumn glory. Weirdly well does it 
blaze above clumps of the true Autumn Cro- 
cuses but most painfully does it swear at the 
pinker tones of Colchicums. How fortunate 
it is that garden things are not always just to 
your mind for where then would be that 
pleasure of striving for the ideal? — R. S. 
Sturtevant, Wellesley Farms, Mass. 

Mr. Duffy's Essay in the September issue 
of The Garden Magazine is the cause of this 
communication. In the past, I had had a 
great deal of trouble handling the by-products 
of the chicken crop, and having solved the 
problem to my own satisfaction, my experi- 
ment may be of use to Mr. Duffy or others who 
have had similar difficulties. Several years 
ago my attention was called to a commercial 
poultry litter and the advantages claimed 
were: that it did away with the use of drop- 
ping boards and always kept the house dry 
and odorless. I have been using it now for 
five years and the results are most satisfactory. 
The house is cleaned about three times a year 
and the fertilizer put in barrels in a dry place 
to use when wanted. When removed it is a 
dry odorless powder and is very easy to 
handle. It does not bake the soil; in fact, I 
think that the peat of which the litter is made 
improves it. While the litter is rather ex- 
pensive, I think the resultant fertilizer more 
than repays the cost, and its use certainly re- 
duces work in the hen house to a minimum. — 
B. Preston Schoyer, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Meconopsis Integrifolia. — It is now some 
eleven or twelve years since Mr. E. H. Wilson 
first sent to England seeds of this extraordinary 
plant from Western China, and when sub- 
sequently exhibited in flower, for the first time 
at the Temple Show, I believe, it immediately 
arrested the attention of all interested in 
hardy plants. Although several species of 
Meconopsis were known and cultivated it was 
not supposed that any of the genus could de- 
velop flowers of such wonderful size and 
beauty, and though of only biennial duration 
it was at once recognized as one of the most 
remarkable of the many new plants received 
from Mr. Wilson. Leaving England soon 
after, I did not have an opportunity of be- 
coming better acquainted with this Mecon- 
opsis, but in the early spring of 1916 I saw 
seeds advertised in an English list, procured 



November, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



119 




One of the plants of Meconopsis integrifolia flowered by Mr. 
Thatcher. "Possibly the most gorgeous alpine extant." 

some, and the results may interest Garden 
Magazine readers. 

The seeds were fortunately fresh, which is 
important in cultivating Meconopsis, and 
sown in shallow pans with ample drainage and 
light sandy soil; quickly germinated in a cool 
house and as soon as large enough to handle 
were potted off singly into small pots in a 
mixture of loam, decayed leaf mold and sand. 
When well established after the move they 
were transferred to a coldframe and kept well 
shaded from the sun. In this situation they 
made healthy looking plants, and by the mid- 
dle of summer were ready for larger pots or 
planting out. Having only nine or ten plants 
I decided to put them in eight-inch pots with 
plenty of drainage and in a mixture of loam 
and well decayed cow manure, an ingredient to 
which this plant is extremely partial. By fall 
strong plants had resulted, and when the 
leaves died ofF, a healthy looking crown was 
left for the next year. The pots were win- 
tered in a coldframe with sufficient protection 
of leaves to prevent their breaking. About 
the beginning of May, I was glad to see the 
new growth starting up, and then removed the 
plants to an open but shaded position, keeping 
them well supplied with water when necessary. 
This treatment apparently agreed well with 
them, for by the end of July strong stems 
were being sent up from the centre of half a 
dozen plants, and during the third week in 
August Meconopsis integrifolia flowered for 
the first time in America. (As noted in the 
September issue, page 39.) 

Mr. Wilson, in his most interesting book, 
"A Naturalist in Western China," writing of 
the Meconopsis says: ". . . and M. 
integrifolia, with yellow flowers eight inches 
or more across — possibly the most gorgeous 
alpine plant extant." This description is well 
deserved, and after seeing a few plants in 
flower in this country one can well under- 
stand what a wonderful sight it must be to see 
many thousands of these great blossoms 
thickly huddled together on the mountain 



slopes of Western China, in its home among 
the snows. The leaves of M. integrifolia are 
eight or nine inches in length by two in 
breadth, silvery green in color and densely 
covered with strong hairs, as indeed is the 
whole plant. The flower stem, about one 
and a half inches through at the base, rises 
some twenty inches above the foliage, and 
carries from five to seven cup-shaped flowers. 
The first flower to open on each plant is some- 
what larger than the others. The terminal 
blossoms on the plants flowered here were 
seven inches across, and the subsequent ones 
six inches. The color is a most beautiful 
pale yellow, and the beauty of the flowers is 
much enhanced by the conspicuous yellow 
stamens clustered around the base of the cor- 
olla. 

During the past spring I obtained more seeds 
which germinated well and have made a 
splendid growth planted out in heavily 
manured ground on the north side of a hedge. 
As this Meconopsis grows at an elevation of 
from 15,000 to 16,000 feet amid almost per- 
petual snow there can be no question of its 
perfect hardiness, and its successful cultiva- 
tion is not difficult. It is essential that one 
obtain fresh seed, and from the time that this 
is sown until the plants flower there must be 
no attempt at coddling. A cool, shady 
position, and a soil well enriched with cow- 
manure are the most important cultural 
points to observe. — A. E. Thatcher, Bar 
Harbor, Maine. 

Why Buddleias Die. — The Buddleias, 
or Summer Lilacs, are so persistent flow- 
ering that every garden should contain -. 
one or two of them. Having grown a 
number of varieties I have decided that 
variabilis magnifica is decidedly the 
best, its racemes are long and full and 
carried in wonderful profusion. I find 
that these Buddleias need no winter protection, 
provided they are not cut back in the fall. 
[This is our experience, too. — Ed.] Leave all 
the growth on until spring, then cut back close 
to the ground for the best results. A good 
many have made the mistake in doing this 
cutting back in late fall and in nearly every 
case plants have then died. As we occasion- 
ally get temperatures here of 10 to 15 below 
zero, Buddleias may be classed as reliably 
hardy. A very pretty border just now has a 
background of Buddleia magnifica, in front of 
this a broad band of Anemone japonica alba 
with a bordering of Heliotrope. — W. N. C, 
Mass. 

[In a garden at Woodmere, L. I., we saw 
lately, a large number of self sown plants of 
the Buddleia. They had sprung up all over the 
garden. — Ed.] 

Wintering Canterbury Bells and Foxgloves. — 
I have tried for several years to raise Can- 
terbury Bells and Foxgloves, but with very 
poor success because I cannot hit upon a 
scheme for wintering them. I have no green- 
house nor coldframe even, my garden being 
only a 200x12 ft. border. Has any one 
else in the latitude of Chicago had success 
in wintering these plants under these cir- 
cumstances? I understand that it is not 
the cold but rather the rotting of the 
crowns caused by standing water. Would 
overturned boxes make a suitable covering? 
I am trying this year, too, to raise some of the 
rarer perennial Bellflowers besides the lovely 
biennials. Are they also hard to winter? I 
take a wealth of magazines but can truly say 
that The Garden Magazine gives me a 



pleasure that none of the others furnish. — 
"Flower Lover" Illinois. 

— Canterbury Bells and Foxgloves cannot be 
wintered with any assurance of substantial 
success in the latitude of the northern half of 
Illinois without a coldframe. In fact, I have 
given up raising them after some years of 
struggle because I prefer to devote the frames 
to other subjects such as a crop of St. Brigid 
Anemones and Ranunculus for spring cutting 
and to winter Chrysanthemums of doubtful 
hardiness, Wallflowers, Tufted Pansies, parsley, 
November and early December head lettuce, 
and for an early start for some vegetables in 
the spring. 

While Canterbury Bells and Foxgloves are 
showy and altogether desirable, I think it is 
necessary to have a good sized planting, one 
hundred plants, say, to develop their full 
gardening value. If the plants are grown to 
proper development in the fall to produce their 
best crop of flowers, they are bulky and take up 
a lot of room in the limited quarters of a cold- 
frame. The best success I have had with them 
outside a frame consisted in raising the seed- 
lings in a row, thinning them enough to allow 
full development, and then in the fall covering 
them with planks, supported on bricks suffi- 
cient to clear the foliage without pressing upon 
it. I should say that the row was hilled up. 
In this way the Foxgloves 
came through nicely and a 
large percentage of the Can- 
terbury Bells. The latter I 
find more susceptible to 




Well grown example of the rare Meconopsis integrifolia. 
Leaves 8-9 inches long, silvery green; flowers yellow, 8 or 
more inches across. (Photograph made in England.) 



120 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



November, 1917 



moisture than the Foxgloves. They are hardy 
so far as cold is concerned but the crowns 
must be kept reasonably dry and protected 
from the thawing and freezing so common in 
this section. 

Here is another catch in this method. 
Having brought them through the winter, it 
becomes necessary to transplant them into 
the quarters reserved for them. In disturbing 
the roots in moving them, a large number will 
devote their energy to reestablishing them- 
selves and will not throw up blossom spikes. 
To be sure of a crop of bloom they should be 
allowed to remain in permanent quarters. To 
obviate the difficulty of moving them I have 
wintered Canterbury Bells in eight inch pots 
in the coldframe. As they make a big root 
growth, they naturally become cramped and 
when planted out in the spring do not give the 
vigorous growth of blossom spikes that they 
should. 

When I want a display, now (and every once 
in a while I revert as I have had them on and 
ofF for years), I improvise a coldframe with 
soap boxes and such vagrant window sash as I 
can lay hands upon, and place it over the 
plants where they are to bloom. This is an 
easy matter and the idea of making them air 
and cold tight need not be considered. The 
main consideration is to keep them dry. 

The same ideas applies to that stateliest of 
all fall garden biennials, the Chimney Bell- 
flower, Campanula pyramidalis. All three are 
biennial and really are more trouble than they 
are worth unless one has at his command ample 
coldframe facilities. The improved forms of 
the Peach-leaved Bellflower, Campanula per- 
sicifolia, I find an acceptable substitute for 
the Canterbury Bell. They are not only 
perennial but come through all sorts of weather 
without any fussing save a light mulch of 
leaves or pine needles in the fall. 

Foxgloves often will survive the winter with- 
out protection — that is, while the central 
crown dies, there will be side buds to survive 
and grow. I have two large flourishing 
clumps now awaiting cold weather which came 
up from self sown seed two years ago and have 
come through without blossom crowns, but 
plenty of leaves. I am letting them alone in 
the hope that possibly next spring they may 
function. The old-fashioned Yellow Foxglove, 
Digitalis ambigua or grandiflora, is the hard- 
iest of the tribe; that is, it is most resistant to 
changes of thawing and freezing and is more 
nearly perennial as I have had it endure for 
three or four seasons, but it succumbs in time. 
— Sherman R. Duffy, Chicago, Illinois. 

A Gardener's Winter] Pastime. — There are 
many indoor activities for the gardener 
during the cold, season. There are outdoor 
activities as well. One of the most pleasant 
of these is the gathering, trimming, sharpening, 
and storing (ready for spring use), the brush 
for peas, and the poles for all kinds of climbing 



beans. After all, there is no support for peas 
like brush, and the wise gardener will always 
use it; while poles are essential for climbing 
beans. Aside from the fact that it is a delight- 
ful outdoor pastime, the gathering of brush 
and poles in cold weather is desirable because 
winter is the time for such work. All the 
bushes and trees (except the evergreens, which 
could not in any event be utilized) are bare. 
The eye can see at a glance what is good and 
what is not. Also, the material so gathered, 
while bare, and with most of the sap down, 
will be green and tough and strong, and will 
last through several seasons. This plan is 
surely far ahead of the crude custom of visiting 
some old heap of dead brush (usually from an 




A novel idea for small bulbs. Planted on floating pieces of 
cork with moss 

orchard's pruning) and trying to pick out 
something which is not too brittle or too rotten 
to use — and doing it in haste, at a time when 
there are a thousand other calls from the grow- 
ing garden. 

While small attention has been paid to the 
kinds of brush and poles best adapted to the 
use to which they are to be put, there is some- 
thing of importance to be said on that score. 
Among the very best brush for peas are the 
heavier trimmings from Privet hedges; young 
Oak bushes (especially ScarletOak) that have a 
habit of branching heavily; Wild Cherry shrubs; 
and sprouts from any hardwood stumps except 
Hickory and Chestnut — these last, sending up 
long straight shoots, are undesirable on ac- 
count of their lack of small branches. How- 
ever, these very ones are admirable for bean- 
poles. As a rule they are straight and strong, 
and their lasting quality is excellent. Among 
other woods that are well adapted to this 
purpose are common Birch, Alder, all kinds of 
Oak, Ash, and Gum. In the South young Pine 
saplings are frequently used. Of course, it 
may be said that poles of any kind will support 
beans; and this is commonly true. But a pole 



of any kind, after one season's use, may col- 
lapse; any kind of a pole may be crooked, 
scrubby, unsightly. Even in the growing of so 
unromantic a product as beans, the element 
of beauty should not be neglected. 

I cut poles and brush with a sharp scout- 
hatchet; and as for getting the gathered mat- 
ter home, I follow different plans. Sometimes 
it is pulled in on a handsled; sometimes it is 
stored away in a secret place until I have time 
to go for it; sometimes I shoulder it in, or drag 
it in, about twenty poles at a time. — A. 
Rutledge, Mercersburg, Pa. 

Spice Sweet and Sweet Bough. — In look- 
ing over some back numbers of The Gar- 
den Magazine (which is a good thing to do), 
I came across a neighborly note from M. G. 
Kains in eloquent praise of the Sweet Bough 
apple. I was particularly interested as I haveon 
my place a very old apple tree whose identity 
has puzzledtas and I seem in Mr. Kains's note to 
detect a clue. Our tree is near the kitchen door, 
as if placed conveniently for small people, and 
about here it is called Spice Sweet. This 
however, I feel sure is a local name as I have 
not been able to find it in apple lists of either 
books or catalogues. Local plant names are 
always interesting and this one is particularly 
pleasant sounding and descriptive, but as our 
old tree is well down the other side of the hill 
toward the sunset — so old that though we have 
done all we know to prolong its valued life, 
its seasons are plainly numbered and we are 
anxious to plant others against the time when 
the spring sunshine shall fail to awaken its 
fragrant blossoms. Mr. Kains's adjectives de- 
scriptive of the Sweet Bough, "delicious, 
luscious, scrumptious, splyschious" so ex- 
actly repeat those used by my youngsters in 
praise of our favorite, who add delightedly 
"the juice just runs down our chins, mother," 
that I am hoping that they may be the same. 
It is a green apple with an alluring pink cheek; 
it is sweet even at its greenest and so juicy that 
one's chin is really in danger of inundation. 
Mr. Kains lays stress upon its apparent harm- 
lessness to the very young. Here again is a 
point in common. Our Spice Sweet appears to 
cause no trouble though eaten with but short 
intermissions from early rising to early going 
to bed. Plainly it is an apple to be considered 
if one could but find its true identity. If Mr. 
Kains can help us we shall be grateful, or if any 
neighbor knows another name for this old- 
fashioned apple, which might be well named 
"The Mother's Friend," we shall be so happy 
to hear it. — Louise Beebe Wilder, Pomona, N. Y. 
— [Spice Sweet is a "good" name, according to 
the "Apples of New York" where it is recorded 
as of a variety commonly grown about 1830, 
but no description is given. Can it be that 
Mrs. Wilder has a real relic of old times — it's 
quite possible that the old variety has per- 
sisted in that region remote from travel. — 
Editor.] 



THE MONTH'S REMINDER 



CLEARING UP AND CLEARING OUT FOR WINTER 



THERE are plenty of things to keep 
the hustling gardener occupied during 
the shortening days of November, if 
he is to get everything cleaned up and 
ship-shape before winter. 

Bringing in the last of the tender bulbs 
needs early attention now. They should be 



taken up before the ground actually begins to 
freeze, and be stored where they can dry off 
gradually, and still be safe from frost. Do 
not cut off the old stalks close to the bulbs or 
roots. LeaVe six to twelve inches attached 
when you take them up, so that they can 
"ripen ofF" gradually and naturally — other- 



wise they may shrivel or rot. Handle with 
care all fleshy roots such as Cannas and 
Dahlias. 

After the bulbs or roots have had a chance 
to dry off (but before there is danger of their 
being sufficiently dried ofF so much as to 
cause shrinking or shrivelling) carefully 



November, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



121 



label and store in open boxes or crates in a 
place where the temperature will be around 40 
degrees, and away from light. The very tender 
bulbs such as Caladium, Calla, etc., will need 
a temperature some ten degrees higher. 

Vegetables for Storage 

/^\NIONS, squash and such other vege- 
^S tables which may have been stored in 
temporary quarters to cure may now be put 
where they will be safe for the winter. Look 
over everything with the greatest care. Any 
that are imperfect or show even the slightest 
kind of bruising or decay must not be stored 
but used at once. 

Most fruits and vegetables keep best in an 
even temperature only a few degrees above 
freezing. A wet cellar, tightly closed, will 
surely cause decay; while in an abnormally 
dry air, close stored products will fail to keep 
or will shrivel, causing loss not only in bulk 
but of quality too. Good ventilation is one of 
the important points about the storing place. 
For full details, and directions for storing, see 
the October number of The Garden Mag- 
azine. 

Going to Use Concrete? 

WALLS, foundations, fence posts, repairs 
of all kinds and jobs innumerable about 
the grounds can be made with concrete. It is 
not difficult to use, but the one big danger at 
this time of the year, just as the gardener be- 
gins to find himself caught up with his work, 
and with a little leisure for new things, is that 
it may be spoiled by freezing weather before it 
has a chance "to set." The danger from light 
frost can easily be avoided by covering up the 
work with warm horse manure or even with 
blankets and bags, until it is beyond the dan- 
ger point — the first night or two after being 
put in place. If you have never yet made use 
of concrete for such work try it out this fall. 
It is simpler than most kinds of carpentering 
or repairing. The only equipment needed is a 
supply of Portland cement, clean, sharp sand or 
clean, hard gravel or cinders, and a strong, 
shallow box or stout, flat surface — such as an 
old shutter or cover for the hotbed — a hoe to 
mix them with and a shovel to put them into 
place after they are mixed. From any of the 
firms selling Portland cement you can get 
literature full of excellent suggestions on what 
may be done w T ith concrete. 

Get Ready for Spring Before Winter Comes 

/^ET together supplies needed for start- 
^J ing seeds, repotting plants, etc., in 
February and March, when the garden is 
frozen up tight. Put a barrel or two of good 
loam or loamy compost down cellar, together 
with sufficient supplies of leafmold, chip-dirt, 
moss, sand, and any other ingredients you are 
likely to require. Coldframes or hotbeds, if 
they are not used through the winter will take 
some time to get into shape for planting if 
all preparation is left to spring. 

Trench Celery for Fall Use 

PHE earliest celery, which has been blanched 
•*■ in the open, will now be about used up. 
That wanted for use until real hard freez- 
ing, say till the last part of December, may 
be handled readily by "trenching" it out 
of doors. Select a convenient, well drained 
place and open up a narrow trench, fifteen 
inches or so in width, and deep enough so 
that when the celery is packed in it — roots 
and all — the tops of the foliage will come about 
level with the ground. In taking up the 
plants, leave on all the soil that clings to the 
roots. Do not "handle" the plants in wet 
"weather, but put them away when dry, pack- 



ing them closely, upright. As soon as there is 
danger of weather cold enough to hurt the 
celery, cover the trench over with marsh hay 
or leaves, preferably the former. As it gets 
still colder, put soil over the mulch, for further 
protection. The stalks will bleach out quickly 
in the trench, and can be taken out as re- 
quired. 

Running a Winter Resort for Bugs? 

TTVON'T get the mistaken impression that 
*~* the job of cleaning up the garden at the 
conclusion of the season is for the sake of looks 
alone. One of the most effective steps to- 
ward controlling insects and diseases is to 
prevent their finding any place in the garden 
where they can put up for the winter. One 
small pile of rubbish or a handful of diseased 
leaves left on the ground over winter may 
carry enough eggs or spores to be the source 
of total failure of several crops next spring! 
A match in time saves ninety-nine garden 
troubles! Make a thorough job of it. Begin 
at one end of the garden and clean up as you 
go — any old stalks, cut-off tops, brush, poles, 
whatever may be left, row by row — until you 
get to the other end. Flower-beds and borders 
are much more likely to be overlooked when 



DO THIS MONTH 

1. Take in tender and semi-hardy bulbs be- 

fore ground freezes 

2. Put vegetables in permanent winter quar- 

ters 

3. Do concrete work for walls and so forth be- 

fore frost 

4. Provide soil and other materials for next 

spring's planting needs 

5. Trench celery for fall use 

6. Clean up the garden 

7. Clean up the flower beds 

8. Take up roots for forcing 

9. Mulch bulbs, hardy borders and roses 

10. Bring in first bulbs for forcing 

11. Provide suitable conditions for plants in the 

house 

12. Watch carefully vegetables and flowers 

under glass 

13. Begin winter spraying 



it comes to cleaning up than is the vegetable 
patch. But it is just as important to get 
them cleaned too. 

When the tops have been killed down by 
frost, go over every bed carefully. Remove 
the annuals and burn them, as soon as they 
are dry enough. Take a scythe or sickle and 
cut ofFthe tops a few inches above the ground. 
Remove these to a place where they can dry 
and be burned. Rake up any fallen leaves 
which may be diseased. Prevention pays! 
Replace by a clean mulch. 

Save Your Temper and Your Tines 

"DEFORE the ground begins to freeze take 
-*-* up roots of asparagus, rhubarb, and 
Witloof chicory for winter forcing. If the 
soil is very dry, water thoroughly a few hours 
before you take them up. Then store them in 
a frame or cool cellar, where they can be taken 
into heat as wanted. In taking up roots an 
edger with which to cut off the ends of the 
largest roots under the plant is a very handy 
thing in addition to a sharp spade. Another 
scheme is to put a heavy mulching around the 
plants to be taken up, so that the ground will 
not freeze for some weeks later than it or- 
dinarily would. 

And Now Put the Garden to Bed 

TF YOU have followed the suggestions given 
in previous months you have provided 
yourself with marsh hay, dry finely rotted 
manure, and dry hardwood leaves, put away 
under cover where they are dry and easy to 
get at. Now is the time! 



As soon as the ground freezes up fairly 
hard, with the prospect of remaining so, is 
time to use these coverings. The winter mulch 
is not for the purpose of protecting the plants 
from the cold. They can be killed with too 
much care. It is to prevent the winter and 
early spring sun from flirting with them, and 
raising hob by thawing the ground about their 
roots and getting them all excited about com- 
ing out in their new foliage before warm wea- 
ther really means to stay, that the thoughtful 
gardener puts on a winter mulch. 

Dry manure is good for the perennial border, 
about newly planted hedges, and in other 
places where much of it can be raked or forked 
into the soil in the spring. For the Rose bed, 
nothing is better than dry leaves, held in 
place by a low strip of wire netting supported 
by small stakes. Manure can be applied under 
the leaves, but care should be taken not to 
put it in position, either here or any where else, 
before the ground has frozen and the mice have 
taken up their winter quarters elsewhere. 
For the new bulb bed, manure with a good per- 
centage of straw, or manure and leaves mixed 
together, makes a good mulch. Tender Roses 
may be given additional protection by drawing 
the soil up about them in a steep cone, before 
the mulch is put on. 

Blossoming Bulbs foi Thanksgiving 

THE first of the winter blooming bulbs 
■*■ to be put in the frames, pit, or cellar 
for root-growth may be taken in now for 
"forcing" if they have made a fairly good mass 
of roots. Hyacinths and Polyanthus Narcissus 
are the soonest to be ready for bringing into 
heat — either in the greenhouse, or in the 
dwelling. Give a very cool temperature at 
first, then gradually increase both water and 
temperature. If you haven't any bulbs 
started, try Hyacinths in a few of the special 
hyacinth glasses, and Paper-white Narcissus 
and the Chinese Sacred Lily in pebbles, or 
better, prepared fibre or humus. 

Half a Day for the Plants in the House 

/"\NE reason why plants in the house so 
^-^ frequently fail is because no serious 
effort is made to give them congenial condi- 
tions. The dwelling house is by no means an 
ideal place for plants — and incidentally the 
atmosphere that is too hot, "stuffy" and dried 
out for plants to live in it, is far from being 
good for humans! If you are going to have a 
window garden, take a few hours and fix it up 
so that the flowers in the window can be 
really watered without spoiling the carpet on 
the floor. If a bay window is used, a curtain 
can be hung in such a manner that the plants 
will be somewhat shut in by themselves a 
good part of the time, and during sweeping, 
dusting, etc., they can have a cleaner and more 
moist atmosphere. 

Ready for Enemies ? 

r t 1 HE green plant louse will get you if you 

•*• don't watch out ! 

Conditions under glass are usually such as 
to make more likely the attacks of insects and 
disease than in the open. The most certain 
to appear, and the most troublesome, if you 
allow him to get a good start, is the ordinary 
aphis or plant louse. Fumigate regularly 
and spray at the first sign. Careful watering 
and plenty of fresh air, with an avoidance of 
draughts, will reduce greatly the danger of 
trouble from mildew or blight or dropping or 
yellowing foliage. The last two are sometimes 
due to the presence of illuminating or coal gas, 
even if in such small amounts that the human 
nose doesn't detect it. 



The Arnold Arboretum — What It Is and Does 



THE question is often asked: What is the 
Arnold Arboretum and what is it ex- 
pected to accomplish for the benefit of 
the world? 
A department of Harvard University, the 
Arboretum is a museum of trees and other 
woody plants and its object is to increase 
the knowledge of such plants. This museum 
owes its origin to the imagination of George 
B. Emerson. In 1868 James Arnold, a mer- 
chant living in New Bed- 
ford, Massachusetts, died 
and at the suggestion of 
Mr. Emerson left $100,000 
to trustees, of which Mr. 
Emerson was one, to be used 
by them for the advance- 
ment of agriculture or hor- 
ticulture. Mr. Emerson had 
long been interested in trees 
and had prepared for the 
Commonwealth an excellent 
"Report on the Trees and 
Shrubs Growing Naturally 
in Massachusetts," which 
had been publish'ed by the 
state. Another of Mr. Arn- 
old's trustees, John James 
Dixwell, was also interested 
in trees and had formed on 
his estate in Jamaica Plain a 
collection of trees which had 
in the middle of the last 
century few equals in Mass- 
achusetts. Mr. Emerson 
therefore, was naturallysup- 
ported by his fellow trustee 
in his idea of using the 
Arnold money to establish 
an Arboretum, and between 
them they made in 1872 an 
arrangement with Harvard 
University by which they 
turned over to it the Arnold 
bequest, the University in 
return agreeing to devote to 
the Arboretum a part of the 
farm in West Roxburywhich 
had been left to it by Ben- 
jamin Bussey to be used for 
a Farm School. This agree- 
ment provided that the Uni- 
versity should grow on this 
land every tree and shrub 
able to endure the climate 
of Massachusetts. One 
hundred and twenty -five 
acres of the Bussey Farm 
was at first included in this 
arrangement and several 
years later the University 
added seventy -five acres 
more to the Arboretum, the 
area of which was further 
increased, as will be explained, by the City 
of Boston. 

It is safe to say that none of the men di- 
rectly engaged in making this agreement had 
any idea what an Arboretum might be, or 
what it was going to cost in time and money 
to carry out the agreement to cultivate all the 
trees and shrubs which could be grown in 
Massachusetts, and certainly none of them 
were more ignorant on these subjects than the 
person selected to see that this agreement 
was carried out. He found himself pro- 



By C. S. SARGENT, the F irst iw«« 

Illustrated by photographs made in the Arboretum 

vided with a worn-out farm partly covered 
with native woods nearly ruined by pastur- 
age and neglect, with only a small part of the 
income of the $100, oco available, for it had 
been decided by the University that the 
whole income could not be used until the 
principal had been increased to $150,000 
by accumulated interest. He was without 
the support and encouragement of the gen- 
eral public which knew nothing and cared 




Climbing Hydrangea (Hydrangea petiolaris) introduced by the Arboretum is the only hardy woody vine 
with conspicuous flowers which can cling firmly to a brick wall. On the Administration Building 

less about an Arboretum and what it was ex- 
pected to accomplish. 

Fortunately the late Frederick Law Olm- 
sted became interested in the project and sug- 
gested that the City of Boston might well in- 
clude under certain conditions the Arboretum 
in its park system. This plan met with 
little favor and was strongly opposed by the 
University and the Park Commission of the 
City, and it took five years of exceedingly 
disagreeable semipohtical work to bring it 
about. In 1 882, however, the consent of the 

122 



Legislature having been obtained to such 
an arrangement, a contract was made be- 
tween the University and the City which 
permitted the Park Commission of Boston to 
seize by right of eminent domain the land 
devoted to the Arboretum and then to lease 
back to the University for one thousand years 
all this land, with the exception of that to be 
occupied by a system of drives and walks which 
were to be built by the City after plans to be 
prepared by Mr. Olmsted 
and which were to be main- 
tained by the City during 
the period of the contract. 
1 he City further agreed to 
add to the Arboretum land 
necessary for carrying out 
Mr. Olmsted's plan for the 
roads, to protect the Arbor- 
etum by its police and to 
assume any taxes which 
might be levied on it during 
the period of the contract. 
On its part the University 
agreed that the Arboretum 
should be open to the public 
every day during the con- 
tinuance of the contract 
from sunrise to sunset. The 
City was slow in building 
the roads, and it was not 
until 1885, that the planting 
of trees in their systematic 
arrangement was begun. 

Among the things which 
have made the Arboretum 
what it is the most import- 
ant is this contract with the 
City of Boston which assures 
its permanency in its present 
position and frees it from 
the danger of taxation. 
Next in importance was the 
invitation which I received 
in 1879 from the Govern- 
ment of the United States 
to prepare in connection 
with the taking of the Tenth 
Census a Report on the 
Forest Wealth and the 
Forest Trees of the United 
States. In preparing this 
Report I was able to visit 
all parts of the country and 
to employ as assistants the 
men who at that time were 
best acquainted with North 
American trees. Many of 
these men became actively 
interested in the Arbore- 
tum, and the collections 
which they made as a basis 
for the Census Report laid 
the foundation of the Her- 
barium and made it possible to add to its 
collection of living plants many rare North 
American trees and shrubs. This Govern- 
ment work gave to the Arboretum a certain 
national standing and recognition which has 
been useful to it. It led to the formation 
and arrangement by the Arboretum of the 
great collection of North American woods in 
the American Museum of Natural History in 
New York, and it made it possible to prepare 
here "The Silva of North America" and other 
publications on American trees. 



November, 1017 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



123 




This view across the Jumper collection illustrates the method 
of grouping allied plants for easy comparison 




Vie^s in the 
Arnold Arboretum 



Looking across the Beech collection toward the Hemlock Hill 
clothed with a native grove and fronted with Laurel 




Seeds of a hardy form of Cedar of Lebanon were collected 
for the Arboretum on the Anti-Taurus Mountains in Asia 
Minor in 1901. The plants have never suffered from the cold 



In the collection of Crabapple, Malus theifera is conspic- 
uous for its open branching habit 



Acanthopanax (Kalopanax ricinifolium) from seed col- 
lected in Japan in 1892. Tree is now thirty-five feet tall. 
Has clusters of white flowers in July 




The main roadway through the Arboretum is a succession of remarkable groups and individual plants. The Forest Hill Road; Cherry collection on the left with the largest plant of the 

Sargent Cherry in the United States in foreground; Crabapple collection on the right 



124 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



November, 1917 



When the President and Fellows of Har- 
vard University bound themselves in return 
for Mr. Arnold's $100,000 to grow every 
tree and shrub which could endure the cli- 
mate of Massachusetts they committed them- 
selves to an undertaking the difficulty of 
which could not have been foreseen, for when 
they made this agreement with the Arnold 
trustees a comparatively small number of the 
plants now growing in the Arboretum had 
been cultivated or even discovered. The last 
forty years has seen great activity in botanical 
exploration for the discovery and introduc- 
tion of new trees and shrubs, and in the crea- 
tion of new forms by the art of the hybridizer. 
In such work the Arboretum has played a not 
unimportant part. After North America 
eastern Asia has been the principal field of 
its activities, for the trees and shrubs of north- 
eastern Asia, next to those of northeastern 
North America, are best able to adapt them- 
selves to the climate of New England. The 
Arboretum's first direct transaction with east- 
ern Asia was in 1878 when William S. Clark, 
who had left the presidency of the Massa- 
chusetts College of Agriculture at Amherst, 
to establish a similar institution at Sapporo in 
northern Japan, sent a small collection of 
Japanese seeds to the Arboretum. From 
these seeds were first raised in America the 
Japanese Tree Lilac, Syringa japonica, Cer- 
cidiphyllum, the largest tree in Japan, the 
two climbing Hydrangeas, H. petiolaris and 
Schizophragma hydrangeoides, Phellodendron 
sachalinense, Magnolia kobus, var. borealis 
and other interesting plants. 

In 1882 Dr. Bretschneider, the learned 
physician of the Russian Embassy at Peking, 
sent to the Arboretum 
a small collection of 
seeds which proved one 
of the most important 
gifts it has ever re- 
ceived. From these 
seeds there were raised 
here, among other 
plants, three Lilacs of 
first-rate importance as 
garden plants. Syringa 
pekinensis, S. villosa 
and S. pubescens, the 
single-flowered form of 
g Prunus triloba, P. tom- 
entosa, Crataegus pin- 
natifida, Fraxinus Bun 
geana, F. chinensis, var. 
rhynchophylla, Rhodo- 
dendron mucronulatum, 
Philadelphus pekinen- 
sis, Quercus variabilis, 
Celtis Bungeana, Tilia 
mongolica, Pyrus betu- 






These two pyramidal forms of our common Maples should 
be of some landscape value. Sugar Maple on left with Red 
Maple, rare, on right 



laefolia, Hydran- 
g e a Bretschnei- 
deri, Betula dahu- 
rica, Lonicera 
chrysantha, Ostry- 
opsis Davidiana 
and other valu- 
able plants. 

It was the suc- 
cess in Massa- 
chusetts of the 
plants raised 
from the Bret- 
schneider seeds 
that turned my 
attention to the 
importance of 
more thorough 
botanical explor- 
ation in China 
than had yet 
been attempted 
and led to the 
Wilson expedi- 
tions to central 
and western 
China. These 
were undertaken 
first by a London 
nurseryman a t 

the suggestion of the Arboretum on lines 
proposed by it, and later by the Arboretum 
itself. Mr. Wilson's travels have greatly in- 
creased the number of trees and shrubs which 
are now cultivated in the United States and 
Europe and have made the Arboretum the 
best place for the study of the ligneous vege- 
tation of eastern Asia. 

In addition to the plants raised from the 
seeds sent by Colonel Clark from Sapporo the 
Arboretum had been able in its early years to 
gather together a number of pL.nts sent to this 
country from Japan to Francis Parkman, the 
historian, and to the Parsons' Nursery at Flush- 
ing, New York, by Dr. G.R.Hall and by Thomas 
Hogg, and Japanese plants were growing so well 
here that I went to Japan in the summer 
of 1892 in the hope of increasing the collec- 
tion of Japanese plants in the Arboretum. 
As a result of this journey the Arboretum 
was able to add to its collections all the de- 
ciduous-leaved Japanese Oaks, Ulmus japon- 
ica, Fraxinus longicuspis, three species of 
Enkianthus, two new Crabapples, Buxus 
japonica, Abies sacchalinensis, Prumts Maxi- 
mowiczii, Tilia japonica, Acer capillipes, A. 
nikkoense, A. Miyabei, and A. diabolicum, Car- 
pinus cordata, J uniperusrigida,Ostry a japonica, 
Rhododendron Kaempferi, R. japonicum, R. 
rhombicum and several other trees and 
shrubs principally from the northern island 
which had escaped the attention of earlier 
travelers in Japan in search of the seeds of na- 
tive plants. In the autumn of 1905 Mr. J. G. 
Jack of the Arboretum staff passed a few 
months in eastern Asia and, although he was 
only a short time in Korea, made a collection 
of seeds there and in northern China from 
which several plants of interest and beauty 
entirely new to cultivation were raised,' in- 
cluding Rhododendron poukhanense, Indigo- 
fera Kirilowii, Evodia Daniellii, Quercus 
aliena, Diervilla florida venusta, Periploaca 
sepium, and Rosa Jackii. 

The Arboretum endeavors to increase the 
knowledge of trees by arranging the living 

Slants in what may be described as a Tree 
luseum. This Museum, which now contains 
one of the largest collections of trees and 
shrubs of the Northern Hemisphere in the 
world, occuDies two hundred and twenty 



Cotoneaster hupehensis which Prof. Sargent considers to be the best of all the shrubs introduced by 
Wilson for New England. Deciduous, laden with white flowers in spring 



acres of hill, valley and meadow contributed 
for the purpose by the University and in 
small part by the City of Boston. Part 
of this land is occupied by good native 
Oak woods and by a fine grove of Hemlock 
trees which cover the steep slopes of what 
is called Hemlock Hill, the crowning feature 
of the Arboretum. On the remainder of the 
ground the trees have been arranged in fa- 
mily groups and in botanical sequence, all the 
species of each genus being together. In 
the case of important native trees several in- 
dividuals have been planted comparatively 
near together with a single individual of the 
species sufficiently far from any other tree to 
make possible its free and full development. 
For the trees of other countries only space 
has been found for a single individual of 
each. Hardy shrubs are arranged in parallel 
beds on the only piece of level ground in the 
Arboretum near the Forest Hills entrance. 
This arrangement has been adopted that stu- 
dents who want to see and compare the 
species of a genus of hardy shrubs can do so 
easily and in a short time. Everywhere 
else in the arboretum the attempt has been 
made to so group the trees and shrubs that 
the natural features of the place may be pre- 
served, and that, although a person going 
along the drives can see close to the road a 
representative of every genus of trees in the 
Arboretum, he can do so without being unpleas- 
antly impressed with the idea that he is in a sys- 
tematically arranged botanical garden. A 
visitor, however, who sees only what can be 
seen from the drives gets little idea of this 
museum and its collections which must be 
studied from the grass-covered paths which 
lead the student to all the groups and to the 
principal points of interest and beauty. 

More important for the increase of knowl- 
edge than the cultivation and convenient ar- 
rangement of living plants is the work which 
is carried on in the laboratories of the Arbor- 
etum, for comparatively few persons can 
study and enjoy these growing plants; but 
from the laboratories material and informa- 
tion reach far beyond the boundaries of 
the United States. There are two depart- 
ments of these laboratories, first the nurseries 
and second the herbarium and library. In 



November, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



125 



the nurseries have been 
raised nearly all the trees 
and shrubs which now 
form the outdoor museum, 
and from them hundreds 
of thousandsof rare plants, 
or plants entirely new to 
cultivation, have been sent 
out in exchange for other 
plants, to be tested in al- 
most every civilized coun- 
try of the world. In these 
nurseries, too, have been 
produced by hybridization 
a few plants of consider- 
able value. The Arbore- 
tum has been fortunate 
that its nurseries from their 
beginning until a year ago 
were managed by Jackson 
Dawson, a man of genius 
whogave to the Arboretum 
his enthusiasm, his im- 
agination, and unsurpassed 
knowledge of plants and 
their propagation. The 
work of Jackson Dawson 
was one of the principal 
factors in the successful 
creation of the Arboretum 
and in extending its use- 
fulness, and in its success 
he found a happiness which 
is not given to many men. 
In the library and her- 
barium the material gath- 
ered by agents of the Ar- 
boretum is studied, and in 
its library have been pre- 
pared the books through 
which the information 
about trees collected by 
theArboretum has reached 
the public. The library 
commenced in 1873, now 
contains 31,000 bound vol- 
umes and 8,000 pamphlets, 
and on its shelves are to 
be found all the principal 
books in all languages re- 
lating in any way to trees, 
their uses and cultivation. 
The herbarium, the foun- 
dation of which was laid 
by the agents of the United 




One of the most noticeable trees on the driveway is Cercidiphyllum japonicum which is the largest tree in 
Japan. Thrives in North Eastern America 



States Census of 1880, has 
grown and is growing 
steadily. It is rich in the 
ligneous plants of North 
America, and of China and 
Japan. Those from other 
countries are fairly well 
represented, and it is the 
purpose of those who now 
administer the Arboretum 
that this herbarium shall 
eventually provide mater- 
ial for the critical studies, 
begun in North America 
and continued in Japan 
and China, of the trees of 
all other countries. 

Only a few years have 
been necessary to make 
the Arboretum what it is 
to-day, and if we pass in 
imagination down the cen- 
turies during which it is to 
occupy the ground in Bos- 
ton it now occupies, it will 
not be difficult, judgingthe 
future by the accomplish- 
ment of a few years, to pic- 
ture an establishment able 
to increase human knowl- 
edge and human happiness 
in all parts of the world. 

The foundations for such 
an establishment have al- 
ready been laid. The posi- 
tion of the Arboretum as a 
scientific station is now re- 
cognized. It has many 
friends who believe in its 
value, and it has attracted 
and retained for many 
years a staff devoted to its 
interests; and nothing now 
but insufficient space in 
which to expand, and in- 
sufficient money to make 
possible the work the cen- 
turies will impose on it, can 
prevent th; realization of 
the dreams of those who 
have found their life'swork 
in preparing the way for a 
great scientific and popular 
establishment of far-reach- 
ing influence. 



Electricity For Heating Frames 



W. C. McCOLLOM 



A PRACTICAL AND ECONOMICAL METHOD WHERE NO REGULAR HEATING PLANT EXISTS.— POSITIVE FACTS IN 

VIEW OF RISING COSTS OF NATURAL HEATING MATERIAL 



NEVER heard of such a thing!" 
Probably not. I don't even know 
that any one has actually done it; 
but in view of the increasing diffi- 
culty of obtaining natural heating material, 
stable manure, the scheme may not be so 
impractical after all. Let's look at the facts. 
The price of electricity is tending downward 
while the price of stable manure is rapidly in- 
creasing; and in many localities it can hardly 
be procured under any circumstances. Then 
why not use electricity for heating hot beds 
since its cost is not prohibitive? 

The great advantage in using electricity is 
that we can instantly regulate the heat of the 
bed according to the weather. At four o'clock 



it is mild; at nine it is freezing briskly. Ac- 
cordingly we turn on our switch and the hid- 
den forces of our cleanest and most satisfactory 
of all heating mediums are set in operation giv- 
ing us the required degree of heat necessary for 
the development of the plants in the bed. 
Just think of it! No manure to cart away; 
no digging up and littering of the entire sur- 
roundings nor the disadvantage of having 
heat when it is not wanted. 

Heating frames by electricity is really a very 
simple thing. All one has to do is to attach a 
supply cable of sufficient size from the point of 
intersection with the main feed cable to heaters 
which are placed in the frames at equal dis- 
tances from each other. These heaters which 



are made of castings of metals or a composi- 
tion of metals that offer resistance enough 
to the electric current to generate heat are 
not more than one half inch thick and have 
small lugs at the corners to keep them from 
coming in contact with the supporting rear 
wall to which they are attached about six 
inches above the ground line inside the frame. 

The Question of Cost 

RASING our calculation of cost on a frame 
-*-' six feet wide and fifty feet long with one 
foot of exposed wall in front and two feet in 
the rear, the customary way of building 
frames, we get a total of #80.00 divided as 
follows: Three heaters of the gridiron type, 



126 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



November, 1917 



ten by fifteen inches and of four hundred and 
forty watt capacity, #15.00 each, #45.00; one 
hundred feet of feed cable at 25c. per 
foot, #25.00; and #10.00 for the installation 
of the plant. The cost would be consider- 
ably lessened, proportionately, on larger 
sized frames and somewhat increased on 
smaller units. 

To raise the temperature fifty degrees in a 
frame of the size mentioned above will require 
about one hundred and ten volts or thirteen 
hundred and twenty watts, a consumption of 
approximately one and one third kilowatts 
per hour. The cost per kilowatt varies to such 
an extent that it will be necessary to strike an 
average of say ten cents which is rather high 
but will do for the purpose of comparison. 
Using the heat from six o'clock in the evening 
until six o'clock the following morning will 
consume sixteen kilowatts at a cost of #1.60. 
If the amount of heat required is less than 
fifty degrees the cost will be proportionately 
lower. 

Let us assume that it will be necessary to 
raise the temperature the maximum, or 50 for 
twenty nights during the time the frames are in 
service, or the current consump- 
tion would be the same for a 35 
temperature for thirty nights. 
In either case the cost will be 
about the same, #32.00 for ' 
electric current for the season. 
To be on the safe side let us 
assume that we will need the 
heat for twice the periods men- 
tioned above. The cost for the 
season will be #64.00 for op- 
erating expenses — but that is 
an extravagant margin, and would not be 
reached. 

Taking this high figure, however, compare 
the cost of electricity with the expense of 
manure as the heating medium for the hotbed. 
In order to obtain the amount of heat neces- 
sary there should be three feet of manure in 
the pit or a total of thirty-four cubic yards. 
At #1.50 per cubic yard, a very low estimate, 
it will cost #5 1. 00 to fill the frame with manure. 
After the heat is expended the manure will 
have to be carted away and this will be an 
additional expense. Keeping in mind the 
fact that manure is getting more and more ex- 
pensive and electricity cheaper and cheaper 
there is no great difference in the cost of the 
two mediums. 

There is no doubt as to the practicability 



of making use of electricity to heat hotbeds, 
and in fact, it is more desirable than stable 
manure. With hotbeds heated by manure 
we often find soft, spindly plants, caused by 
intense heat when it is not required and it is a 
well-known fact that more 
plants are destroyed in a hot- 
bed by too much heat than 



IS" 



■p 



.in 



"FRONT ELtvATIOl 



Gridiron 



Detail of electric heater installa- 
tion for frames 



are killed by cold. In 

using electricity as the 

heating 

i 




4 — I 



SlCT 

Section of frame 



ION AtbT 

at the line AB below 



medium 
the tem- 
perature 

can be regulated according 
to conditions; the three 
heaters referred to above 
will distribute the heat 
equally and by increasing or 
decreasing the power no one 
unit is entirely cut out but 
the heating power in each 
is simply increased or decreased as desired. 

Old Time Disadvantages 

ONE of the chief disadvantages of the old 
fashioned hotbed is the excessively 
moisture laden atmosphere caused by the de- 
composition of the manure. For this decom- 
position the manure must contain moisture and 
this moisture must evaporate. There is only 
one way that it can find its way to the air and 
this is through the hotbed. This means that 
the moisture is continually rising and carrying 
with it the fumes of ammonia which are not 
directly advantageous to the growth of the 
plants. When the frames are closed the glass 
is at once coated with moisture which excludes 
the light and causes the plants to get soft 
and spindly. 



Other Plans That Economize 

OFTEN it is desirable to use frames in 
the fall for the storage of certain plants 
until they are used or disposed of in some 
other manner and here again the electrically 
heated frame will serve as we have no heat to 
apply, no preparations to make. Simply a 
turn of a switch and the frame is ready! 

There is no danger attached to the elec- 
trically heated frame. The heat is rarely 
used when any one is working around the 
frame and even then it would be almost im- 
possible to get at a point where one might get 
a serious shock although one might get a 
burn by coming in contact with the heaters. 
In order to avoid this danger a cheap guard 
of some kind can be placed over them. 

A frame properly fitted out should last a life 
time. No particular care is necessary and 
there are no expensive items of up keep. The 
'//'"'W cost of installation plus the cost of operation 
will doubtless deter many from trying the 
experiment but I venture to prophesy that 
eventually the electrically heated hotbed 
will be popular, especially on places that 
generate their own current. These places 
always have a surplus of power at night 
when the heat in a hotbed is most required. 
When hotbeds can be located near the house, 



garage or greenhouse electric heating would 
not be economical as in such a case it would 
be far more practical to install a small main 
from the heating unit in the building. It is 
only where the frames are more or less iso- 
lated that electricity is to be recommended. 



Using Fresh Vegetables Wisely 

|~*HE housewife's desire to manifest her 
patriotism by food conservation may 
be expressed in her willingness to revise, not 
alone her meal plans but her culinary practices 
as well. Accordingly she will cook all vege- 
tables in the skins, regardless of how they may 
be finally prepared for the table. Steaming 
will in large measure replace boiling when she 
realizes that the loss of mineral salts by boil- 
ing is from three to five times as great as when 
vegetables are cooked by steaming. She will 
not be tempted to live out of the tin can be- 
cause of its convenience. Rather will she re- 
gard the canned vegetables as a supplementary 
or emergency form. It may be called to mind 
that out of about thirty common vegetables 
twenty are stored in the fresh state. 



T" 



T>L AN . 



■1 



49- r 



Standard ]C ,5/^.sh Mot E>fci3 TuAMt 



rrr 



fc» C A%L.-B.^ > 



GRIDIRON 



r E. l_^=-V/0<. T 1 O N OT -R-EAT*. **LL. 

tztzzzzzzzzzz:zzzzzzzzzzzzz"zz-zzzz-zzzzzzzzzzzzzzz^zzzzzzzz± 

Plans for equipment of frames for heating by electricity. It is a convenient method where no regular heating plant exists 






Little Chat on Greenhouse Heating 



J. N. MacARTHUR 

Heating Engineer 



NEED FOR HIGHEST EFFICIENCY IN HEAT PRODUCTION— HOW THE GREENHOUSE BOILER BECAME SPECIALIZED 

AND TYPES THAT FIT SPECIAL PURPOSES 



SOMEBODY, somehow, somewhere, came 
to a hasty conclusion about greenhouse 
heating; and then proceeded to spread 
it broadcast as a conclusive conclusion. 
The conclusion was that the heating of a 
greenhouse was a most vexatious problem; 
one as yet to be satisfactorily solved. In 
that word "satisfactory" it turns out was 
mainly the question of coal burned. 

Evidently, it loomed up as a great bugaboo, 
quite as the question of gasolene used to, with 
automobile owners. But what boots it, if 
gasolene does cost 30 cents a gallon instead of 
20, if with improved engines and carbureters, 
you get an equivalent increase in power and 
mileage? 

Whether it is a question of greenhouse coal, 
or an auto's gasolene, it all simmers right down 
to the basis of getting proportionate returns 
for your expenditures. 

There is a man up at Port Chester, N. Y., 
who has a greenhouse 18 by 50 feet, who grows 
on the side bench enough spring bedding 




The modern square sectional type of greenhouse boiler. 
It is easy to install, to repair, and to operate. And easy on 
coal. All clean-out doors, dampers and other operating 
parts are entirely on the front 



plants that he sells to his neighbors to entirely 
pay for the coal he burns. 

But like the auto again, the genuine 100 
per cent, pleasure you get out of it, is so far 
and away ahead of the money you put in it, 
that it's overshadowed. 

But you can burn a needless amount of 
coal, just like you can use an unnecessary 
amount of gasolene. The boiler might be 
termed the carbureter of the heating system. 
Just as a special type of carbureter must be 
devised for each type of engine, so should a 
greenhouse be heated by a specially designed 
greenhouse boiler. 

Next to all out-doors, and church lobbies, 
the greenhouse is the most difficult thing to 
heat. When you think of that thin film of 
glass, not more than an eighth of an inch thick, 
which is the only thing between the flowers 
inside and the zero weather outside, you won- 
der it can be heated at all. 

Talk, for instance, with the owner of those 
huge commercial Rose houses, covering, not 
so many square feet, but acres; and you will be 
surprised to learn the small amount of coal 
required to heat them, compared with other 
buildings. Due allowance, of course, being 
made for the great difference in structural ma- 
terial. 

Now consider the fact that in residence 



heating the pipes are run vertically. This 
gives every advantage of the force of gravity 
to insure the return of the water to the boiler, 
and so make the circulation both rapid and free 
from air pockets. 

Now compare greenhouse heating, with its 
pipes running horizontally under the benches, 
and you at once see why it is that a boiler 
that may economically heat your house, is 
not successful for your glass enclosed garden. 

In reverse, however, you at once appreciate 
that a boiler which is economical for green- 
house heating, is exceptionally so for all other 
purposes too. 

Contrary to your impression, perhaps the 
evolution of the greenhouse boiler reads quite 
like a fairy tale. 

Like every worth while thing, its inception 
started with one man. In this case, it was 
an enthusiastic lover of flowers, an English- 
man who came to this country, following the 
lure of larger opportunity. 

In those days, more than 60 years ago, be- 
fore the day of steam or hot water adaptation, 
greenhouses were heated in what now seems a 
ridiculous way. A sort of stove or furnace 
was bricked in at one end of the greenhouse 
and the chimney or flue carried along under 
the centre of the house to the other end; 
where it ended in the chimney proper. This 
flue was made of brick and tile. The heat 
radiating from it warmed the house excessively 
at one end, and in opposite proportion at the 
other. Incidentally, it often leaked gas, kill- 
ing the plants. 

Of course, such a heating method devoured 
coal most discouragingly. 

Our English flower lover, who was also a 
heating engineer, seeing his opportunity, de- 
signed a sort of half furnace, half boiler, by 
putting a water jacket around part of it. 
From it, he ran hot water pipes down one side 
of the house, and the brick flue down the other. 
This gave a more even distribution of the heat, 




Cutting the top off the square sectional boiler like you 
would a boiled egg and cracking off some of the side makes 
its construction clear. The fire comes into the upper 
story through the side flues, between each section. Then 
it starts back and forth on its three time passage or fire 
travel. It is this long fire travel that has much to do with 
its short coal bill. See the illustration of a single section 

127 



and also placed it at the sides of the house, 
where it was most needed. 

But still it was at best a one-sided proposi- 
tion, all being in favor of the hot water side. 




The latest improved type of round sectional boilers used 
for heating greenhouses of moderate size. It has all the 
economy advantages of its brother, the square sectional 



So next he designed a regular, full-fledged 
boiler in which instead of having the fire and 
hot gases simply heat the water that was 
only directly over the fire, as it does in a tea- 
kettle, he made a water jacket hump or V- 
shaped extension on the back. Back and 
forth through this water-jacketed extension, 
the flames, hot gases, and smoke had to pass 
before they could go out from the smoke box 
and up the chimney. 

■ This so increased the efficiency that with 
the same coal, three houses of the same size 
could be heated instead of one. Pipes were 
used on both sides of the house and the 
chimney flue carried directly from the boiler 
through the roof, like any rightly behaved 
chimney. 

For the first time it was possible to heat 
all parts of the house uniformly and, by putting 
valves on the pipes, have full control of the 
heat distribution. 

Not to this very day has there been de- 
signed a boiler that surpasses this hump boiler 
for economy. 

But as houses grew larger, it became a prob- 
lem to cast the big humped boilers needed. 
It was also difficult because of their size, to 
handle them when installing. And so it was 
that one of the pioneers in greenhouse build- 
ing determined to design a boiler that had 
all the advantages of the hump one and none 
of its limitations. 



128 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



November, 1917 







Greenhouse of M. Pernet, the well known French rosarian. 
Heated in the old-time way with a brick flue running under 
the centre bench from the furnace at one end, to the 
wooden chimney at the other 



Taking the sectional book-case as an inspir- 
ation, he made a sectional boiler of two de- 
signs. One, square shaped, in which the sec- 
tions were placed side by side. The other 
was round, with the sections put one on top 
of the other. 

In them, he combined the twice back and 
forth passing of the gases and smoke, as in the 
hump boiler; and then added another passage 
or flue, making a three times back and forth. 
As a result, so thoroughly was the heat ex- 
tracted by the water in the boiler, that the 
smoke pipe was cool enough to put your hand 
on it. 

But still more improvements were to come. 
The part directly over the fire, correspond- 
ing to the bottom of the tea-kettle, was 
made in corrugations or loops, each sec- 
tion forming a part of the loop. This gave 
still more economy, because it gave more heat- 
ing surface for the flames to directly heat. 

To prove to yourself how this is, just lay a 
string on the table in loops, like in the sketch 
alongside. Say the distance across all the loops 
measures two inches. Now pull the string 
out straight and it measures close to six inches. 

If tea-kettle bottoms were made in corruga- 
tions like a greenhouse boiler, they would boil 
in a third less time. Strange, isn't it, that 
someone doesn't make them that way? 

But to get back to the square sectional 
boiler, it really has two stories. The lower 
one contains the fire; in the upper one, are the 
flues through which the hot gases pass back and 
forth between their water-surrounded walls. 

Now consider that the top, sides, front and 
back of the lower story are water surrounded, 
as well as every one of the passages in the 
upper one; and you can see that this boiler 
is like a big sponge, greedily drinking up the 
heat and sending it with great circulating 



force, into the greenhouse, in the form of hot 
water or steam. 

Perhaps this is now as good a place as any 
to talk about "hold-ups" — the kind that in 
boilers mean a slumber fire. The kind that 
holds up its end when there is little to do; and 
is always ready to do more, when more is to be 
done. Which statement needs explaining. 

We have reference to the way this boiler's 
grates shake part at a time, so that you can 
in mild weather put ashes on part of them, and 
run the fire on the other part. It's just like 
having a little boiler inside the big one. It is 
decidedly more economically and easily man- 
aged than the big fire, which — in your en- 
deavor to keep it low enough, frequently 
goes out? 

And now a word more in general about 
sectional boilers. They are easy to handle 
and set up. The sections will go through 
practically any door and down any ordinary 
cellar stairs. In case anything happens to 
any of the sections, only that one section need 
be replaced. As you enlarge your house, 
simply add more sections to the boiler just as 
you would add more sections to a book-case. 

Such boilers are made for either steam or 
hot water, but by far the greater number of 
greenhouses are hot water heated It is a 
more equable heat than steam. It has none 
of its intensity, none of its being either a)! 
on or all off", and so requiring much attention 
to preserve the uniform temperature so essen- 
tial for greenhouse success. 

But let me caution you to make sure your 
boiler and heating pipes are rightly propor- 
tioned, both in relation to each other and the 
requirements of the house. To heat a green- 
house of ordinary sound construction — that is, 
tightly glazed with double-thick glass — to a 
temperature of 55 to 60 degrees at night, when 
the mercury outside is at zero, you must have 




e square boiler 
sections. The window - like 
openings are where the fire, hot 
gases and smoke travel back 
and forth on their journey three 
times the length of the boiler, on 
the way to the smoke pipe and 
chimney. The frame of the 
windows is hollow and filled 
with water. The round port 
holes are the openings through 
which the water flows from each 
separate section to the other 



TJ-T 

IFt 



ZFt 



TT" 
3 Ft 



4Fr 



-rp- 
5Ft 



T 



6Ft 



r ywin 



9> 





In early fall or late spring, when only a little fire is 
needed, just bank the back half of the grates with ashes 
and run a fire on the front half. The grates shaking in two 
parts, makes this possible 




These sketches, go to prove that a kettle with a corru- 
gated or looped bottom has the same quick heating space 
that a flat bottomed one has, three times the width. On 
this fact is based the use of corrugations in the fire box 
top of greenhouse boilers 



The grates on the square sectional shake half at a time, 
which has two advantages. Shake easier, and you can stir 
up half the fire and let the other half slumber 

one square foot of hot water radiation pipes 
for every three square feet of exposed glass 
and its equivalent. 

No matter how fine a greenhouse or con- 
servatory you may have, a "greenhouse boiler" 
is vital to its success. So do not experiment 
with ordinary furnaces; it costs too much. 

A Neat Stake 

TV/TY only objection to growing Lilies, Glad- 
*■*■*■ iolus, and Dahlias is that they usually 
need staking and I object to the conspicuous 
way in which the stakes show. Of course, 
I wouldn't be without these grand flowers 
even if I had to put up with the objection- 
able stakes. In the past I have used the 
bamboo stakes, that can be bought at most of 
the seed stores, and while they have some 
advantages over the usual rough stake, yet 
they failed to exactly suit. The past season 
I gave the subject some thought and finally 
devised a stake that seemed to answer my pur- 
pose, at least. The stakes of course, are of 
different lengths to suit the heights of the 
different flowers and the size of the stake will 
depend on the length. For a five-foot stake 
I found three quarters of an inch square about 
right. At some near-by saw-mill, waste 
material can usually be found that will answer 
the purpose first rate and may be had for very 
little money and sometimes for only the 
trouble of carrying them away. I next bore 
small holes beginning near the top and about 
eight or ten inches apart, down to about the 
middle of the stake. After sharpening the 
bottom end so it may be driven into the ground 
easily. I next paint the entire stake green and 
lay away to dry. Instead of using string to 
tie the plants to the stake I use green raffia, 
being more inconspicuous than the former. 
I at one time used tacks or small nails 
to keep the raffia from slipping down but 
found them more or less in the way and 
they were continually catching on different 
things. The holes have no bad points. If the 
stakes are stored under cover during winter 
and occasionally re-painted there is no reason 
why they won't last for a good many seasons. 
Toledo, Ohio. Walter J. Wait. 



The Greenhouse That Isn't Heated W B !L^ IG 



MAY BE EXPENSIVE ECONOMY- 



-PROFITABLE CROPS THAT CAN BE GROWN UNDER GLASS WITHOUT FUEL- 
ING THE FOOD SITUATION 



-HELP- 



COAL scarcity, to say nothing of the 
possible price, is a present menace 
to the gardener this year. It is a 
big problem what to do with the 
greenhouse. Shall it be operated regardless 
of cost? Can it be started and the risk taken 
of not being able to get an adequate supply 
of fuel? But withal the case is not so 
alarming as it was only a few years ago. 
During that period very few greenhouses 
actually were closed down in the winter and 
where coal was not available cord wood 
was used for many months to keep frames 
running. 

As a plain matter of practical common sense 
the closing down of the greenhouse should be 
looked at as a very serious solution of the prob- 
lem. Closing down has many and co'stly dis- 
advantages. A greenhouse kept in operation 
and kept heated during the winter comes 
through the cold weather in better condition 
than one that is left alone, unless it is elabor- 
ately protected by wire screens or board 
shutters laid over the roof. In the neglected 
house frost within will heave the brick piers 
supporting the pipes which ordinarily are put 
up with very little foundation. ' The heaving 
tends to throw pipes out of plumb and to 
"start" the joints. The resultant leaks are 
often costly to stop. 

In the event of the greenhouse being closed 
for the winter it is advisable to protect the 
piers with a covering of straw, hay, or dry 
leaves; and indeed to lay this covering over the 
entire floor of the greenhouse. It is, of course, 
understood that all water is drained from 
heating pipes and boiler and that any cold 
water connections be cut off where danger of 
freezing exists. This work should be done 
during November. After March ist the 
greenhouse should have a little artificial heat 
in order to bring on spring crops. Not much 
fuel would be needed during the day, unless 



the weather is unusually cold, but some warmth 
should be kept in the pipes all night. By us- 
ing a littl fire heat then very much earlier crops 
will be assured. 



"VTOT much can be had in the way of grow- 
■*• ^ ing crops in an unheated greenhouse dur- 
ing December, January, and February. Yet 
we want to increase our food production as 
much as possible during the coming winter, 
and an unheated house will assist in this effort. 
If the house contains benches with sides these 
should be filled at once with a compost of well 
rotted manure one part, and rotted pasture 
loam or good garden loam three parts. On 
part of this sow rows of prickly spinach as 
soon as possible. Let the rows be 10 inches 
apart. This will soon germinate and will 
easily withstand the winter; give the surface 
a mulch of dry leaves after the middle of De- 
cember. 

You probably have lettuces in the garden 
which have not yet attained any great size; 
dig them up carefully and plant in a bench 8 x 
8 inches apart. They will continue to grow 
for some time. Give them also a good mulch 
of leaves and they will pull through the winter 
unless it is unusually severe. 

Are there any cauliflowers that are not 
headed up? Lift them carefully, soak well in 
water, tie the leaves together over the top, 
which will prevent them breaking and also 
protect the "flowers" and keep them white. 
Plant them in the benches. Dandelions make 
excellent greens in late winter. Secure a 
number of strong roots now and plant in the 
benches. 

"\ X 7"HEN the power of the sun is increasing 

* * perceptibly, about middle of January, 

it will be safe to make sowings of garden peas, 

radishes, lettuces, and round spinach. Don't 



worry about them because the weather is cold, 
for even if the soil on the bench freezes they 
will not be harmed, especially if a dry mulch of 
some kind be given. A month later you can 
sow more lettuces, beets, or spinach if the 
needed bench space is available. 

A few luxury vegetables are easily to be had. 
Some old asparagus roots taken inside will 
yield a few early bunches. The roots can be 
dug now carefully and planted below the 
benches of the greenhouse covering the roots 
with two or three inches of soil. 

If mushrooms are liked, a bed can be made 
below one of the benches. It will not produce 
through the winter but will give an abundant 
crop as the weather gets warmer. It will do 
the bed no harm even if it freezes solid. Use 
pure culture spawn, and a mixture of fresh 
horse manure three parts and loam one part. 
Allow rank heat to subside before making up 
the bed. Spawn when heat in the bed de- 
clines to 90 degrees, using portions of spawn 
as large as an English walnut and cover these 
two inches deep, 12 inches apart each way. 
Ten days after spawning spread two inches of 
loam over the surface and beat it firmly, then 
cover with hay and let alone. Manure just 
moist enough so that it can be squeezed to- 
gether without water exuding is in the right 
stage. Pound this nine inches deep and the 
firmer it is made, the longer heat will be main- 
tained and the better the crop." 

FLOWERS are wanted early? Well then, 
sow Sweet Peas, Bachelor's Buttons, 
Mignonette and Marigold at the end of Jan- 
uary. Dutch bulbs such as Tulips, Hyacinths, 
Narcissus, etc., if carried over in a cold cellar 
can also be brought into the unheated green- 
house late in February, at which time also it 
will be perfectly safe to start Hydrangeas, 
Lilacs, Rambler Roses, Deutzias, and other 
dormant deciduous shrubs or climbers. 




A cool, or even cold, house can be used to grow the hardier vegetables earlier than the outdoor garden. Mushrooms may be grown under the bench 

129 



Getting the Garden Under Glass 



F. F. ROCKWELL 

Pennsylvania 



CHANGING THE BASE OF OPERATIONS FROM THE OPEN TO THE FRAMES AND THE GREENHOUSE FOR WINTER PRO- 
DUCTION—WHY DRAINAGE IS SO IMPORTANT INDOORS 



EVERY good gardener, is quite 
naturally determined to have a 
better garden next year. The. de- 
mand for good vegetable plants of 
all kinds will be even greater next spring 
than it was last, and any surplus of such 
plants which the foresighted gardener may 
have is sure to find a ready sale at good prices. 

Not too Late to Begin Now 

"\X7"HILE the gardener who is so fortunate 
» * as to already possess some frames, or a 
small greenhouse, has or should have winter 
crops already started, nevertheless, it is not too 
late for the new gardener to have a winter 
"war garden" as well as making sure of a 
supply of plants, both vegetables and flowers, 
for next spring's garden and flower beds, pro- 
vided prompt action is taken. If a "ready 
made" frame, or a small greenhouse is ordered 
now, and the soil to go into them is prepared 
while you are waiting for it to arrive, you can 
still get two or three crops of winter vege- 
tables before the plants to be grown for setting 
out in the spring will require much space. 
The latter are started in February or early 
March; but for six weeks or so, before they are 
ready to transplant, will occupy very little 
room. So you have practically all the space 
available in frames or greenhouse to use 
for a winter garden until April. 

While it is no part of the present purpose to 
describe types of frames and greenhouses 



•tftfl WH, vvj aftri>;ifl,n<l)w7;yfca^li(vj,(,'. 




ijj'j'RE.PARE.i) ^SOIL. <?°. 

■ c i n x>e. b sxsg»a«SK 



WMmWm 




Frame prepared on wet soil, with cinder base to secure 
drainage 




Pots "plunged" in cinders or 
fine gravel to prevent the rapid 
drying out, while providing good 
drainage 



which may now be had "ready made" at 
reasonable figures; nevertheless, it will be in 
order to assert now that they are entirely 
practical. Note may be made in passing of 
the heat-conserving possibility of "double 
glazing" for both sash and small greenhouses. 
In double glazed work, there is a thin layer of 
air between the two sheets of glass which acts 
as a' non-conductor, keeping the frames or 
house as warm as though there was a mat 
over it, and, at the same time admitting sun- 
light. 

The first thing for the beginner at winter 
gardening to realize is that it is an undertaking 
distinctly different from gardening out-of- 
doors. While the same general principles of 
fertilizers, plant sanitation, etc., apply, yet the 
conditions are not at all the same. The first and 
most important difference is, that in gardening 
under glass, practically everything is "up to" 



the gardener. If he does not water his plants 
himself, they will grow thirsty. If he does not 
attend to giving fresh air, they will soon fall a 




mmsmmgmffimfflMgsmflmmmt 



^L 



Securing good drainage on a raised 
bench — moss, leaf mould/screenings, 
or some absorbent material should 
be used under the soil, to prevent 
a temporary surplus moisture from 
passing out of the bench 



^_ 



k. 



C0NCH-E.TE, 
WAUL— -k 



CONCRETE 
WALK, 




Method of providing thorough drainage for solid greenhouse 
bed built on the ground 

prey to disease. On the other hand, how- 
ever, growing conditions are under his control 
and not subject to the vagaries of the weather. 

Things that Need Attention 

A I HDO often, the new gardener under glass 
\ looks for the cause of his troubles in the 
supposed wrong selection of varieties, or in 
having given a few degrees too high or too 
low a temperature, when in reality, even with 
perfect seed and growing conditions, he would 
have met failure because of mistakes made at 
the very beginning of his winter gardening 
operations. Pay heed therefore, to the con- 
trolling factors. 

The first essential is drainage. If the 
soil be either too wet or too dry to furnish 
the proper conditions of growth, little progress 
can be made, and it is absolutely impossible 
for the plants to make progress, no matter 
what pains have been taken with all the other 
factors influencing their growth. Out of 
doors, drainage, even under unfavorable con- 
ditions, will, to some extent, take care of itself. 
Surplus water, if it cannot find its way down 
through the soil, wdl tend to flow off over the 
surface or will be decreased rapidly through 
evaporation. In the frame or the greenhouse, 
however, it is wholly subject to artificial con- 
trol. Evaporation takes place very slowly, 
and if precautions are not taken the soil may 
remain in a soggy, water- 
logged condition, fatal to 
healthy growth, for days 
or even weeks at a time. 
And, unless he has been 
forewarned, the grower 
may not suspect what the 
trouble is! 

The first step in making 
sure of satisfactory drain- 
age is to provide an ade- 
quate means of escape for 
any surplus moisture before 
the soil is put into frames, 
benches or solid beds. 
When frames, coldframes or hotbeds are 
built on soil which has a naturally porous sub- 
soil, giving good drainage, no further attention 
will be required than to see that the soil of the 
frame is thoroughly spaded or forked up and 
that no outside surface water can find its way 
into the frames, in the case of heavy rain or 

130 




Plant raised above 
bench level to secure 
extra drainage and room 



melting snow. The frame should be made in 
such a manner, that when the prepared soil is 
put in it, the level will be above the soil level 
outside the frame; or else protected from water 
outside by being carefully banked up. If, 
however, the ground upon which the frames 
must be constructed is low, a layer of cinders, 
several inches thick, should be placed in the 
bottom of the frame. On very low soil that is 
sure to be wet in winter or in spring, a long, 
low mound of cinders can be made and the 
frames built on top of this. Where the frame 
has to be built on a hard, impervious sub- 
soil, it can be dug out sloping toward the front 
of the frame, and a line of ordinary, loose 
jointed tile laid along the front, with a pitch 
to one end, to carry off the moisture. All 
these methods are illustrated in the accom- 
panying drawings. 

Drainage in the greenhouse is even more im- 
portant than that in the frames. Here one is 
likely to encounter trouble in one of two ex- 
tremes — the solid bed, usually, being so con- 
structed that without the greatest care in 
watering it will be too wet; while the raised 
benches, on the other hand, are just as likely 
to dry out too rapidly and will therefore re- 
quire frequent heavy waterings, and so suffer 
from being alternately too wet and too dry. 

What has been said in connection with pro- 
curing good drainage in the frames applies, 
with slight modification, to the solid bed in the 




Frame on clay sub-soil with slight pitch to end to provide 
drainage 




greenhouse. Unless drainage conditions are 
very good, it will pay to put in cinders or other 
drainage material before filling in the bed with 
the planting soil, even if the latter contains a 
large proportion of manure. It is much safer 
to err on the side of too good drainage. A 
too light watering can readily be supple- 
mented by another; but a heavy watering, with 
poor drainage, may cause damage that cannot 
be undone for days or even weeks. 

One of the secrets of having small plants in 
pots thrive and grow rapidly, is perfect drain- 
age — this applies with equal force to plants 
that are in a semi-dormant condition and, mak- 
ing little growth, require little water.. Pots 
set on a bare, board bench are apt to get dried 
out entirely, or baked. If, however, the bench 
is filled several inches deep with small cinders 
or sifted ashes, and the pots are sunk into 
them half way, or up to the rim, it will be 
easier to keep them moist without having them 
too wet. They will also not be so likely to be 



■November, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



181 



knocked over in watering, weeding, 
•or in an accidental gust of wind. 

Plant Foods for the Winter Garden 

"^TEXT to drainage, both in import- 
•*• ance, and in the actual operation 
of getting ready to plant, comes the 
soil. While a very rich good garden 
loam will answer the purpose, it is 
much better to prepare a special soil 
for winter use. To make this, pro- 
cure from an old pasture or roadside, 
where the grass appears to have 
grown luxuriantly, pieces of sod sev- 
eral inches thick. Cut this up fine 
with a spade or an edger and pass it 
through a coarse screen; this gives a 
soil full of natural humus. If you 
can get sods which have lain long 
enough to rot until they will pass 
through a coarse screen, so much the 
better. If neither of these can be ob- 
tained, use clean, garden soil. Sec- 
ondly, obtain some fine and very well 
rotted manure — if possible, containing 
a good percentage of cow manure. The older 
and more thoroughly decomposed this is, the 
better. Thoroughly mix together the soil and 
manure in the proportions of one of manure to 
two of soil, adding enough coarse sand so that 
the resultant mixture will be thoroughly "cut" 
by the particles of sand and so friable that it 
will fall apart readily, even when fairly moist, 
after being squeezed in the hand. If manure 
cannot be obtained, commercial humus, or 
leaf mould from the woods may be used 
in its place; and a pint or so of fine ground 
bone added for each bushel of soil. The 
whole must now be thoroughly mixed, pre- 
ferably a week or ten days before wanted 
for use. 

A soil thus prepared will serve as the founda- 
tion for practically all work under glass. As 
you become familiar 
with the requirements 
of the individual 
plants, and attempt 
to grow a larger list, 
you may want 
heavier soil for some 
things and lighter for 
others, but, if results 
with soil as thus pre- 
pared above are not 
generally satisfactory, 
you can look else- 
where than to the soil 
as the source of your 
trouble. 



Preparation for Planting 

r T v HE next step is 
•*■ getting ready for 
planting. The soil in 
raised benches must 
be at least four inches 
deep, and the frames 
or solid beds prefer- 
ably six or eight 
inches. Even with 
this depth of soil, the 
individual plant has 
much less space than 
it would have in the 
open ground. If man- 
ure has been used, the 
soil will be fairly rich. 
But, in addition to 
this, after the soil has 
been put in place, a 
good dressing of wood 




Thoroughly mixing the soil ingredients before putting into the benches is quite 
important. Incorporate fertilizer at this time 



ashes sprinkled over the surface, and raked 
in, will help to sweeten the soil and provide 
potash; a light dressing of bone dust, if none 
has been used in making the mixture, should 
also be raked in. If the soil is at all dry, it 
should be wet down thoroughly, soaked 
through and through — so it will have a chance 
to dry out sufficiently before the seeds or 
plants are put in place. 

Throughout the season, the plants both in 
beds and benches and pots, while making active 
growth, will be benefited by a further applica- 
tion of plant food in the form of a light dres- 
sing of bone dust or tankage or nitrate of 
soda (the latter is most safely applied in 
solution, a heaping tablespoonful being used to 
a gallon or so of water), applied when the soil 
is fairly moist. 




Does double glazing "deliver the goods ? " Well here are two lettuces grown under same frame conditions, but that on 

the right of picture was from double sash 



Fresh Air and Plant Health 

PHE one thing which the beginner 
*- is pretty sure to neglect is giving 
plants indoors as much fresh air as 
they need. A safe and simple rule 
is as follows: Give all fresh air pos- 
sible, while maintaining the minimum 
of temperature. 

This does not mean that the 
ventilator should be kept open or the 
sash raised during night and day as 
long as the plants do not freeze. The 
winter gardener should aim at giving 
his plants fresh air every day, prefer- 
ably in the] morning, so that the 
air in the frames or house will have a 
chance to warm up again from the 
sun before nightfall. On very stormy 
days, especially with sash, fresh air 
cannot always be given. Any air 
draughts that will directly hit the 
plants must be avoided. The frames 
or ventilators can be opened in such 
a way that the wind will not blow 
directly into them, i. e. on the lee 
side. It is better to have a moderate opening 
for several hours rather than to open up wide 
for a few minutes to "change the air," re- 
sulting in a sudden fall of temperature, fol- 
lowed by a quick rise. 

Keeping the Plants Healthy 

TN ADDITION to giving an abundance of 
*■ fresh air and to keeping the soil watered 
frequently enough so that it is evenly moist, 
without ever getting absolutely dried out or 
wet enough to be soggy, the surface will, of 
course, be thoroughly stirred or cultivated 
frequently, both to admit air and to prevent 
the growth of weeds. Any plants grown in 
rows such as radishes or carrots, should be 
"thinned" even more promptly and carefully 
under glass than out of doors, because the 
conditions are more 
favorable to the de- 
velopment of disease 
or of weak growing 
plants. 

Fumigate regularly, 
every zveek, or two 
weeks at the most, with 
tobacco dust or tobacco 
paper. 

If you will take the 
slight trouble of doing 
this (and it takes only 
a few minutes each 
time) you will have a 
practically sure pre- 
ventive against aphids 
and sucking insects 
of all kinds. If, by 
any chance, any of 
them do appear, they 
can be sprayed with a 
nicotine extract (aph- 
ine or Black Leaf 40), 
and fumigation given. 
If care is taken to 
do the watering on 
bright mornings, so 
there will be much 
less likelihood of dan- 
ger from " rot " of var- 
ious kinds. All dis- 
eased leaves, dead 
plants, refuse and so 
forth will of course be 
scrupulously cleared 
up and burned at 
once. 



Making Real Use of the Garden's Crops INGA ^;£,£ US0N > 

WHERE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES CAN REPLACE OTHER FOODS. COMBINATIONS FOR BALANCED DIETARIES 



OF THE VAST quantities of perish- 
able food stuff raised in the war gar- 
den efforts of the year ample sup- 
plies have been put into storage. 
The present problem is selecting and com- 
bining these foods that there may be 
brought about the most efficient and eco- 
nomic use of the products of the garden 
during winter. Fundamental to the attain- 
ment of that object is an understanding of 
the nature of fruits and vegetables and of the 
role they play in the diet. 

As a first step study of the vital needs of 
the family to discover how under the present 
condition of limited food supply and unlim- 
ited prices, they may best be met, great 
knowledge is not necessary. If, then, the 
housewife can supplement that knowledge 
with skill in the cookery of fruits and vege- 
tables, originality in combination and in serv- 
ing, and in the observation of a few general 
rules or guides to practice, the problem of the 
three square meals a day will cease to be the 
proverbial bugbear to the household that 
has used its garden area wisely. 

The study of food values and of food func- 
tions involves the use of a few unfamiliar 
terms, but those terms may be quite as readily 
comprehended as Chrysanthemum, Gladiolus, 
or Dahlia. We have already come to use with 
considerable freedom the terms protein, car- 
bohydrates, and fats. The first named food 
principle, it will be remembered, is the tissue- 
building part of foods, that part which is 
found in large proportion in lean meat, eggs, 
milk, cheese, and in beans and peas. The car- 
bohydrate group includes all foods rich in 
starch and sugar, and the best known repre- 
sentatives are potatoes, cereals, and sugars. 
Such foods we think of as energy yielders, or, 
in other words, as producers of heat and ac- 
tivity. Only in comparatively recent years 
has it come to be generally understood that 
very many of the fruits and vegetables, low 
in protein and carbohydrates and formerly 
used because of freshness and palatability, have . 
large value as body regulating substances. 

What Fruits and Vegetables Can Do 

' I "'HE special function served by fruits 
*■ and vegetables is fourfold. Because 
of its bulky residue it gives a laxative ten- 
dency. And again, because of bulkiness, 
fruits and vegetables are the more satisfy- 
ing to the appetite. Within the last 
half dozen years this group of foods has 
come to be known as an important source of the 
very minute quantities of certain food acces- 
sories which are regarded as highly essential 
to growth. To such food accessories has 
been given the name vitamines. And it is 
significant that fresh fruits and fresh vege- 
tables are more advantageous sources of vit- 
amines than those same products preserved 
by canning or drying. The organic acids 
found in fruits and vegetables give to them 
pleasing flavors, exert a laxative effect and 
serve other useful purposes. The fourth 
function is that of supplying to the body the 
essential mineral salts. The mineral constit- 
uents of greatest importance are iron, cal- 
cium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, sul- 
phur, and chlorine. The average dietary 
is often lacking in these food constituents and, 
of the elements named, the first three cannot 
be safely left to chance. This discrepancy 
may be accounted for in the fact that the 
food selected has not included generous 



amounts of eggs, legumes, whole cereals, 
fresh fruits, and fresh vegetables. // each 
day's ration contained two medium sized -pota- 
toes, a serving of some other vegetable, and 
the equivalent of a medium shed apple in fresh 
fruit, the needs for mineral -matter and of 
growth promoting substances other than pro- 
tein would probably be supplied. Special 
care should be exercised then to make sure 
that the dietary includes a generous supply 
of foods in which iron, phosphorus, and cal- 
cium do occur. Foods rich in iron are egg 
yolk, lean meat, spinach, fruits, and cereal 
grains. Generous use of milk, legumes, cel- 
ery, cabbage, and cereals will insure an ade- 
quate supply of calcium salts to the body. 
Phosphorus contained in egg is considered to 
be more completely utilized than that derived 
from any other source; but beans, wheat, and 
oats also serve to supply that element. This 
is not to say that the foods named as the de- 
sirable source of supply of one mineral consti- 
tuent do not also supply other mineral consti- 
tuents. From the foregoing statements it is 
apparent that the group of vegetables known 
as legumes serve as a source of each of the three 
veryimportant mineral constituents. Legumes 
include beans, peas, lentils, and soy-beans. 

The Potato Substitute 

AN UNDERSTANDING of the nature 
■^ ■*■ and amount of mineral constituents 
contained in the different food stuffs will en- 
able one to correctly provide "substitutes" 
for the staple food products for which the 
present demand exceeds the supply. A case 
in point is the need for potato substitutes. 
Rice and other cereals and cereal preparations 
such as macaroni have come to be referred to 
as "the potato substitutes." In so far as we 
are concerned with the starch content, the 
foods named may be so regarded. Their 
inadequacy in other respects should be as well 
understood. In the digestion of foods there 
are set free alkaline salts known as base- 
producing elements and acid-producing ele- 
ments. The perfect combination of foods is 
that in which there is at least enough of the 
base-forming elements to neutralize the 
amount of acid-producing elements set free, 
thus changing them to harmless compounds 
which the body then throws off. A familiar 
illustration of such an ideal combination is the 
serving of potatoes with meat. 

Dividing Excess of Acid 

TN AN average serving of meat the excess 
■*■ of acid-producing elements is neutralized 
by the excess of base-producing elements in an 
average serving of potatoes. It is an inter- 
esting fact that an excess of foods of the base- 
producing type is not in any sense objection- 
able. Such an excess of acid production is 
harmful because the natural reaction of the 
blood and other body fluids is alkaline. 
Among the plant foods conspicuous for the 
extent of their use, and which contain an ex- 
cess of acid-producing elements, are rice and 
other cereals and cereal preparations such as 
macaroni and hominy. Acid producers in- 
clude meats, fish, and eggs, from among 
animal foods. Base producers are fruits, 
vegetables, and milk. That fruits have ah 
acid taste but are regarded as base-producing 
foods may seem paradoxical. From this, 
then, it is obvious that, while among fruits 
and vegetables there may be quite free sub- 
stitution, yet rice which contains an excess 

132 



of acid-producing elements cannot take the 
place of the potato which gives rise to base- 
forming elements. The substitution of rice, be- 
cause of its starch content, must be accom- 
panied by the addition of succulent vegetables. 
From a review of tables giving statements 
of food composition the housewife will discover 
that the vegetables and fruits rich in the 
starch form of carbohydrates are the Irish 
and sweet potatoes, and the unripe banana. 
Those containing an abundance of the sugar 
form of carbohydrate are beets, carrots, par- 
snips, corn, the ripe banana, apples, and dried 
fruits. Vegetables giving a relatively high 
percentage of protein may be used in part to 
replace the meat, eggs, and cheese. Represen- 
tatives of this group are shelled beans, peas, 
lentils, and the soy beans. Those rich in iron 
are: spinach and other greens, beans, peas, and 
onions. In calcium — spinach, cauliflower, 
rutabaga, celery, turnips, legumes and berries. 
In phosphorus; legumes, cauliflower, potato, 
rutabaga, spinach, gooseberries, parsnips, and 
onions. In potash salts, spinach, legumes, 
potatoes, bananas, cabbage, lettuce, and the 
root vegetables. While in general all fruits 
and vegetables supply quite generously the 
mineral constituents named, it is sometimes 
of special value to know the more exact com- 
position and to know what fruits and vege- 
tables serve as a more abundant subsidy. 

Practical Vegetable Combinations 

nrO ILLUSTRATE suitable meal combin- 
■*• ations in which meat and potatoes may 
be very acceptably replaced by vegetables 
the following menus are given: 

I— Roast beef Potatoes II— Beef Stew Rice 

Spinach A [Toot vegetable, beets or 

Bread Butter Beverage carrots 

Sliced oranges Wafers Lettuce or other greens 

Bread Butter Beverage 
Fresh fruit 
III — Baked beans and to- VI — Bean loaf and spiced 
mato sauce gooseberries 

Steamed brown bread Creamed potatoes 

Escalloped onions Bread and butter 

Fruit cup and Sponge Cake Apple, celery and nut Salad 

Wafers 
SUPPERS: 
I — Cream of Sweet Potato , II — Salt mackerel — steamed 
Soup Boiled potatoes with butter 

Nut bread Escalloped to- sauce 

matoes Creamed onions 

Baked apple Wafers Bread and butter 

Fresh apple sauce Cookies- 
III — Baked omelet Bacon IV — Cottage Cheese 

Bread and butter and jelly Buttered carrots and peas 

Sauce Cookies Bread and Butter 

Berries Spice Cake 

In explanation of the foregoing menus it 
should also be stated that it is regarded as 
highly desirable that fruit — preferably fresh 
fruit — replace in large measure the pies and 
heavy puddings that are customary desserts. 
Liberal introduction of a variety of vegetables 
is recognition of the important part that the 
vegetable cellar and the vegetable pit should 
play in the family commissary. Again, it 
will be noticed that there is suggestion of the 
frequent use of nuts — that because of their 
highly nutritious character, and, the fact that 
considering their actual food value, they cost 
no more than many of the generally recog- 
nized staples. 

Meat Substitute 

TN REPLACING meat in the diet it should 
*• be remembered that for one fourth pound 
of lean beef there may be allowed one half 
pound of dry beans or peas, two eggs, or a 
pint of milk. A general guiding rule to be 
observed in the selection of vegetables is not 
to combine in one meal any two o. the same 
general character. 



What the Florists Will Offer in Holiday Plants R0BER J kift 

CHANGES BROUGHT ABOUT BY WAR CONDITIONS— SCARCITY OF CONVENTIONAL MATERIAL LEADS TO GREATER 

VARIETY IN FOLIAGE AND FLOWERING PLANTS 



PLANTS as holiday gifts have during 
past years gradually fallen into a 
rut. It has taken the world war 
to awaken the plant growers to a 
realization of the fact that the people like 
variety. The war has to a great extent inter- 
fered both with foreign cultivation and ex- 
portation. This year there are no Azaleas 
coming from Belgium, no Lily-of-the-valley 
from Germany. Onlv limited importations 
of bulbs have arrived from Holland and France 
and some few things from England. But to 
offset this the raising of plants in this country 
has already attained a magnitude of such 
importance, that when the present stringency 
arrived the trade found itself easily self-sup- 
porting. 

"DECAUSE of their sturdy and lasting 
-*-' character, ornamental foliage plants 
find much favor as gifts. In Palms, the 
Kentias, both the tall growing Forsteriana, 
and the bushy Belmoreana are the most 
popular. Areca lutescens with its more 
feathery leaves is very graceful, but not quite 
so hardy as the Kentias. Phcenix Roebelini 
with its fountainlike spread of narrow leaves, 
is to some the most beautiful of all Palms. It 
is very sturdy. The Fan Palm, Latania 
borbonica, is also a fine showy variety, which 
looks well in the lawn vase in summer. 

The Aspidistra with its broad dark green 
foliage is the most sturdy and valuable of all 
house plants. There are several varieties 
of the old favorite Rubber-plant, or Ficus 
elastica, and F. pandurata the Fiddle-leaved 
Rubber with broad leaves the shape of a 
violin, which when rubbed with a piece of 
Canton flannel polish beautifully, showing 
distinct white veins. The appearance of all 
house plants with hard foliage is much bene- 
fited by an occasional rubbing, but positively no 
oil or other dressing should be used, as this 
leaves a tacky surface which catches dust. 
Dracaenas are very decorative; terminalis 
with its brilliant red tips looks very Christ- 
massy. D. fragrans with its cornlike leaves 




is strong and vigorous. D. Massangeana a 
variegated form of fragrans with a broad 
golden band down the centre of each leaf, is 
always popular. There are a number of other 
choice varieties all beautiful and suitable for 
house plants. Pandanus Veitchii with its 
green and white striped leaves of most 
symmetrical form is one of the best house 
plants. Crotons with their brilliant coloring 
are wonderfully effective and while not so 
hardy in the house, will last several months. 

rj^ERNS are perhaps the most popular 
*■ of all house plants. The Boston fern 
Nephrolepis bostoniensis, and its large family 
of crested types is seen everywhere. In the 
past decade many new varieties have been 
introduced. 

Of the plain or smooth frond type the beSt 
are: Boston, a dwarf type named Scotti, and 
Teddy, Jr. Of the crinkled forms the best are 
W. K. Harris, Harrisii and Theodore Roosevelt. 
The tasselled varieties with their minutely 
cut foliage, some fronds resembling ostrich 
plumes while others are lacelike in appearance, 
are sure to attract attention. Elegantissima, 
todeaoides, Verona, Norwood, and Smithii are 
the best in this class. Asplenium nidus- 
avis, the Bird's-nest Fern, is of a bold type with 
broad glossy fronds which give it a unique 
appearance. 

One of the most delicate in appearance but 
very decorative and lasting is Cibotium 
Schiedei. It is of spreading growth. Effective 
in large windows. 

TN THE list of flowering plants there is 
■*■ also great variety. The well known Poin- 
settia is probably the most showy with its 
large scarlet bracts. Novelties are seen in both 
pink and white varieties of the Poinsettia. 
Euphorbia jacquinaeflora is a choice variety, 
particularly when a number are planted to- 
gether. 

Cyclamen are at their best for the Christmas 
holidays and nothing could be more beautiful 
than a well flowered specimen. They are 
to be found in all their splendid colorings 
in every flower shop. Flowering Begonias, 
great favorites of all plant lovers are also at 
their best during December. Begonia Gloi- 
re de Lorraine with the clouds of pink blossoms 
which are borne so profusely as to almost hide 
the foliage is the first of its type. Begonia 




Glory of Cincinnati is a strong grower, also 
pink, with larger flowers and foliage. Begonia 
Mrs. Peterson is a new variety with both 
bronze colored flowers and foliage, it is robust 
and free flowering, There will be quite a few 
Azaleas from plants imported last fall which 
owing to difficulties of transportation, arrived 
in poor condition. They made a good growth 
since that time and are now well set with buds. 

Chinese Primroses as well as some of the 
Primula obconicas give variety. They are 
old acquaintances that are always welcome. 
Several varieties of the Heather are most con- 
spicuous at this season. Erica melanthera 
with its clouds of white blossoms is a first selec- 
tion with many. A pink variety called rosea 
is also much in favor. 

Some of the bulbs are forced for the holi- 
days. Roman Hyacinths and Paper-white 
Narcissus and Due van Tholl Tulips, when 
flowered a number together are quite showy. 

Berried and fruited plants are always in 
demand, particularly the Christmas Pepper 
with its wealth of brilliant red fruits. Sola- 
num capsicastrum, the Jerusalem Cherry, is 
seen in variety with its bright red berries. 

Ardisia crenulata with its glossy leaves and 
whorls of beautiful coral red colored berries 
which hold for more than 12 months, is one of 
the best plants of its kind. 

Otaheite oranges of dwarf growth but carry- 
ing an abundance of well colored fruits about 
the size of golf balls are showy and attractive. 
Combinations of foliage of flowering plants 
and ferns arranged artistically together in tin 
lined baskets and jardinieres will be features 
at the holiday season. These are arranged at 
the greenhouses by men skilled in this artistic 
work. Pink Begonias and Ferns are grown in 
blue baskets and tied with blue ribbons. 
Oranges are planted with Crotons in bronze 
colored baskets and tied with bronze green 
ribbons. Heather and Poinsettias make stun- 
ning effects. Ardisias and Heather with 
Crotons and Ferns are striking. There is great 
variety in this artistic grouping scarcely any 
two pieces being found alike. 



Of all the holiday berry plants Ardisia is the most en- 
during. Berries will remain for a whole year 



This is Croton Reedii. Crotons come in a bewildering 
variety of barbaric mixtures of color and in equally diverse 
form of leaf 

133 




There are available several Begonias of the Gloire de 
Lorraine type, ranging from light pink to deep red 



Can You Cook a Potato? 



EFFIE M. ROBINSON 



WITH an extra bushel of potatoes 
for every man, woman and child 
in the United States (official 
figures) this year the cooking of 
the potato becomes a real menace. Simple! 
Yes, any one can boil a potato — somehow — 
but the problem is to do it right, and know 
how and why you do it.- 

How to Choose Your Potatoes 

/GREENISH, or black colored, frozen or 
^-" softened potatoes may as well be thrown 
out at once. Don't waste your time prepar- 




There is economy in properly peeling a potato. Let the 
knife closely follow the thumb and pare thinly 

ing them for the table — find some other use 
for them. Potatoes should be firm and white 
and of even size. Whether you dig them from 
your own ground or buy them from the stores, 
large and small are always jumbled together. 
Now, if cooked as they come the small ones will 
be cooked to a mash before the large ones are 
done. If you must cook large and small to- 
gether do not cut the large ones but make a 
handicap race out of it. Start to cook the large 
ones a few minutes before the small ones are 
put in, they will then all finish cooking at the 
same time. 

Preserve the Gluten 

DEEL your potatoes very thinly. The 
*■ gluten, which lies just underneath the 
skin, is the most nutritious part of the potato; 
the rest of it being composed chiefly of water 
and starch. As you will see by the illustra- 
tion of a slice of potato, the layer of gluten 
is very thin in some places, and if the skin is 
peeled off in great chunks the gluten is peeled 
off with it and thrown away, thereby losing 




the nourishment and wasting the potato, and 
consequently more potatoes will be needed for 
a dishful. 

New potatoes must be scraped as the skin 
is very thin and peeling would cut away too 
much. All potatoes must be scrubbed quite 
clean before peeling. This done drop them 
into a bowl of clean water. Use a small 
sharp vegetable paring knife, letting the thumb 
follow the knife closely all the way down the 
potato. This keeps control of the knife and 
will prevent it slipping. Drop them into 
cold water, after peeling them, till you are 
ready to cook them to prevent them from 
turning black. 

If You Don't Want to Peel Them 

COME people think it is better to cook 
^ potatoes with the skin on and that they 
are a better flavor. If this is done they must 
be put on in cold water to draw out the poi- 
sonous acid, called solanin, that is in the skin. 
It gives a bitter flavor and has sometimes 
been known to cause illness. It is more pro- 
nounced in old potatoes. 

When preparing potatoes with the skin on, 
whether new or old, it is a good plan to "top 
and tail" them. That is, cut a small piece 
ofF each end of the potato, or you can cut a 
very narrow strip off all around it, making it 
easier for the salt to penetrate, besides giving 
the potatoes a better flavor. 

The Water You Must Use 

DUT potatoes into boiling water to harden 
*• the gluten. Gluten is the same sort 
of substance as the albumen found in the 
white of eggs and if put into cold water it will 
melt and soften. As a result a great deal of 




Do you realize that the outer portion of the potato has 
the best food value? Gluten is shown by the darkened area 
on the margin of the picture 



"Flowery and light." The tool on the left is handy and 
efficient. Two forks make a serviceable masher 

it will be lost before the water gets hot enough 
to harden it. Have plenty of water in order 
to give the starch grains room to swell, and 
to each two quarts of water add a heaping 
teaspoonful of salt. Keep the lid on closely 
to prevent the steam escaping. Boil them 
gently and steadily to prevent them from 
breaking. After half an hour try them with 
a skewer or a steel knitting needle (anything 
that will make one hole); a fork pushed into 
a soft boiled potato will break it and spoil its 
appearance. When the tubers are tender, drain 
the water off into a bowl (not into the sink!) 
as the water is a good foundation for cream 
soups or broths. 

How to Have "Balls of Flour" 

NOW for the secret of dry floury potatoes! 
Drain the potatoes dry. Give the pan 
a sharp, quick shake. This breaks the coat- 
ing of gluten and the white starchy inside is 
exposed, making the potato look like a ball of 
flour. Put the saucepan back in a warm 
place, laying a clean soft cloth on the top to 
absorb the steam. Don't put the lid on as 
that keeps the steam in and makes the potato 
soggy and discolored. You can keep potatoes 
warm with the cloth on top for about ten 
minutes without spoiling. 

134 



How to Steam 

TF MORE convenient, potatoes can be 
*■ steamed instead of boiled. The water 
must be boiling and steam ready before the 
potatoes are put into the steamer. Peel them 
the same as you would for boiling, then place 
them in the steamer and sprinkle salt over 
them. They will take about one hour. Shake 
the pan as for boiled potatoes. I see no par- 




"Hacking off" the skin is wasteful of food. And moreover, 
sacrifices the best part of the potato 

ticular advantage in this method myself if 
the potatoes are put into boiling water, 
though some people claim that there is so 
much water in a potato that it is better not 
to put them into more. 

For Salad 

POTATOES for salad must not be shaken 
*■ because they are required to be as waxy 
or watery as you can get them. The small 
potatoes are best for that purpose. Cut them 
while hot. 

How to Bake 

* I "'HE lady next door to me never baked a 
■*• potato in her life and there may be 
others like her. You cannot bake new pota- 
toes — the skin is too thin. But when the 
skin becomes thick and corklike it is "a deli- 
cious way to cook them. Scrub them quite 
clean; then dry them thoroughly. Have a 
hot oven ready to bake them in or the skin 
will not be crisp; and when they are nearly 
done prick them with a skewer in two or three 
places to allow the steam to escape; otherwise 
they will quite likely burst all over the oven. 
They take about one hour to bake. 




"Is it done?" Use a knitting needle to explore; a fork may 
smash the potato to a pulp 



Winter Protection 



C. L. MELLER & c 



of Parks 
N. D. 



COLD LESS INJURIOUS THAN LOSS OF MOISTURE— WHY A MULCH WILL SAVE AND HOW IT CAN SOMETIMES BE 

INJURIOUS— CAN A TENDER PLANT BE MADE HARDY? 



WINTER protection to be effective 
must be intelligently done. This, 
to some may seem a mere truism, 
and to others an affectation, since 
what intelligence is needed to wrap or cover 
up a plant and so protect it against the cold 
of winter? But there's the rub! 

Are you in fact protecting it against the 
cold? Can you really protect a plant 
against the cold with the thermometer below 
zero and the frost penetrating the soil to a 
depth of six feet and more? Obviously 
under such conditions no amount or kind of 
covering can long retain a higher temperature 
than that which surrounds it. Covering, 
however, does carry through the winter 
plants that would otherwise succumb. It 
cannot well be warmth since none is provided. 
Then what is the adverse factor that covering 
a plant counteracts? 

Consider a Rose that has winter killed. 
All its canes are dried and shrivelled, just as 
though they had been dried in an oven. 
Compare these canes with those of another 
Rose bush that has passed through the 
winter beneath a mound of earth. . How 
plump and pliable are these latter, how sappy 
they look! Yet the two bushes may be of the 
same variety, as, for instance, Gruss an 
Teplitz which I have carried through the 
winters of North Dakota by the hundreds, 
simply by hilling about the bushes with a 
mound of earth. Exposed bushes always die 
down to the ground; and exposed portions of 
canes die back to the soil covering. 

It is not the cold but the excessive evapora- 
tion that " 'winter-kills." Protected against 
evaporation (and soil is the surest means 
of protecting against it), a Rose bush passes 
through our coldest winter unharmed; ex- 
posed, the bushes succumb save during an 
exceptionally mild winter. What is true for 
Gruss an Teplitz is equally true of a very 
large number of hybrid perpetual Roses. 

So hardy and vigorous a grower as Spiraea 
Van Houttei gives like evidence. During a 
cold dry winter when the snow is always light 
and dry, and much of it apparently freezes 
away, this shrub comes out in spring badly 
winter-killed, never down to the ground, but 
with its top full of dead wood. During win- 
ters when there is much wet snow, it passes 
unharmed to bloom like a bank of snow in 
spring. Of course no one ever thinks of 
covering a Spiraea bush. 









Even in the extreme north the Prickly Pear will winter under 
the shelter of a rock 



A piece of ice hung in a tree lost appreciably during Febru- 
ary. Evaporation is the cause of winter-killing 

Evaporation of Ice 

A CHUNK of ice weighing nineteen and 
-^*- a half pounds was hung among the 
branches of a small Oak on February 2nd and 
when taken down on the fourteenth it weighed 
eighteen pounds. There was not a minute's 
thaw during the entire time the piece of ice 
hung in the tree, indeed the thermometer 
registered below zero almost every day. 
Thus in less than two weeks this ice, a solid 
mass, gave up by evaporation very close to 
8 per cent, of its total weight, a concrete ex- 
ample as you will admit of what wooded 
plants are called upon to endure. 

Again on February 27th another piece of 
ice was hung among the branches of the same 
Oak. This time the ice was placed in a pan 
so that no water might be lost during warm 
weather. Ice, pan and the wire supporting 
it weighed twenty-four pounds. This hung 
out until March 24th when only water was 
left and the entire outfit then weighed eigh- 
teen pounds, a loss therefore in a little less 
than a month of more than 25 per cent, since 
the weight of the pan remains constant. 

Let it be borne in mind that a plant is sub- 
jected to this stress of evaporation while the 
roots are in solidly frozen soil and have no 
means of replenishing the moisture lost. 
Under such circumstances evaporation has a 
meaning all its own. It is apparent that a 
plant with well ripened wood has a much 
greater chance of living through such condi- 
tions than one with its wood green and sappy. 
That is one reason why native Roses pass 
through our winters unharmed while many 
of the improved sorts succumb if unprotected. 

135 



What We Must Do 

\ S AN axiom of winter protection it may 
^*- be stated that any method to be effec- 
tive must protect against evaporation. The 
extent to which it prevents evaporation marks 
therefore the effectiveness of the material 
selected. 

Given suitable soil, most of the climbing 
Roses will grow in the Northwest, but a mat 
of straw tacked over them against the wall 
will never carry the canes through winter. 
They must be laid down and covered with 
about a foot of soil, and so covered they will 
come out in spring alive to the very tip. 
Where from some cause or other this cover is 
removed in spots, the canes may be alive at 
either end with a dead section here and there. 
This of course means that only the part 
below the lowest dead section will remain 
alive. 

A Hardy Cactus in the North 

^TO ONE would at first thought associate 
■^ the Prickly Pear Cactus of our warmer 
states with the cold of a Northwest winter; 
yet, as our picture shows, it may be met with 
growing wild on the prairies of Montana. 
This photograph was taken about a mile out 
of Glendive, Montana; and, the picture also 
shows, the Cactus hugs the ground pretty 
closely for in so doing it is assured of a plenti- 
ful covering of snow and consequent pro- 
tection in winter. The cold penetrates the 
soil to such a depth and leaves it so slowly 
that you may strike frost down in the soil even 
in late May and sometimes in early June. 
Under such conditions it does not seem reason- 
able to suppose that this Cactus native though 
it be to the sandy wastes of our hottest sec- 
tions, requires any protection against cold. 
That it does require protection against evap- 
oration becomes apparent from the very na- 
ture of its growth. 

Freezing is not injurious, but should the 
plant be called upon to give up moisture at a 
time when it lacks the means of replenishing 
the loss failure is certain. As an odd and in- 
teresting growth in the garden one may carry 
this Cactus through the winter if planted 
where boulders or a wall will protect it from 
the searching winds of the north and west and 
covered with a thick layer of straw. It is 
expected of course that there will be no lack 
of snow. 




In Montana this Cactus hugs the ground and gets natural 
winter protection 



136 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



November, 1917 



The Herbaceous Border 

TLTERBACEOUS perennials dying down 
•*-■*■ as they do each year and with roots 
tucked away from the reach of the wind would 
appear to require but little if any winter pro- 
tection. Nor do they. Though to cover 
them with leaves, straw and other litter gives 
us a certain contentment as of having 
done our best by the plants. Yet we find 
that uncovered plants pass through the winter 
equally well. A perennial that is not hardy 
cannot he made so by any amount or kind of 
winter protection. Occasionally one may carry 
a perennial of doubtful hardihood through a 
mild winter, but the very next winter proves 
the fallacy of our theory that protection is a 



help through the winter. Against the vicis- 
situdes of our springs we cannot protect a 
plant and these vicissitudes are many: cold, 
damp soil, late frost, drying winds and the like. 

How a Mulcjh Works 

A HEAVY mulch of soil or other material 
will retard the sprouting of the roots 
in spring, but the chances are small that the 
plants can be held back long enough to help 
them in their struggle against a capricious 
season. In spite of all the roots will attempt 
to grow and the covering, if not removed in 
time tends to make the sprouts spindling and 
even induces rot by over heating. Along the 
south side of a house perennials will come up a 



week and even two weeks ahead of those 
against the north side, yet in either case a 
hardy perennial will pass through the winter as 
well unprotected as protected. 

Spruce boughs make excellent material for 
winter protection since they, like soil, retard 
the circulation of the air and so prevent evap- 
oration. The newly fallen leaves have little 
protective value, rather it is the blanket of 
leaf mould underneath that keeps the plants 
of the forest snug through the winter. Also 
of course, the snow that gathers there is a con- 
siderable help. 

The practical lesson for every gardener to 
learn is that mulching material must be light 
and airy to be effective. 



NOVEMBER IN THE SOUTH 

OPPORTUNITY FOR FALL PLANTING— PREPARATIONS FOR NEXT YEAR'S FOOD GARDENS 



FALL planting is now the occupation of 
the Southern gardeners. Fruit trees and 
ornamental trees and shrubs can be 
planted now. Prepare the borders in the 
flower garden for the spring blooming bulbs, 
mixing in well rotted cow manure. Plant 
Tulips and Hyacinths from four to six inches 
deep. Plant Narcissus, Snowdrops, Star of 
Bethlehem, and Chionodoxa in irregular 
groups in the grass for naturalization. They 
increase and spread, and do much better when 
left undisturbed, which would not be the case 
if planted in the flower borders. 

If the weather is open, sow lawn grass seed 
during the early part of the month on thor- 
oughly prepared land. Sow the seed broad- 
cast, then use a heavy roller to press it into 
the soil. 

Make a new strawberry bed the early part of 
the month if the soil is not too wet and the 
weather is open. 

Spread agricultural lime over the vacant 
plots in the garden, and in ten days or two 
weeks thereafter spread broadcast well rotted 
manure, and plow in deep, and leave the 
ground rough so as to mellow with the constant 
freezing and thawing. In early spring it can 
be again plowed and thoroughly pulverized 
with the disk harrow and rake. Sow rye now 
and plow under in the spring. It benefits 
the land by making humus. 

Last Sowings in Order 

A /TAKE a last sowing of spinach, kale, and 
-L^-*- turnips for salad either broadcast or in 
rows. 

Keep the lettuce frames going steadily, one 
crop following the other. Plants from seed 
sown in August and transplanted in September 
should have been pushed to maturity by 
fertilizers (nitrate of soda, or liquid cow 
manure), so that they will be headed up well 
by Thanksgiving. More seed should be sown 
now to be ready for transplanting in January. 
Use Burpee's Way-ahead, a good butter head 
type; Hanson has a good flavor and is crisp, 
has a crinkled leaf, does not head up. 

Asparagus plants can be set out from now 
on until March as long as the ground is in 
good working condition. Giant Argenteuil, 
Reading Giant, and Conover's Colossal are 
good types and free from rust. The latter is 
well flavored and good for cutting green. The 
former is large and tender and excellent for 
canning. Plant asparagus in trenches two 



feet deep and two feet wide, five feet apart, and 
fill in with one foot of manure, cover with four 
inches of soil and place the plants fifteen 
inches apart in the trench and crosswise, 
spreading out the roots. Pack the dirt around 
the roots, but do not fill in the trench com- 
pletely. Asparagus roots have a tendency to 
•work upward and should be planted deep and 
the dirt filled in gradually. The shoots should 
not be cut for three years, and then very spar- 
ingly. Cut only for two months after the 
shoots appear above ground. Asparagus is a 
gross feeder, so cover heavily with manure in 
the fall, and supplement with a commercial 
fertilizer in early spring, and harrow into the 
soil in March, as the cutting begins in April. 

Set out the cabbage plants for the spring 
crop. Early Jersey Wakefield is a good early 
variety. They need little protection, only 
coarse strawy manure between the rows, not 
close on the plants, as it would be too heating 
on mild days. 

Continue to bank up the celery plants, and 
at end of month or first of December cover with 
straw or pine tags, placing on top some planks 
in a sloping manner like a roof so as to carry 
off rain and snow. 

Making all Snug 

ORUNE old apple trees and scrape the 
*■ loose bark from the trunks, as it harbors 
insects beneath. Peach and plum trees should 
be trimmed and the trunks examined for 
borers. Dig a foot below the level of the 
ground, and cut out the borers with a stout 
wire or a sharp knife, and paint the trunks for 
a foot below, and two feet above the level of 
the ground with coal tar or lime-sulphur. 

New trees should be pruned and headed 
low, making it easier to gather fruit. Feed 
the roots of the trees either by spreading 
manure broadcast and plowing it in, or 
sowing rye or crimson clover in the orchard the 
last of October or first of November to be 
plowed under for green manure in the spring. 

Search for cocoons and eggs of caterpillars 
and insects and destroy them now. It will 
save much labor in the spring. Examine the 
ornamental trees as well, and destroy the 
cocoons of the tussock moth, and any other 
evidence of insects. 

Protect Otaksa Hydrangeas and standard 
tender bush Roses with a little straw wrapped 
about them. Other Roses only need coarse 
strawy manure above the roots. 



Sow seed of Poppies, Forget-me-nots, and 
Sweet Alyssum, and Portulaca, and Arabis 
in the border where they are to remain. 

Clean up the flower borders thoroughly and 
burn up the trash. Trench between the 
perennials and roses, digging above two feet, 
putting in a foot of manure and replacing the 
dirt on top. 

Virginia. J. M. Patterson. 

Fall Plowing for an Early Start 

DREPAREDNESS is the present moment 
"■ slogan for the gardener as for anybody 
who is aiming for efficiency. The gardener 
must get started in the fall and continue 
his preparations during the winter, in order 
to forward the work of spring. While truck- 
ing in the North, my most important work 
in the fall was plowing. On land that is 
to be plowed in the fall one can use fresh man- 
ure, full of straw or shavings, with success; 
for the rains of early spring and the spring 
work settle the dirt down firmly on and in the 
manure. In this way one gets all the value of 
the manure. Another advantage of fall 
plowing is that the soil is improved by freezing 
when left rough. It also helps exterminate in- 
jurious worms, as grubs, wire worms, etc. 
In this section, very little fall plowing is done, 
for the following reasons: Either the soil is so 
light that it blows, or, where heavy, it runs 
together so that but little is accomplished; or, 
some cover crop is or ought to be growing. 
Soils that are poorly drained should have at- 
tention given to their drainage before the 
ground freezes. Small patches are easily 
drained by digging ditches twenty to thirty 
feet apart and three feet deep and filling them 
with stones within 18 inches of the surface. 
Trenches of this sort will carry off all surplus 
water and admit of very early working in the 
spring. Here cantaloupe growers draw new 
manure for compost heaps; but in the section 
south of us, furrows are plowed, manure drawn 
directly from the cars and placed therein, 
being left there until about time for planting. 
Manure is also drawn for covering the straw- 
berry patches. Don't wait until next spring 
to plan improvements to your ground. The 
fall is a good time to transplant apple and 
cherry trees, evergreens and Rose bushes. 
Prune fruit trees and grape vines, etc. 
Maryland Samuel H. Garekol. 



November, 


1917 


THE 


GARDEN 


MAGAZINE 137 




.LiillH^^H^HHH|H||jH||jHHH||H|HI : JH||||IHHBP|HHPH^^^H^H 






|| A Woman's Idea 

| that Proved a 

| Business Inspiration 



Just about 5 years ago at this time, one of our esteemed clients, 
Mrs. F. N. Doubleday, of Oyster Bay, L. I., called on us for aid to 
carry out a most unusual idea. Knowing her husband's sentiments 
toward trees, also the beneficial and restful influence exercised by their 
presence, she decided to give him Trees for a Birthday Gift! Three 
stately Evergreens she selected at our Nursery, trees 30 years old, 
ready to immediately produce the effect for which nature created them. 
We planted the trees within sight of Mr. Doubleday's office window 
and there, they have ever since fulfilled the mission for which a 
thoughtful woman intended them. 

HI • 1 • i r T r 11 T irO ness Men who are in a position to look over these "Gifts" and select what most ap- I 

ere, then, is the idea or guts or an unusual character. Instead or | 




Christmas Gifts of Unusual Character for the 
Busy Business Man 

j The following special offers should prove of particular interest to New York Busi- 



peals. We are always glad to look after the details of delivering and planting, 
jewels, taneStrV, etc., think Of living trees as the greatest of all gifts COm- 1 "Live" Screens to Shut oT a Noisy Street, in form of a Wall of Green, 8 ft. tall, I 
I L- ■ ■ r I' • 1 L j • • • -1 1 $3.18 per running ft., $318 per 100 ft. 

^| Dining USetulneSS With beauty and interpreting Sentiment in the mOSt I A Wall of Green, that Saves IO Years' Waiting, $6.60'per running foot. 

ml delicate degree. In expressing your sentiments, call to your assistance | A G ™"£ u f he ^ s f ZlhVp* s f | 3 r 6 ^ oundation Plantin s> 32 Specimen plants of| 

BB | | A Little Fruit Orchard , containing our own choice of a "Home Use Fruit Collection" 1 

= '■»■-¥■• 1 ? /T^l •» -r rr\1 ? - | of 13 Trees for $6. 

II Hicks— The Nursery Thats Prepared \ a ^^^^ f ^ c ° ii ^^°^^^^^ Roots, 170^*30^ 

^ I • ^_^^^__™^^-^^^^_ I A Grove of Big Shade Trees, composed of kinds with particularly brilliant foliage f 

Bi •\T7 ll • 1 /■ ■ 1 ■ r • r I at different seasons, 12 Well-shaped Specimens for $10. 

||j We have been getting ready for JUSt thlS type Of Service for Over a | These are but a few of the many remarkable offers you'll find in "Shade," I 

m* quarter Century. Acorns We planted have developed intO Stately Oaks, I the booklet described below, which is yours free for the asking. Whynotl 

si j i j • i ii i 7-. I take us into your confidence and let us help you select the tree or plant gift I 

^| ready to become some ones pride on the home grounds. Evergreen I that win best please the recipient? 

1| I hedges tall enough to furnish immediate seclusion; symmetrical shade * 

^| trees that will make the new home as restful and cool as the old estate; Pine windbreaks that will add many degrees of comfort 

||| to homes in windswept sections — these and many other large trees developed for specific purposes are ready at this nursery, waiting 

HI to perform the duty which your ingenuity may assign to them. There are tree gifts to suit all purses. Attractive groves of 
H| b shade trees are available for $50. — Every dollar invested in Hicks' Large Trees stands for a 

I substantial saving of time. 



"Shade" 

A Booklet "De Luxe" 



Hicks' Trees are Guaranteed to Grow 



Hi 1 Points the way to tree gifts for 

ml I every purpose and occasion. A | 

Hi J cozy, shady nook, made to order \ 

BI 1 at Hicks' for the grandchildren; a I 

■]| J living hedge, more economical and I 



At this nursery, men, methods and sentiment combine to help nature produce trees and 
plants of extraordinary character. We ourselves love trees — that's why we understand 
their needs for perfect development. This we encourage by frequent transplanting, repeated 
pruning and such other cultivation as each tree deserves. The 100-point product thus 
obtained is dug with particular care, packed, as many decades of experience have taught 
■ j J more beautiful than stone or iron I us how and shipped or delivered in such a manner as to bring the trees to their new home 
J I j fences; the Boundary Line Beauti- j m a thriving condition. Hicks' Trees must grow for you or new trees will be supplied with- 
al j ful of Hemlocks or Pines, these are | out charge for any that do not grow satisfactorily. 
j([ j but a few of the subjects fully des- | 

~~ cribed and illustrated. All are ready | "Troll T PflVP^" ^° us ' . trees an( * plants are living things, to be treated with con- 
at Hicks' to serve people of dis- J CLLX ULClVCo sideration and to be fitted to the environment that best suits 

crimination in search of the un- I them. We find trees to be ideal material with which to produce color harmony around the home. Particular!}' happy- 
examples of trees put to ideal uses are illustrated in our new folder "Fall Leaves," telling about Trees for November 
and December planting. To the man or woman looking for practical examples of good tree plantings, this booklet 
will prove an inspiration. A limited number are still available to fill quick-action inquiries. 

Hicks Nurseries, ££* m Westbury, L. L, N. Y. 



usual in gifts for all seasons. Both, | 
"Shade" and "Fall Leaves" are | 
mailed free on request. Editions | 
limited — write TO-DAY. 



? Phone 68 



-'" 




Iris and Phlox 



With a selection from the choice varieties 
listed in my Hardy Plant booklet, you can 
have flowers from spring until frost. This 
fall is the time to set Iris and Phlox, for, if 
you do so, they will bloom next year. 
If you cannot come in person to select 
your plants, send your name and ad- 
dress for a copy of the booklet. 

Adolf Muller xSUftS. 

,NoiTistown,Perui.a. 



THE most complete stock of 
hardy plants in America. Illus- 
trated catalog of hardy plants, shrubs, 
trees and bulbs sent free on request. 

ELLIOTT NURSERY COMPANY 

326 Fourth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Hardy Plants of 

=UnusuaI Character= 



Antirrhinum glutinosum "Copper King" 

Antirrhinum glutinosum "Crimson King" 

Aquilegia Silver Queen 

Campanula barbata 

Canterbury Bells 

Rock Pinks — 18 varieties 

Foxglove — "Ayrshire White" 

Myosotis "Welwitchii" — New 

Polyanthus — Bush Primrose — Finest Strain 

Verbascum — Miss Wilmott 

Descriptive Booklet FREE 

WOLCOTT NURSERIES, Jackson, Mich. 



Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in writing — and we will, too 



138 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



November, 1917 




lor Hotbeds 
and Cold frames 



Twice Armed 
Be Your Garden 



In these war times a Sunlight Double Glass 
Sash outfit — a cold frame, a hot-bed, or a 
small ready made greenhouse is doubly val- 
uable. It will carry the growing of many 
kinds of vege- 
tables through 
Fall and Winter, 
and provideplants 
for early crops 
out - of - doors in 
Spring. These 
food supplies are now vital and when peace 
comes the same glass for a lifetime longer 
will go on expediting flowers and vegetables. 

Cold Frames or 
unheated greenhouses 
are best for certain 
crops and conditions, 
but it is easy to turn 
a Sunlight Cold 
Frame into a hot-bed 
or provide artificial 
heat for a small double 
glazed greenhouse. 

Even the little Sunlight Suntrapz set over 
plant boxes in a sunny room or in the sun 
out of doors will do their bit in starting seed 
or growing plants. 

Immediate ship- 
ment is made of sash, 
greenhouses, top 
frames, pit frames or 
any other outfits we 
carry in stock. 

Get our complete 
catalogue and net 
price list. A postal card will do. 

SUNLIGHT DOUBLE GLASS SASH CO. 
927 E. Broadway Louisville, Ky. 




Sunken Path House 




For Those Who Garden 



:■": »i.'rai:ai;i[.::::i:intiiii: 



Under Glass 



ili' 1 '.!!.i::!;i'T: : '-: 



The matter of seed sowing constitutes often a most tedious 
job. If done hurriedly, by hand, rows are apt to be irregu- 
lar, seeds are often sown too thickly. The resulting need of 
thinning is a serious loss of time, not counting the waste 
of seeds. All this can easily be avoided by the use of 

PERFECTION DRILL 
AND SEEDER 

which marks the 
greatest improve- 
ment m hand and 
drill seeders in the 
last quarter cen- 
tury. Will sow all kinds of small gar-den seeds 
evenly, and to uniform depth. Of particular 
usefulness in hotbeds and greenhouses. A 
board is placed across bench, on which the 
little wheel runs. This operates the disc in 
the hopper which regularly and evenly drops 
all seeds, from lettuce and radishes to cabbages and toma- 
toes. Different size discs are supplied for different size seeds. 
The drill is a model of simplicity, cannot get out of order, and 
serves its purpose a lifetime. Used on all flower or vegetable 
seeds. 

Price $2.00; weight 11-2 lbs. 

Soon pays for itself in seftd and labor saved. Will do sev- 
eral times as much work as is possible to do by hand. 
Descriptive circular on request. Write or order to-day. 

OSMUNDSON SPADE MFG. COMPANY 

Perry, Iowa 

Special Prices to yobhers and Dealers 




S~)^ COMING EVENTS^ o 

V9LUB ^SOCIETY NEWe) 



Meetings and Lectures in 
November 

(Following dates are meetings unless otherwise specified) 

Minnesota, Minn., Garden Flower Society. Chry- 
santhemum Show, by announcement. 
Oct. 31 (Special Fruit Exhibition of the Massachusetts 
to Nov. 4 j Horticultural Society, The New England Fruit 
Show, and the American Pomological Society, 
Boston, Mass. 

1. Marshfield, Mass., Garden Club. 

2. Pasadena, Cal., Horticultural Society. 

5. New Bedford, Mass., Horticultural Society. 

6. Lake Geneva, Wis., Gardeners' & Foremen's Ass'n. 
Garden Club of Pleasantville, N. Y. 

7-8. New Bedford, Mass., Horticultural Society. 

Chrysanthemum Show. (Subject to change.) 
8-11. Cleveland Flower Show, Cleveland, Ohio, in con- 
junction with Annual Meeting and Exhibition of 
the Chrysanthemum Society of America (Cleve- 
land) and Fall Meetings and Shows of the Ameri- 
can Rose Society (Cleveland), and American 
Carnation Society (Cleveland). 
Horticultural Society of New York, American Mu- 
seum of Natural History, New York City. Annual 
Fall Exhibition. 

9. Connecticut Horticultural Society, Wethetsfield. 
Westchester, N. Y., & Fairfield, Conn., Hort. Soc. 

9-10. Valdosta, Ga., Floral Club (amateur) Chrysanthe- 
mum Show. 

10. Dobbs Ferry, N. Y., Horticultural Society. 
12. Park Garden Club, Flushing, L. I. 

Rochester, N. Y., Florist Association. 

New Rochelle, N. Y., Garden Club. 

New York Florists' Club, New York City, N. Y. 

14. Short Hills, N. J., Garden Club. 
Lenox, Mass., Horticultural Society. 

Nassau Co. Horticultural Society, Glen Cove, L. I. 

15. Marshfield, Mass., Garden Club. 

15-16. Rhode Island Horticultural Society, Providence, 
R. I. Exhibition. 

16. Pasadena, Cal., Horticultural Society. 

Dahlia Society of California, San Francisco, Calif. 

20. Lake Geneva, Wis., Gardeners' & Foremen's As- 

sociation. 
Gardeners' and Florists' Club of Boston, Mass. 

21. Rhode Island Hort. Soc, Providence, R. I. 
Tarrytown, N. Y., Horticultural Society. 

23. Connecticut Horticultural Society, Wethersfield. 

24. Dobbs Ferry, N. Y., Horticultural Society. 
26. Park Garden Club, Flushing, L. I. 

New York Spring Show 

T^HE International Flower Show for New 
•*■ York, March 14 to 21, 1918, will be 
held under the same conditions and in the 
same place as the previous internationals — 
the Grand Central Palace. The preliminary 
schedule has been issued and offers as a 
framework of the display classes very much 
the same as those in preceding years. For the 
display of cut Roses, covering two hundred 
square feet, the first prize is $500; for dis- 
play of Carnations, $150. In the named 
classes for cut Roses, prizes vary from $50 
to $100. Display of Orchids, $500. For a bor- 
der planting, #500. No inducement is offered 
for the hitherto familiar Rose Garden feature. 

The Exhibition Season 

TOURING the month of November various 
-*-"' horticultural societies will hold annual 
and fall shows in which the Chrysanthemum 
naturally will reign supreme. The biggest 
gathering will be at Cleveland, Ohio, where 
the Chrysanthemum Society of America will 
hold its annual convention, November 8 to 
10. Several coinciding events combine to 
make this a truly representative gathering 
of the season. The Cleveland Flower Show 
is conducted under the direction of the Ohio 
Horticultural Society, the Cleveland Florists' 
Club and the Garden Club of Cleveland; and 
in addition to being combined with the meet- 
ing of the National Society devoted to the 
Chrysanthemum, there will also be combined 
fall meetings and exhibitions of the American 
Rose Society and the American Carnation 
Society. The combined displays will be held 
at the Hotel Statler. Naturally these events 
will offer the best opportunity this season of 
seeing grouped together at one time the vari- 
ous novelties in the florists' flowers. 




Have Flowers in Your 
Home all Winter 

At very little expense and with but little care 
you can have an abundant succession of flowers 
in your home throughout the entire winter. 

A Very Simple Method 

of indoor culture is given in our Autumn Bulb 
Catalogue. Let us send you a copy. Learn how to 
bloom Paper White Narcissi, Roman Hyacinths and 
other attractive flowers in your home. 
You will also find in this catalogue cultural directions 
and a list of bulbs for fall planting outdoors. It is a 
splendid guide for amateurs — write for your copy at 
once. 

Narcissi, Paper White Grandiflora 
First size, 13 to 15 cms. 50c. doz. $2.75 per 100. 
$25.00 per 1000. 

French Roman Hyacinths, White 
12 to 15 cms circumference. $1.10doz. $8.00 per 100. 
$75.00 per 1000. 

Post or express paid East of Mississippi RiOer. 
Points West add 15% to your remittance 

Arthur T. Boddington Co. 

Seedsman Dept. G 

128 Chambers St. New York 



-Roses for Fall Planting-] 

Plant now for indoor bloom this winter and for early out- 
door bloom next summer. You'll find a lot of helpful 
suggestions in our 

Autumn Floral Guide 

Lists and describes Pot Roses for indoor bloom ( Own-root 
Roses and Hardy Climbers for out -door fall planting. Also 
hardy Ornamental Flowering Shrubs, Peonies, double 
herbaceous, Hardy Perennials, Hyacinths, single and double, 
Tulips, tested on our own grounds, and fall seeds for fall 
planting indoors and out. 



Se iid a postal for the Guide to-day 

ONARD * ROSES 

& JONES CO., Box 24, WEST GROVE, PA. 

Robert Pyle, Pres. A. Wintzer, Vice-Pres. 

Rose Specialists— Backed by 50 years' experience. 



c 



Thanksgiving Bloom 

Lily of Valley after 20 
days from planting in our 
prepared moss fibre. Can 
anything be sweeter ox\ 
more fragrant? 

6 pips ,..$0.50 

13 pips 85 

SO pips 1.85 

100 pips 6.00 

With every order we send 
sufficient of our prepared moss 
fibre to plant pips and FULL 
directions to grow them success- 
fully. 

Price Includes Delivery 
Our BULB BOOK tells all n 
"How to have exquisite fragrant "fr;'Jfr 
blossoms all through winter." 
Send for it to-day. It is free. 

H. H. BERGER & CO., 70 Warren St., New York City 




If a problem grows in your garden write to the Readers' Service for assistance 



November, 1017 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



139 






MM. 



Farr's Superb Lilacs 

For Fall Planting 

Lilac-time is springtime at its best. One can scarcely 
conceive of a spring garden without Lilacs; every bush 
a mass of glorious colors, and filling the air with deli- 
cate fragrance. 

Seemingly perfect as were the old purple and white sorts, the 
master hybridizer, Victor Lemoine, touched them with his magic 
hand, and lo, from them a multitude of glorified forms and new 
colors appeared, with individual flowers and trusses more than 
doubled in size; with varieties early and varieties late, thus con- 
siderably lengthening the blooming season. 

Ellen Willmott, with long pointed trusses and large snow-white 
flowers; Belle de Nancy, soft lilac pink; the splendid early flowered 
giant, Leon Gambetta. These are but a few examples of the more 
than 100 new varieties that I grow on their own roots at Wyomiss- 
ing. All these new Lilacs are unusually free bloomers — far surpass- 
ing the old sorts. If you wish these rich blooms in your garden next 
spring, the plants must be set this fall. 

Fair's Hardy Plant Specialties 

(Sixth Edition, 1917-1918) describes Lemoine's new Lilacs, 
Deutzias, Philadelphus, Japanese and German Iris, more than 500 
varieties of Peonies, Evergreens, and Rock"-plants. 112 pages of 
text, 30 full page illustrations (13 in color). A book of distinct value 
to garden lovers. If you do not have a copy of this Sixth Edition, 
send for one to-day. 

BERTRAND H. FARR— Wyomissing Nurseries Co. 

104 Garfield Avenue Wyomissing, Penna. 




^Bobbink & Atkins^ 



500 ACRES LI' Worlds 

OF NURSERY Mr Choicest 

(Nursery (SGre 

roducts 





500,000 FEET 
UNDER GLASS 



A 1 



LL plants and trees that grow successfully in 
America are assembled on our vast 500-acre 
nursery. 



"Long Experience," "Perseverance" and "Careful 
Trial" are the magic words which have made our 
American-Grown Nursery and Greenhouse Products 
synonymous with hardiness and high quality 

NOW — Autumn and Early Winter until the ground 
freezes — is the best time — Nature's time — to plant. 
Visit our nurseries, only 8 miles from New York. 

Write for Valuable Fall-planting 
Brochure Free on Request 

s^^RutherforcLNew Jersey s== 




Livingston's Globe — 
The Peer of all Purples 

Livingston's Famous Tomatoes 
for Underglass Culture 

are easily the most thoroughbred strains in existence to-day. They 
are the standard by which others are judged and have been such for 
many_ years. _ Among our more than 20 distinct varieties, several 
excel in special adaptability to greenhouse cultivation. Our special 
strains of Bonny Best, Comet Forcing, and Livingston's Magnus 
are but a few of the 

Many Sorts for Different Sections 

but 
Livingston's Globe Leads Them All 

Pronounced by practical growers everywhere as the greatest 
sort ever evolved for either underglass or outdoor cultivation. 
One unbiased critic, familiar with all standard tomatoes, calls 
Livingston's Globe "a mighty responsibility and trust," because of 
its near perfection. Dependable under all conditions, early, very 
prolific, of great solidity and good size with a deep pink skin of a 
matchless shade, Livingston's Globe is indeed a mighty trust to 
take care of. How well we succeed in doing it is attested to by 
the thousands of pounds of highest priced seed we sell every year. 

For underglass culture we offer seeds from our special private stock, extra-selected, 
saved from clusters of ideal fruits, at 35c per trade packet; i oz. 85c; i oz. $1.60; 
oz. $3.00. 

Olialltv in cannot be bought cheaply. The underglass grower 

v^ uoii i Ly ill especially can ill-afford to run the risk of disappoint- 

Tnmatn Cl«»<i«4c ™S crops, when the cost of growing them is so great. 
1 UHlaLU OCCU& Livingston's "True Blue" Tomato Seeds are sold in 
sealed packages only, protected by our "True Blue" Trademark, asshown below. 
To make sure of the genuine Livingston Grown Seed, order direct from us. 

Other "True Blue" Seed Specialties for Use in 
Hotbeds and Greenhouse 

The man who puts absolute dependability above mere price consideration will do 
well to profit by the experiences of this country's foremost underglass gardeners. 
Their choice among the most popular vegetables includes 



Livingston's Strain, Crosby's Egyp- 
tian Beet, early, small-leaved, fine 
quality. Pkt. 10c; oz. 25c; { lb. 75c. 

Vickery Forcing Cucumber, an ex- 
ceptionally fine strain of the White 
Spine type. Pkt. 10c; J oz. 30c; 
oz. 50c. 



Livingston's Special Grand Rapids 
Lettuce, the"crinkly" fringed bunch 
lettuce. Pkt. 10c; oz. 25c; i lb. 75c; 
lb. $2.50. 

Fireball Radish, the earliest of the 
small red forcing kinds. Pkt.lOc; oz. 
20c; Jib. 70c; lb. $2.00. 



Order direct from this advertisement as this selection is not offered in our 
catalogues — a special offer to Garden Magazine Readers only 

Catalogues of "True Blue" Seeds FREE, 
also " Tomato Facts" 

Tell us whether you garden for pleasure or profit, on a large or small scale, and 
we will mail you that one of our catalogues that will serve you best. "Tomato 
Facts" is a unique booklet tracing the progress of the 
tomato from a little-known weed to its present day perfec- 
tion. Contains many fine recipes. Write for your copy 
to-day. 

The Livingston Seed Co. 

"Famous for Tomatoes" 

100 High Street Columbus, Ohio 




The Readers' Service will gladly furnish information about Gardening 



140 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



November, 1917 



Fourteen Superfine 
Hardy Phlox 

Most of them are recent introductions of famous 
European specialists. A wonderful advance in color 
and size over the old varieties, many of the shades being 
entirely new in Phlox. 

Phlox can be safely planted as long as the ground is 
not actually frozen. 

Astrild — Bright cochineal-carmine. 

15. Comte — Brilliant rich French purple. 

Euro pa — VVhite with decided crimson-carmine eye. 

Elizabeth Campbell — Bright salmon-pink, with dark 

crimson eye. 
Gefion — Tender peachhlossom pink, with bright rose eye. 
Orideur — Soft mauve-rose, suffused and overlaid with a 

lively deep shade of cerise. 
Minerva — Luminous violet-rose, with white suffusion and 

a bright carmine eve. 
Mrs. Jenkins — The best all round pure white. 
Klverton Jewel — Lovely shade of mauve-rose, illumi- 
nated by a brilliant carmine-red eye. 
Rheinlander — A most beautiful salmon-pink. 
ltyiistrom — Same carmine rose color as the Paul Neyron. 
Thor — Beautiful salmon-pink, overlaid with a deep scarlet 

glow, large white halo and aniline red eye. 
Viking — One of the latest to flower, of a pleasing soft 

salmon-rose. 
W. C I ir:tn — One of the largest flowered varieties; a 

pleasing shade of soft pink. 

Price: — Any of the above Superfine sorts, 
20 cts. each; $2.00 per doz.: $15.00 per 100: 
set of 14 sorts, $2.50. 

Our Fall Catalogue also gives a complete list of seasonable seerts, 
plants and bulbs for outdoors, window garden anil conservatory. 

A copy mailed free to anyone, mentioning this magazine 

HENRY A. DREER 

714-16 Chestnut St. Philadelphia, Pa, 



Hardy Guaranteed 
Trees and Plants 

We guarantee our trees to make the growth 
the planter has the right to expect. This 
means: You plant our trees properly, give 
them due care and attention, and then if any 
of them fail to grow as you have reason to 
expect, we will replace them without charge. 
You are the judge of what you should expect. 

"Inside Facts of Profitable Fruit 
Growing'* and "How to Beautify Your 
Home Grounds** sent prepaid for 10 
cents each. 

WILLIAM P. STARK NURSERIES 
Box 488, StWikCUi/Mo. 




Keep the War 

Garden Going! 

You gain money, better food and health when you 
garden all winter. It's easy, too, by the use of 

Duo-Glazed Sash 

Frost proof; easily cleaned; durable; convenient and so 
simple a boy can clean it. Requires no covering at night. 
With Callahan Duo-Glazed Sash summer vegetables 
may be had all winter; spring may be advanced several 
weeks, and real profits may be had by intelligent work. 
Write to us for our sash catalogue 

CALLAHAN DUO-GLAZED SASH CO. 

Makers of Greenhouses and Garden Frames 

1319 Fourth Street Dayton, Ohio 



XMAS 



Ideal 

Moth- 
Proof 
Cedar 
Chest 

Sent on 
Free Trial 
For Xmas 



Every woman wants a Piedmont Red Cedar Chest. Every 
home needs one. Your choice of 90 styles and designs of 
famous Piedmont Red Cedar Chests sent to you on 15 days' 
free trial. We pay the freight. A Piedmont protects furs, 
woolens, and plumes from moths, mice, dust and dump. Dis- 
tinctly beautiful. Lasts for generations. Finest Xmas, 
wedding or birthday gift at great saving. Write to-day for 
our Xmas catalogue and leduced prices — all postpaid free 
to you 




Reduced 
Factory, 
Prices. 
Freight 
Prepaid 



Piedmont Red Cedar Chest Co., Dept. 2, Slntes»ille, ti. C. 




Reproduction of part of photograph in he Jardin (France) 
showing wanton destruction of fruit bearing trees in evacu- 
ated districts 



Helping the French Orchardists 

TpHE Horticultural Society of New York 
•*■ is making an effort to render practical aid 
to the devastated orchards of France. The 
Treasurer, Mr. Frederic R. Newbold, Pough- 
keepsie, N. Y., has already been able to trans- 
mit nearly $2,000 through one of the members 
of the Society, who is also a member of the 
American Government Commission for the 
restoration of the devastated villages of 
France, and has volunteered to personally at- 
tend to the distribution of any funds that are 
sent over by the Horticultural Society of New 
York. The response from the membership 
of the organization was so gratifying that the 
Society decided to broaden its appeal and is 
now asking the active support and coopera- 
tion and subscriptions from members of the 
other societies and garden clubs. Subscrib- 
ers can feel assured that any funds put into 
the hands of the officers of the Horticultural 
Society of New York will really reach those 
who are in need of them. It is estimated 
that more than a mil- 
lion of fruit trees and 
berry bushes had been 
wantonly destroyed in 
Northern France up to 
June. 

Interest is centred 
not only in replanting 
devastated lands with 
new trees, but also in 
the work of distribut- 
ing graft wood and bud 
sticks for their recon- 
struction, where the 




Application of the "top- 
working" idea to rehabili- 
tate the orchards, perhaps 



trees had been cut off with better varieties 
short as is shown in the accompanying 
illustration. Grafting methods will fortu- 
nately save and reconstruct thousands upon 
thousands of the destroyed orchards. The 
Horticultural Society of New York has iden- 
tified itself very closely with beneficent ac- 
tivities in connection with the International 
Flower Shows in New York. During the 
last three years more than $27,000 has been 
handed over to the Red Cross and War 
Relief Committees cooperating. 

The Garden Magazine urges its readers 
to contribute their share in the fund now 
open for the relief of the French orchar- 
dists. Sums of $1.00 and upward will be 
gratefully acknowledged by the Editor, or 
they may be sent direct to the treasurer, as 
above. 



KELSEy 
HEALTH 
HEAT 




Saves Coal 

BY saving coal, we main- 
ly mean that it gives 
more heat from the 
same coal. You may not 
burn any less coal; but you 
will have every room of 
your house filled with a de- 
lightful tonic health heat. 
A heat that is noiseless, 
leakless and dustless. 

You get more heat, and you 
get a heat that ventilates 
while it heats. A heat that 
you can use to warm your 
house in the winter, and 
cool it in the summer. 

Send Jot booklet 



StJjTHE J(else.\ 

efif I WARM AIR GENERATOR f 



Syracuse, N. Y., 232 James St. 

NEW YORK— 103-P Park Avenue 
DETROIT— Space 95-P 

Builders Exchange 
CHICAGO— 217-P West Lake Street 
BOSTON— 405-P P. 0. Sq. Building 






Some Planting Thoughts 
To Think 

PLAN plantings care- 
fully now on paper. 
It saves much digging up after 
plantings are planted. 

Use our nursery catalogue, as 
your guide book. 

Write us freely for 
any information. 







Juliu? T^gekrS* Cor 
AtTho SifoofThcTreg 



ilt-rford N.J. 



M 



ORCHIDS 

Largest importers and growers of 
Orchids in the United States 

Send twenty-five cents for catalogue. This amount will be refunded 
on your first order. 

LAGER & HURRELL 
Orchid Growers and Importers SUMMIT, N. J. 



School of Horticulture for Women 

AMBLER, PA. 

Two years' practical and theoretical course 

in Horticulture. Next entering class for 

diploma students January 15, 1918. Fall 

course of ten weeks for amateurs begins 

September 11th. Write for particulars. 

Early registration advised. 

Elizabeth Leirhton l.ee. Director, Box 105 




— LATE FALL PLANTING — 

May be done in the North if the plants are rightly cared for. This refers 
to hardy perennials and bulbs. Deciduous shrubs and trees, if banked 
may be planted until winter. 

When perennials are set late they should be in well-drained soil and 
protected the first winter. Tulips, narcissus, crocuses, when set late in 
the North should be covered enough to keep them from frost the first 
third of the winter, so that the new roots may form. This covering should 
be removed early in spring. 

Ask for Horsford's spring and autumn lists, also Catalogue M 
F. II. HOKSFORD, Charlotte, Vt. 



SUNDIALS 

Real Bronze Colonial Designs 
From $3.50 Up 

Also Bird Baths, Garden Benches, Fountain 
Sprays and other garden requisites. 
Manufactured by 

The M. D. JONES CO. 
72 Portland St. Boston, Mass. 

Send for illustrated Price-List 




If a •problem grows in your garden write to the Readers' Service for assistance 



No VE MBEE, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



141 







Make Things 
Grow by Pruning 

Here is a book, "The Little Pruning Book" 
that will help you. It is an authoritative guide 
to right pruning. This book will tell you how, 
when and where to prune. Pruning in the 
Flower Garden; Pruning Hedges and Vines, 
Fruit Trees, are among its eleven chapters of 
sound pruning advice. 

The kind of shears you get is equally import- 
ant. Pexto Pruning Shears will make pruning a 
pleasure. The easy grip and clear cutting are 
the things you'll appreciate most. You'll find 
Pexto Pruning Shears at your dealers. Look for 
the Pexto Tool displays. 

Send to-day for a copy of our free circular, or 
send 50 cents for the book. Your money will be 
refunded if not satisfactory. 

The Peck, Stow & Wilcox Co. 

Mfrs. Mechanics* Hand Tools, 

Tinsmiths' and Sheet Metal 

Workers' Tools and Machines, 

Builders' and General Hardware. 

Southington, Conn. Cleveland Ohio 

Address correspondence to 2186 West Third St., 

Cleveland, Ohio 





PRUNING SHEARS 



Free! 

A 50-gallon barrel of 
Scalecide free to any 
one who will suggest a 
fairer guarantee than 
that given below. 

"SCALECIDE" 

As proof of our confidence and to strengthen yours, 
we will make the following proposition to any fruit 
grower of average honesty and veracity: 
Divide jour orchard in half, no matter how large or 
small. Spray one-half with "SCALECIDE," and 
the other with Lime-Sulfur for three years, every- 
thing else being equal. If at the end of that time, 
three disinterested fruit growers say that the part 
sprayed with "SCALECIDE" is not in every way 
better than that sprayed with Lime-Sulfur, we will 
return you the money you paid us for the "SCALE- 
CIDE." 

Send for new free booklet, 

"Profits in Fall Spraying." 

B. G. Pratt Co., M'f'g Chemists 
50 Church St., Dept. I, New York 



b,-;&3r.'-'.-C*-r.r- Zri *X' 




d*&%g£&i 



Some Good News 

To Those Interested in Having 

A Moderate Sized Greenhouse 



AS near as we can make out, 
there are a lot of people 
who very much want a 
greenhouse, but hesitate to make 
a move to find out definitely 
about them. Hesitate because 
of having an impression that they 
are a rich man's luxury. 

If you have a garage or some 
other building you can attach one 
to; $i,ooo, $1,500 or $2,000 buys 
splendid little houses, constructed 
with everything the very best. 



Houses of Everlasting Lasting- 
ness. 

It's doubtful, however, if any- 
thing much below these prices 
wih give you anything that will 
continue to be a satisfaction and 
pleasure — year after year. 

Naturally, we would like to 
build your greenhouse. 

Anytime you want to talk it 
over, one of us will gladly meet 
you at the time and place you 
may suggest. 




NEW YORK 
42nd St. Bldg. 

ROCHESTER 
Granite Bldg. 



Builders of Greenhouses and Conservatories 

SALES OFFICES 
BOSTON PHILADELPHIA CHICAGO 

Tremont Bldg. Widener Bldg. Continental & Commercial Bank Bldg. 

CLEVELAND DETROIT TORONTO MONTREAL 

Swetland Bldg. Book Bldg. Royal Bank Bldg. Transportation Bldg. 



FACTORIES: Irvington, N. Y.;.Des Plaines, III.; St. Catharines, Canada 




1 : ■ 



PERENNIALS 



AN UNUSUAL 
OPPORTUNITY 



Ten Cents Each — Not less than $1.00 worth sold; Express collect (no stamps, please) 
SO for $5.00. 100 for $10.00. Express prepaid 



HARDY PHLOXES in white, red or 
pink. 

BLEEDING HEART (Strong Roots.) 
GYPSOPHILA (Baby's Breath.) 
DELPHINIUMS, the most heavenly 
blue flower that ever graced a garden. 
We grow them by the thousands. Bella 
Donna and other finest Hybrids. 
GAILLARDIA, the lovely, artistic 
Blanket flower. 



SWEET WILLIAM, Auricular Flow- 
ered and Newport Pink. 
AQUILEGIA (Columbines), Long 
Spurred and California Hybrids. 
COREOPSIS (one of the finest pure 
yellow flower that grows). 
ACHILLEA and ANCHUSA. 
SHASTA DAISY, "Alaska." 

How about Peonies? We grow them. Send for named list. 1917 Reliable Home Grown Seeds also 
Order from this ad direct, mentioning the Garden Magazine 



Strong, field grown plants ready for Oct. 
and Nov.planting. These plants will make 
a big showing in your garden next season 
and will thrive and grow in any climate. 
PUGET SOUND HARDY NATIVE 
FERNS. Giant Sword Fems, 2 to 3 feet, 
35 cts. large clumps, prepaid. Giant 
Maiden Hair Ferns, 2 to 3 feet, 35 cts. 
per clump, prepaid. 



The Pudor Farms 



Puyallup, Washington 



:.. :...:.. 



:,.,.; 






Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in writing — and we will, too 



142 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



NOVEMBEH, 1917 



$ 150 Metropolitan Sectio nal Gr eenhouse 

^^ ^^ ^^ flunntitv Pmdtirtinn Mahpfs This f.rtin Print* Pnssihle ' ^T : — — : 



Quantity Production Makes This Low Price Possible 

In this Metropolitan Sectional Greenhouse, size 8 ft. 6 in. wide by 12 ft. 
long, you can grow your favorite kinds of flowers and vegetables in and out 
of season. Can be connected with the residence or garage, or put up as a 
detached house. Has two glass ends, with door in each, plant benches and 
ventilating system. Anybody who can handle a hammer can assemble it. 
Crated complete, with all hardware. Printed instructions for erection in- 
cluded. Price $150 F.O.B. Brooklyn. With heating pipe $50 extra. With 
heating pipe and boiler $100 extra. The quality, style and construction 
of this house are of the very finest. Our immense production makes 
this low price possible. Booklet on request. 

MetrojM>litai)Materictl(Z 

1309-1319 Flushing Avenue Brooklyn, New York 





PoTtery 

GIVES ENDURING CHARM 



Sbncfforour illustrated—-' 
'catalogue of FlowerPots. 
Boxes,'Vases,Benches. Sundials. 
GazingGlobes, Bird Emts'and 
other Artistic Reces for Garden 
and Interior Decoration. 

GAEOmYTERM&TTAG). 

3214 "WALNUT ST. PHILADELPHIA. 



ROSES 



The aristocrats of rosedom are Fairfax 
roses grown on their own roots under 
slowly natural conditions (never forced), 
they are heavy, stocky and vigorous, and 
will bloom the first season under ordinary 
care. Send for my free booklet which gives 
valuable information for those wishing an 
abundance of roses next summer. 



W. R. GRAY 



Box 6 



Oak ton, Va. 



Now for 1918! 



IRON AM 



Now that the crops are gathered, 
it's time to take stock and prepare 
for an even better garden next year. 

Garden 
Tools 

will make your work a lot easier and 
enable you to accomplish more in 
less time. 38 combinations. 
Write to-day for free booklet. 

BATEMAN M'FG CO. 
Box 35C Grenloch, N. J. 




INGEE POSFSI 

Sturdy as Oaks MWJhJLltJ 

Dingee roses are always grown on their own roots 
— and are absolutely the best for the amateur planter. 
Send to-day for our 

"New Guide to Rose Culture" for 1917 

—it's free. It isn't a catalog — it's a practical work on rose 

growing. Profusely illustrated. Describes over iooo varieties 

f roses and other flowers, and tells how to grow them. Safe • 

delivery guaranteed. Established 1850. 70 greenhouses. 

I H I DINGEE & CONAKD to.. Box 1137, West Grove, Pa. 



lEDAGE'S 

1—1 GLUE £Z. 

STRONGEft THAN NAILS IO<? 



Send for. 

Book^f^ 

FREE 



Buy Your Greenhouse Ready-cut! 



' : 



iifciltmj.i 



Wholesale prices. Comes glazed, in sections. 

"Easybilt." Erect it yourself. Any size. Highest grade 
materials supplied complete. Shipped promptly anywhere. 
Send for our Greenhouse and Hot Bed Sash Booklet. FREE. Write NOW! 



2328 



Gordon - VanTlne C6. 6303 Case Street 

Satisfaction Guaranteed or Money Back Davenport, Iowa 




Brooder for 50 to 100 chicks 



No. 3 Poultry House for 60 hens — 2 units 



Setting Coop 



HODGSON PORTABLE HOUSES 



The various models of these houses are arranged after the most scientific methods of raising poultry. Years of experience have proved 
this. The brooder can be operated outdoors in zero weather. The poultry house is made in sections that can be quickly bolted together 
by any one. The setting coop keeps a hen by herself while setting. All neatly painted. Send for illustrated booklet. 

Room 311, 116 Washington Street, Boston, Massachusetts 
6 East 39th Street, New York City 



E. F. HODGSON COMPANY 



Plant for Permanency 

Since 1790, this institution has preached the gospel of 
permanency and stability in gardening. Our services to 
the American public during the past century are visible 
to-day on some of the finest estates in the country. 

Trees, Shrubs, Plants 

of Proven Merit 

abound in our 800 acre nurseries. Before we offer 
anything, it must prove its value with us. If found 
worthy, it finally is offered through our Complete Cata- 
logue, which you will find well worth asking for. It 
is Free. Write TO-DAY. 

American Nursery Co., s w! g cr New York 



TOWNSEND'S TRIPLEX 

The Greatest Grass Cutter on Earth 
— Cuts a Swath 86 Inches Wide 

Drawn by one horse and operated by one man, the 
TRIPLEX MOWER will mow more lawn in a day than 
the best motor mower ever made, cut it better and at 
a fraction of the cost. 

Drawn by one horse and operated by one man, it will 
mow more lawn than any three ordinary horse-drawn 
mowers with three horses and three men. 

Send for catalogue illustrating all types of 
TOWN SEND MOWERS 

S. P. TOWNSEND & CO. 

23 Central Ave. Orange, N. J. 




FOR CHRISTMAS 

Cedar Acres Gift Box of selected bulbs is a rare present, full 
of sentiment — a promise of glory sure to be fulfilled in next 
summer's blossoms. Sent anywhere for $l. 

Let me send these boxes to your friends. Order now. I will 
deliver to any address with your card — Christmas. 




B. HAMMOND TRACY, Box 27, Wenham, Mass. 




OF ALPINES AND ROCK 
PLANTS from the rugged slopes 
of the Rocky Mountains will con- 
dense more joy into a small space 
than any other style of Fall Gar- 
dening. The list includes rare and 
choice varieties of Anemone, Co- 
lumbine, Clematis, Delphinium, 
Gentian, Evening Primrose, 
Pentstemon, Yucca, Hardy Cacti, 
and many others not commonly 
cultivated, all hardy and easily 
grown. 

Besides native plants, we grow 
and catalogue all the best orna- 
mentals for the Northwest, in- 
cluding trees, shrubs, evergreens 
and hardy flowers. Either cata- 
logue free. 



Rockmont Nursery, Boulder, Colo. 



Scientific 

Rupture 

Appliance 




BROOKS 
275C State 



Brooks Rupture Appliance 

is the culmination of our 30 
years of experience as experts 
in the treatment of Hernia. It 
is recommended by physicians 
in all parts of the United States, 
England and Australia. 

New scientific invention that has 
proven a Godsend to rupture-tor- 
tured humanity. Durable, cheap. 
Sent on trial to prove its worth. 
Made to measure — for adult or child. 
Suffer no longer. Write for measure 
blanks and full particulars. 

APPLIANCE COMPANY 
Street Marshall, Mich. 



The Readers' Service will give you suggestions for the care and purchase of cats and dogs and other pets 



November, 1917 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



143 




Residence of C. D. MacDougall, Esq., Auburn, N. Y. 

IRON FENCE AND ENTRANCE 
GATES OF ALL DESIGNS AND 

FOR ALL PURPOSES^ 
WE INVITE CORRESPONDENCE WITH 
THOSE WHO ARE INTERESTED. 

The Stewart Iron Works Co., Inc. 

"The World's Greatest Iron Fence Builders" 
655 Stewart Block Cincinnati, Ohio 



WRITE FOR BOOK 



DESIGNS 



Splendid Christmas Gifts 



Pair Genuine Mahogany 
Sticks, 4-3- in. high, pair Genu- 
ine Bayberry Candles and 
hand-colored Greeting Card 

with charming sentiment, jSi.oo. 
Money back if you want it. A 
refined, tasteful gift. 




Abayberry/ 
candles! 

N0.I23 , 



PAIR 
I $1.00 




Box with 24 envelopes, 24 sheets 
pearl white, linen finish Writ- 
ing Paper, each die-stamped 
with hand-engraved monogram, 
Gold or Silver ink. A gift of gen- 
teel elegance. Only $1.00. 

Our Big Gift Book pictures thousands of splendid gifts, some- 
thing to please everybody and at right prices. Your list of 
names, and our Big Gift Book is all you need. Send for the 
book To-day — NOW. It's Free, and it's a great big help. 
THE HOLMES CO. 389 Elmwood, Providence, R. I. 



MR. ROBERT PYLE— the well-known Garden Lecturer and 
Rosarian invites correspondence from garden lovers and societies. 
Subject — ■ "The American Rose Garden" illustrated with finely 
colored lantern slides. Address: West Grove, Pa. 



Destroy Tree Pests Kill San Jose Scale, Apple Scab, 
r2>£".». Fungi, lice, bugs and other enemies of vegetation by 
.*;* spraying with 

GOOD'SSFISH OIL 

SOAP N?3 

Does not harm the trees — Fertilizes soil and aids healthy 
growth. Used and endorsed by U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 

IppCC Our valuable book on Tree and Plant 

riXEiCi Diseases. Write for it to-day. 
JAMES GOOD, Original Maker, 2111-15 E. Susquehanna Ave.,PhiIa. 





An egg laid for 
m^rv yolk made 



Most hens lay less 
than half of the 
yolks that are formed 
because white el- 
ements are lacking in 
the grain feed they 
eat. Wheat, corn, oats, barley, and kafir contain (above bodily 
maintenance) an average of 224 yolks and only 154 whites. The excess yolks 
which are absorbed by the hen, mean not only fewer eggs, but they form fat 
which cuts down egg production. 

Yolks Whites 

Purina Chicken Chowder 182.05 282.55 



Purina Scratch Feed 
Combined Ration 



247.49 142.11 



429.54 



424.66 



Note the perfect balance and the large quantity of white and yolk elements 
supplied. 

More eggs or money back 

The money paid for Purina Chicken Chowder will be refunded if hens do not lay more eggs 
when fed Purina Chicken Chowder as directed with Purina Scratch Feed than when fed any 
other ration. You take no risk. 99 out of 100 hens 

eat too much grain which cuts down egg production. (f) ^ m 4V 

Feed the perfect balance — 100 lbs. of Purina Scratch 
Feed to each 100 lbs. of Purina Chicken Chowder 
and you will actually use less feed and get more eggs. 
Sold only in checker-board bags by the leading 
dealers. If your dealer cannot supply you, send us 
his name. 



gsSiVWMB 



64-page Poultry Manual FREE 

Contains charts for breeding and feeding, cooking 
recipes, blank egg records, plans for houses and 
coops, cures of diseases, etc. 

Ralston Purina Company 

829 Gratiot Street St. Louis, Mo. 



PURINA 

(SCRATCH! 
FEED 

[ '* CHCCKCRBO/1RP | 
BAGS 



IPURINAi 

MICKENI 
1CH0WDERI 

/"» CWCKERSOARP I 
6AOS 



NARCISSUS BULBS 

Mixture, composed mainly of varieties Poeticus Ornatus, P. 
Poetarum, P. Pheasant's Eye, single and double yellow Incom- 
parabilis, Stella, Barrii conspicuus, Mrs. Langtry, Dolly Cup, 
Minnie Hume, with occasional bulbs of other varieties. $1.00 
per ioo, $8.00 per icoo, postage or express paid. Prices on 
I larger quantities furnished on request. 

-Oronogo Flower Gardens Carthage, Mo. 



"HOW TO GROW ROSES"— Library Edition; 121 pages— 16 in 
natural colors. Not a catalogue. Price $1, refunded on $5 order 
for plants. The Conard & Jones Co., Box 24, West Grove, Pa. 



OSES 8/* NEW' CASTLE 



— the most authoritative book on rose planting, cultiva- 
tion and pruning ever published. Beautifully printed in 
colors, this valuable guide gives special prices and tells 
all about our famous Roses, Plants and Bulbs. It's the 
lifetime experience of America's largest rose growers. 
You will be astonished at our low prices. Tells how 
we prepay express charges anywhere in the U. S. and 
guarantee safe delivery. Write to the Rose Specialists 
for your copy to-day. 

HELLER BROS. CO., Box 1121, New Castle, Ind. 




RHODES DOUBLE CUT 




RHODES MFG. 

S27 S . DIVISION AVE., GRAND RAPIDS, MICH. 



THE only pruner 
made that cuts from 
both sides of the limb 
and does not bruise the 
bark. Made in all styles 
and sizes. All shears de- 
livered free to your door. 
Write for circular and prices 




Lattice Fences 
Garden Houses 
Gates and Arbors 



Garden Accessories which are suitable and 
just the things required to lend cheer and 
pleasure to the surroundings of a home. 
When writing enclose 20c stamps and ask 
for Pergola A Ibutn, H-30. 

HARTMANN- SANDERS COMPANY 

Factory and Main Office: 

Elston and Webster Avenue, CHICAGO 

New York Office: 6 East 89th St., New York City 






Advertisers will appreciate your mentioning The Garden Magazine in writing — and we will, too 



144 



THE GARDEN MAGAZINE 



November, 1917 



Salt Mackerel l> 



CODFISH, FRESH LOBSTER 



FOR THE 

CONSUMER 




FOR YOUR OWN TABLE 



FAMILIES who are fond of FISH can be supplied DIRECT 
from GLOUCESTER, MASS., by the FRANK E. DAVIS 
COMPANY, with newly caught KEEPABLE OCEAN FISH, 
choicer than any inland dealer could possibly furnish. 

We sell ONLY TO THE CONSUMER DIRECT sending by 
EXPRESS RIGHT TO YOUR HOME. We PREPAY 

express on all orders east of Kansas. Our fish are pure, appe- 
tizing and economical and we want YOU to try some, payment 
subject to your approval. 

SALT MACKEREL, fat, meaty, juicy fish, are delicious for 
breakfast. They are freshly packed in brine and will not spoil 
on your hands. 

CODFISH, as we salt it, is white, boneless and ready for 
instant use. It makes a substantial meal, a fine change from 
meat, at a much lower cost. 

FRESH LOBSTER is the best thing known for salads. 
Right fresh from the water, our lobsters simply are boiled and 
packed in PARCHMENT-LINED CANS. They come to you 
as the purest and safest lobsters you can buy and the meat is as 
crisp and natural as if you took it from the shell yourself. 

FRIED CLAMS is a relishable, hearty dish, that your whole 
family will enjoy. No other flavor is just like that of clams, 
whether fried or in a chowder. 

FRESH MACKEREL, perfect for frying, SHRIMP to 
■cream on toast, CRABMEAT for Newburg or deviled, SAL- 
MON ready to serve, SARDINES of all kinds, TUNNY for 
salad, SANDWICH FILLINGS and every good thing packed 
here or abroad you can get direct from us and keep right 
•on your pantry shelf for regular or emergency use. 

With every order we send BOOK OF RECIPES „-'' 
for preparing all our products. Write for it. Our ^-' 
list tells how each kind of fish is put up, with -'-c l- p 
the delivered price so you can choose ,'' n ra "f- 
just what you will enjoy most. ,"' Davis Co. 

Send the coupon for it now. 226 Central Wharf 

CDAMf r rviirio r* '*' Gloucester, Mass. 

FRANK. E. DAVIS CO. ^- Please send meyour latest 

226 Central Wharf _'' Fish Price List. 
Gloucester, ,'* 
Mass. ,--' Name 

,"* Street 

„ ' ' ' City 




Tree Needs Filled 

Spraying, pruning, cavity filling, etc. What- 
ever your trees need, we will do and do right. 
"The Bartlett Way" will insure their lasting 
health. Representatives go everywhere. Send 
for "Tree Talk." 

THE F. A. BARTLETT COMPANY 
5S8 Main Street Stamford, Conn. 



Ideal Bulb Planter 



*■*! * 



■«~fl 



Saves 

Backaches 



on;,.!.; 



"and Transplanting Tool 

One of the greatest labor savers for bulb gardeners. J 

Does the work easily, quickly, neatly, whether used in J§ 

solid turf, clay or stony ground. 2000 bulbs may com- m 

fortably be planted in one day with its help. H 

For All Kinds of Bulbs 

Opens holes from smallest to 4 inches in diameter. Ash handle, §j 

steel point, iron foot bracket — made well enough t